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EEG epilepsy

Janardhana Ponnatapura, Suresh Vemanna, Sandeep Ballal, Avisha Singla
Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current imaging tool of choice in the investigation of patients with seizures. The advent of high-resolution MRI with a dedicated seizure protocol has significantly increased the chances of identifying a cause, resulting in a positive clinical impact on the management of these patients. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of standard MRI, identify whether there is an increase in the diagnostic yield with the addition of dedicated seizure protocol, and compare the diagnostic yields of MRI and electroencephalogram (EEG) individually and in combination...
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Lan Luan, Yuqiang Sun, Kang Yang
Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Robert X Smith, Kay Jann, Mirella Dapretto, Danny J J Wang
Background: Two approaches to understanding the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) involve network level functional connectivity (FC) and the dynamics of neuronal signaling. The former approach has revealed both increased and decreased FC in individuals with ASD. The latter approach has found high frequency EEG oscillations and higher levels of epilepsy in children with ASD. Together, these findings have led to the hypothesis that atypical excitatory-inhibitory neural signaling may lead to imbalanced association pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Qirui Zhang, Fang Yang, Zheng Hu, Qiang Xu, Boris C Bernhardt, Wei Quan, Qian Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu
The objective was to study the modulation effects of levetiracetam on the fMRI activation/deactivation patterns associated with centrotemporal spikes (CTS) in Rolandic epilepsy. Forty patients with Rolandic epilepsy, including levetiracetam-medicated patients ( n = 20) and drug-naive patients ( n = 20), were studied. Single and sequential hemodynamic response functions-based EEG-fMRI analysis was performed to detect dynamic activation/deactivation associated with CTS. Comparisons of spatiotemporal features of activation/deactivation were performed between the two groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Danique R M Vlaskamp, Benjamin J Shaw, Rosemary Burgess, Davide Mei, Martino Montomoli, Han Xie, Candace T Myers, Mark F Bennett, Wenshu XiangWei, Danielle Williams, Saskia M Maas, Alice S Brooks, Grazia M S Mancini, Ingrid M B H van de Laar, Johanna M van Hagen, Tyson L Ware, Richard I Webster, Stephen Malone, Samuel F Berkovic, Renate M Kalnins, Federico Sicca, G Christoph Korenke, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Michael S Hildebrand, Heather C Mefford, Yuwu Jiang, Renzo Guerrini, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the epileptology, a key part of the SYNGAP1 phenotypic spectrum, in a large patient cohort. METHODS: Patients were recruited via investigators' practices or social media. We included patients with (likely) pathogenic SYNGAP1 variants or chromosome 6p21.32 microdeletions incorporating SYNGAP1 . We analyzed patients' phenotypes using a standardized epilepsy questionnaire, medical records, EEG, MRI, and seizure videos. RESULTS: We included 57 patients (53% male, median age 8 years) with SYNGAP1 mutations (n = 53) or microdeletions (n = 4)...
December 12, 2018: Neurology
Jafar Mehvari Habibabadi, Shervin Badihian, Nasim Tabrizi, Navid Manouchehri, Mohammad Zare, Reza Basiratnia, Majid Barekatain, Houshang Moein, Amirali Mehvari Habibabadi, Payam Moein, Peyman Gookizadeh
PURPOSE: Dual pathology (DP) is defined as simultaneous presence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and any other pathology in the brain. Since this is a less probed concept, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of DP among drug-resistant epileptic patients with HS. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted during 2007-2016 in Kashani Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Isfahan, Iran. Patients with diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy and HS were enrolled in the study, and demographic data, seizure semiology, EEG findings, and MRI findings were collected...
December 11, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Shan Wang, Bo Jin, Thandar Aung, Masaya Katagiri, Stephen E Jones, Balu Krishnan, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez, Richard A Prayson, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Shuang Wang, Meiping Ding, Zhong Irene Wang
Background and Purpose: Surgical management of patients with cingulate epilepsy (CE) is highly challenging, especially when the MRI is non-lesional. We aimed to use a voxel-based MRI post-processing technique, implemented in a morphometric analysis program (MAP), to facilitate detection of subtle epileptogenic lesions in CE, thereby improving surgical evaluation of patients with CE with non-lesional MRI by visual inspection. Methods: Included in this retrospective study were 9 patients with CE (6 with negative 3T MRI and 3 with subtly lesional 3T MRI) who underwent surgery and became seizure-free or had marked seizure improvement with at least 1-year follow-up...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield
Regression in children with epilepsy may involve loss of cognitive abilities, failure to progress or a slowing of developmental trajectory. A few seizures do not lead to regression. Large numbers of seizures may be associated with regression but the cause is an important cofounder. Individual spike discharges on EEG are associated with transient cognitive impairment and continuous spike discharges with regression. Regression may be global in continuous spike wave in slow sleep (CSWS) or specific (auditory agnosia) in Landau Kleffner syndrome...
December 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nina L Beckwith, Jaclyn C Khil, Jason Teng, Kore K Liow, Alice Smith, Jesus Luna
Gelastic seizures (GS) are a rare form of epilepsy characterized by inappropriate, uncontrolled laughter. They are highly associated with abnormal cognitive development and behavioral problems in patients. Research has shown that GS can originate from hypothalamic hamartomas (HH), non- neoplastic masses consisting of gray matter with large and small neurons interspersed with glial nuclei. GS have also been observed in patients with frontal and temporal lobe lesions. The patient in this case report is a 40-year-old man with a past medical history significant for brain tumor, diabetes mellitus, and schizophrenia who presented with a long standing history of sudden, involuntary laughter occurring 2-3 times a week since 8 years old...
December 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2018: Neurology
Xiaoli Wang, Ying Zhang, Wenjuan Zhang, Chenxi Shen, Lang Jin, Beibei Chen, Zhao Jiang, James X Tao, Yonghong Liu
To determine the electroclinical features of fixation-off sensitivity (FOS) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). We searched the EEG database using the terms "fixation-off sensitivity" and "idiopathic generalized epilepsy" over a four-year period from March 2014 to April 2018 in the Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, China. FOS was evaluated according to the technique proposed by Panayiotopoulos. Photic stimulation procedure and neuropsychological testing were performed during video-EEG monitoring...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Roberto H Caraballo, Santiago Chacón, Lorena Fasulo, Claudio Bedoya
Absence status epilepticus (ASE) is a prolonged generalized absence seizure that usually lasts for hours and can even last for days. The main symptom is the altered content of consciousness while the patient may be alert and partly responsive. We describe the electroclinical features, treatment, and evolution of three paediatric patients with de novo ASE with an excellent response to valproic acid (VPA). Three paediatric patients presented with non-convulsive status epilepticus and an acute confusional state with impaired consciousness and EEG abnormalities compatible with typical ASE, associated with generalized spike-and-wave paroxysms at 2...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Saber Jan, Ayako Ochi, Kota Kagawa, Peter Gill, Astrid Guttmann, Hiroshi Otsubo, Jeff Kobayashi
Williams-Beuren syndrome is rarely associated with epilepsy. One previously reported case showed an association with apnoeic seizures while a few other cases showed an association with infantile epileptic spasms and generalized and focal seizures. We report the case of a 13-month-old boy with a deletion typically associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, who presented with isolated apnoeic seizures which were refractory to multiple antiepileptic drugs but partially responsive to the ketogenic diet. The diagnosis was challenging due to a complex cardiac history, gastroesophageal reflux, and normal interictal EEG findings...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Elisa Bruno
The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure is influenced by certain risk factors. To understand their effect in people with early diagnosed new epilepsy, we assessed the risk of recurrence of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic or generalized tonic-clonic seizures and the associated factors in a clinically well-characterized cohort of adults with a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. We prospectively studied 150 consecutive adults with a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure and full clinical, EEG, and brain imaging assessment within the first four weeks...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Nicole Chemaly, Emma Losito, Jean Marc Pinard, Agnès Gautier, Nathalie Villeneuve, Anne Sophie Arbues, Isabelle An, Isabelle Desguerre, Olivier Dulac, Catherine Chiron, Anna Kaminska, Rima Nabbout
Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) mutations have been identified in epilepsy in females with mental retardation as well as patients with a "Dravet-like" phenotype. We aimed to elucidate the electroclinical phenotype associated with PCDH19 mutation, which is currently difficult to identify at onset leading to a delay in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and EEG data for 13 consecutive patients with PCDH19 mutations or deletions diagnosed at our centers from 2009 to 2011, and followed these patients into adolescence and adulthood...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Lorenzo Muccioli, Laura Licchetta, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli
We describe a 68-year-old woman who had typical absence seizures since 14 years of age. The absences were refractory to treatment and persisted into adulthood, with no seizure-free periods until seizure control at 59 years of age. After six years of being seizure-free, she presented with an episode characterized by mental confusion, abnormal behaviour, and amnesia, lasting for several hours. An EEG performed the day after, when the patient had already recovered, was unremarkable. The episode was interpreted as transient global amnesia...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Zahra Bahrami
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of antiepileptic drug (AED) use in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and to characterize the patients' historical risk factors that may be associated with such a practice. METHODS: In this retrospective database study, all patients with PNES, who were investigated at Shiraz Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from 2008 to 2018, were studied. Patients with concomitant epilepsy or abnormal Electroencephalogram (EEG) were not included...
December 7, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
William O Tatum, Neeharika Thottempudi, Vivek Gupta, Anteneh M Feyissa, Sanjeet S Grewal, Robert E Wharen, Michael A Pizzi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate EEG abnormalities, particularly development of temporal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (TIRDA) after laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) and assess the role of further surgery after LITT. METHODS: We retrospectively identified consecutive cases of LITT for the prevalence of post-operative TIRDA. We assessed baseline demographics, clinical variables including age of seizure onset, age at surgery, pre-operative and post-operative EEG changes...
November 26, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Mandy Hintz, Valentina Krenz, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
INTRODUCTION: Frontal lobe epilepsy is the second most frequent origin of focal epilepsy. Various studies have discussed localizing aspects of ictal signs in frontal lobe epilepsy; the effect of age on semiological manifestations has, however, not been analyzed so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed video-documented semiological signs in a cohort of 122 consecutive patients aged 0-70 years (mean age: 24.9 years) with EEG/MR evidence for frontal lobe epilepsy undergoing video-EEG telemetry assessment between 1999 und 2016...
October 23, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Giulia Liberati, Maxime Algoet, Susana Ferrao Santos, Jose Geraldo Ribeiro-Vaz, Christian Raftopoulos, André Mouraux
The human insula is an important target for spinothalamic input, but there is still no consensus on its role in pain perception and nociception. In this study, we show that the human insula exhibits activity preferential for sustained thermonociception. Using intracerebral EEG recorded from the insula of 8 patients (2 females) undergoing a presurgical evaluation of focal epilepsy (53 contacts: 27 anterior, 26 posterior), we "frequency-tagged" the insular activity elicited by sustained thermonociceptive and vibrotactile stimuli, by periodically modulating stimulation intensity at a fixed frequency of 0...
December 5, 2018: NeuroImage
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