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Oncologic radiology

Alessandro Cianfoni, Daniela Distefano, Emanuele Pravatà, Vittoria Espeli, Gianfranco Pesce, Pasquale Mordasini, Luigi La Barbera, Pietro Scarone, Giuseppe Bonaldi
BACKGROUND: Extensive lytic lesions of the vertebral body (VB) increase risk of fracture and instability and require stabilization of the anterior column. Vertebral augmentation is an accepted treatment option, but when osteolysis has extensively destroyed the VB cortical boundaries (a condition herein defined as 'extreme osteolysis'), the risk of cement leakage and/or insufficient filling is high. Vertebral body stents (VBSs) might allow partial restoration of VB height, cement containment, and reinforcement, but their use in extreme osteolysis has not been investigated...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Miljana Tanić, Ana Krivokuća, Milena Čavić, Jasmina Mladenović, Vesna Plesinac Karapandžić, Stephan Beck, Siniša Radulović, Snezana Susnjar, Radmila Janković
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is an indispensable part of various treatment modalities for breast cancer. Specifically, for non-inflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients, preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) is currently indicated as a second line therapy in the event of lack of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Still approximately one third of patients fails to respond favourably to pRT. The aim of this study was to explore molecular mechanisms underlying differential response to radiotherapy (RT) to identify predictive biomarkers and potential targets for increasing radiosensitivity...
October 1, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Yenzhi Tang, Bernadett Szabados, Cindy Leung, Anju Sahdev
Immunotherapy has had increasing use in Medical Oncology for a diverse range of primary malignancies. There are various types of immunotherapy which are grouped based on mechanism of action. In recent decades, the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) immunotherapies have been at the forefront of Medical Oncology, sparked by very encouraging results. Some patients with metastatic cancer who were previously deemed palliative were seeing durable response rates and significant increased survival with ICIs. The mechanism of action of ICIs vary wildly compared to the conventional, cytotoxic chemotherapy, upon which traditional radiology response criteria were based and validated upon...
October 3, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
L W Nicholls, M B Pinkham, A Bernard, R Lusk, T Watkins, B Hall, S Olson, M C Foote
AIMS: Select patients with brain metastases receive stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with the objective of improving survival and intracranial disease control. Brain metastases number and volume are prognostic factors used to inform patient selection. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of change of brain metastases size and number (growth kinetics) between the diagnostic and day of SRS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients treated with Gamma Knife SRS between October 2015 and April 2017 were included in this single-centre retrospective analysis...
September 29, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Se Young Choi, Jeman Ryu, Dalsan You, In Gab Jeong, Jun Hyuk Hong, Hanjong Ahn, Choung-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors for chemotherapy-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with enzalutamide in actual clinical practice using easily accessible clinical variables. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the following data from 113 patients with chemotherapy-naïve CRPC treated with enzalutamide: serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), testosterone, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); platelet, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLRs); and liver profiles...
September 2018: Urologic Oncology
Beatriz Wills, Egal Gorse, Valerie Lee
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, with a global incidence of over 1 million cases. In the era of personalized medicine, tumor sampling is essential for characterizing the molecular profile of individual tumors. This provides pivotal information regarding optimal sequencing of therapy and emergence of drug resistance, allowing for timely therapy adjustment. However, tumor tissue sampling offers static information in a single time point and area of disease at the time of biopsy, which may not entirely represent the heterogeneity of molecular alterations...
August 29, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Barbara Bober, Martyna Zaleska, Łukasz Kowalski, Kornelia Zaręba, Marek Saracyn
Neuroendocrine tumors (NEN) are rarely diagnosed neoplasms, which frequency is estimated on about 35 cases/100 000. During last 30 years the number of NEN's new diagnosis increased five-times and nowadays reaches 5,86/100 000/year. It is partially associated with increasing detectability of these tumors. Such diagnostic methods as capsule endoscopy and positron emission tomography are becoming increasingly widely accessible. Though, one should bear in mind that in case of patients diagnosed with NEN cooperation between specialists in different fields of medicine, such as endocrinology, nuclear medicine, oncology, radiology, internal medicine and surgery is needed...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mohammad A Elalfy, Patrick J Boland, John H Healey
BACKGROUND: Modulated compliant compressive forces may contribute to durable fixation of implant stems in patients with cancer who undergo endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumor resection. Chemotherapy effects on bone hypertrophy and osteointegration have rarely been studied, and no accepted radiologic method exists to evaluate compression-associated hypertrophy. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What was the effect of chemotherapy on the newly formed bone geometry (area) at 1 year and the presumed osteointegration? (2) What clinical factors were associated with the degree of hypertrophy? (3) Did the amount of bone formation correlate with implant fixation durability? (4) Was the amount of new bone generation or chemotherapy administration correlated with Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score? METHODS: Between 1999 and 2013, we performed 245 distal femoral reconstructions for primary or revision oncologic indications...
September 25, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
E Kuhn, P Morbini, A Cancellieri, S Damiani, A Cavazza, C E Comin
Lung cancer is the most frequent human malignancy and the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is now the main histologic type, accounting for almost half of all the cases. The 2015 World Health Organization has adopted the classification recently developed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification has incorporated up-to-date advances in radiological, molecular and oncological knowledge, providing univocal diagnostic criteria and terminology...
March 2018: Pathologica
Sandra Huicochea Castellanos, Giuseppe Corrias, Gary A Ulaner, Mark Dunphy, Zheng Junting, Marinela Capanu, Vinod Balachandran, Romina Grazia Giancipoli, Serena Monti, Lorenzo Mannelli
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of second-opinion interpretation of cross-sectional images by subspecialized radiologists to diagnose recurrent pancreatic cancer after surgery. METHODS: The IRB approved and issued a waiver of informed consent for this retrospective study. Initial and second-opinion interpretations of 69 consecutive submitted MRI or CT follow-up after pancreatic cancer resection between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 were evaluated by one oncologic imaging radiologist, who was blinded to patient's clinical details and histopathologic data...
September 24, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Thomas J Vogl, Philippe L Pereira, Andreas G Schreyer, Wolff Schmiegel, Sebastian Fischer, Christoph Herzog
The updated German S3 guidelines "Colorectal Carcinoma" were created as part of the oncology program of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF), German Cancer Society and the German Cancer Aid under the auspices of the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Disorders (DGVS) and they replace the previous guidelines from 2013. The main changes in the updated guidelines include the latest recommendations regarding endoscopy and adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapies as well as a complete restructuring of the section regarding therapeutic approach in metastases and in the palliative situation...
September 24, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Ionela Iacobas, Thuy L Phung, Denise M Adams, Cameron C Trenor, Francine Blei, Douglas S Fishman, Adrienne Hammill, Prakash M Masand, Steven J Fishman
OBJECTIVE: To define the types of hepatic hemangiomas using the updated International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies classification and to create a set of guidelines for their diagnostic evaluation and monitoring. STUDY DESIGN: We used a rigorous, transparent consensus protocol defined by an approved methodology, with input from multiple pediatric experts in vascular anomalies from hematology-oncology, surgery, pathology, radiology, and gastroenterology...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Dr Frederic Bedard Dallaire, Dr Etienne Dallaire, Dr Martine Perigny
A 39-year-old female patient was referred to our tertiary oncologic center for additional investigations relating to a suspect pancreatic tail lesion. An abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a solid lesion demonstrating progressive enhancement. Complete resection was obtained and the final diagnosis was that of a desmoid tumor of the pancreas, an exceptionally rare tumor demonstrating overlap with other solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas [1]. Therefore, it is important to recognize the essential role of pathology, particularly immunohistochemistry, in identifying this tumor...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Hongwu Wang, Mingyao Ke, Wen Li, Zikai Wang, Hui Li, Minghua Cong, Yiming Zeng, Liangan Chen, Guoxiang Lai, Baosong Xie, Nan Zhang, Wangping Li, Hongmei Zhou, Xiaoping Wang, Dianjie Lin, Yunzhi Zhou, Huaping Zhang, Dongmei Li, Xiaolian Song, Juan Wang, Shiman Wu, Meimei Tao, Zhengbu Sha, Qiang Tan, Xinwei Han, Lingfei Luo, Hongming Ma, Zhiqiang Wang
Acquired respiratory-digestive tract fistulas occur with abnormal communication between the airways and digestive tract, causing the interflow of gas and liquid. Despite advances in surgical methods and the development of multimodal therapy in recent years, patients with acquired respiratory-digestive tract fistulas continue to exhibit unfavorable clinical outcomes. Therefore, in order to guide clinical practice in China, the Respiratory and Cancer Intervention Alliance of the Beijing Health Promotion Association organized a group of experienced experts in the field to develop this consensus document...
September 17, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Lise Barlebo Ahlborn, Ida Viller Tuxen, Florent Mouliere, Savvas Kinalis, Ane Y Schmidt, Kristoffer Staal Rohrberg, Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Ulrik Lassen, Christina Westmose Yde, Olga Oestrup, Morten Mau-Sorensen
Purpose: We evaluated longitudinal tracking of BRAF V600E in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a marker of treatment response to BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) combination therapies in non-melanoma solid tumors included in the Copenhagen Prospective Personalized Oncology (CoPPO) program. Experimental design: Patients with BRAF V600E-mutated tumors were treated with combination therapies including BRAFi. Quantification of mutant cfDNA from plasma was determined and correlated to clinical outcomes...
August 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Lakshmi Saladi, Sai Mounica Maddu, Masooma Niazi, Ajsza Matela
Recent advances in imaging techniques led to an increase in the incidence of synchronous and metachronous primary lung cancers due to early detection. Management of these patients is challenging and prognosis depends on the stage of the tumor at initial diagnosis and histological type. A 68-year-old African American male patient with medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented to our emergency department with right sided chest pain, worsening dyspnea and dry cough of 2-week duration. He also reported significant weight loss and was a smoker with 25 pack-years smoking history...
August 2018: World Journal of Oncology
Abdulaziz S AlEnazi, Fahad A Alwadi, Yazeed A AlOqaili
INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the temporal bone is a rare malignancy. Clear cell SCC is a rare variant of SCC of temporal bone in which no clear risk factor has been suggested as possible etiology. Otalgia, otorrhea, and hearing loss are the usual presenting symptoms of SCC of the temporal bone. PRESENTATION OF CASE: This is a case is of a 62-year-old female who presented with a 6 months' history of experiencing intermittent left hearing disturbance, loss of balance, persistent left tinnitus, left otalgia radiating to the lateral neck and post auricular swelling...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Benita Tamrazi, Kshitij Mankad, Marvin Nelson, Felice D'Arco
Assessing tumor response is a large part of everyday clinical work in neuroradiology. However in the setting of tumor treatment, distinguishing tumor progression from treatment-related changes is difficult on conventional MRI sequences. This is made even more challenging in children where mainstay advanced imaging techniques that are often used to decipher progression versus treatment-related changes have technical limitations. In this review, we highlight the challenges in pediatric neuro-oncologic tumor assessment with discussion of pseudophenomenon including pseudoresponse and pseudoprogression...
September 13, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Amina Maimaitiaili, Di Wu, Zhenyu Liu, Haimeng Liu, Xiamusiye Muyiduli, Zhimin Fan
Objective: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be unnecessary in 20%-60% of breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis. The aim of the present study was to review the medical records of Chinese patients with early-stage breast cancer and positive NSLN metastasis to identify clinicopathological characteristics as risk factors for non-NSLN metastasis. Methods: The medical records of 2008 early-stage breast cancer patients who received intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
August 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Michael K Rooney, Fan Zhu, Erin F Gillespie, Jillian R Gunther, Ryan P McKillip, Matthew Lineberry, Ara Tekian, Daniel W Golden
PURPOSE: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is gaining prominence as a tool to meet Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-mandated competency-based assessment educational goals. SBME is used in radiation oncology, although the type and extent are not clear. This study reports a systematic literature review designed to clarify the type and extent of radiation oncology SBME. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The systematic review focused on radiation oncology SBME literature...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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