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tissue extract extracellular vesicles

Wanessa Scopel, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Symbionts are widely distributed in eukaryotes, and potentially affect the physiology, ecology and evolution of their host. Most insects harbour free-living bacteria in their haemocoel and gut lumen, intracellular-living bacteria in a range of tissues or bacteria in host-derived specialized cells. Stinkbugs, as do many arthropods, harbour extracellular bacteria in the gut that may affect the fitness of their host. This study identified the culturable symbionts associated with the ovaries, spermatheca, seminal vesicle and posterior midgut region (V4) of males and females of Euschistus heros (F...
July 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jaganmohan R Jangamreddy, Michel K C Haagdorens, M Mirazul Islam, Philip Lewis, Ayan Samanta, Per Fagerholm, Aneta Liszka, Monika K Ljunggren, Oleksiy Buznyk, Emilio I Alarcon, Nadia Zakaria, Keith M Meek, May Griffith
Short collagen-like peptides (CLPs) are being proposed as alternatives to full-length collagen for use in tissue engineering, on their own as soft hydrogels, or conjugated to synthetic polymer for mechanical strength. However, despite intended clinical use, little is known about their safety and efficacy, mechanism of action or degree of similarity to the full-length counterparts they mimic. Here, we show the functional equivalence of a CLP conjugated to polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) to full-length recombinant human collagen in vitro and in promoting stable regeneration of corneal tissue and nerves in a pre-clinical mini-pig model...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Kentaro Jingushi, Motohide Uemura, Naomi Ohnishi, Wataru Nakata, Kazutoshi Fujita, Takuya Naito, Risa Fujii, Naomi Saichi, Norio Nonomura, Kazutake Tsujikawa, Koji Ueda
Cancer-associated extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intimately involved in establishment of tumor microenvironment and occurrence of metastasis. However, previous studies have mainly relied on experiments with cultured cell lines or mouse models, making it difficult to gain a full understanding of EV functions in human body. Hence, we extracted EVs directly from surgically resected viable clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues and adjacent normal renal tissues (n = 20). Quantitative LC/MS analysis identified 3,871 tissue-exudative EV (Te-EV) proteins, among which azurocidin (AZU1) was highly enriched in tumor Te-EVs (p = 2...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jennifer Ngolab, Ivy Trinh, Edward Rockenstein, Michael Mante, Jazmin Florio, Margarita Trejo, Deborah Masliah, Anthony Adame, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A Rissman
Proteins implicated in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have been identified in bodily fluids encased in extracellular vesicles called exosomes. Whether exosomes found in DLB patients can transmit pathology is not clear. In this study, exosomes were successfully harvested through ultracentrifugation from brain tissue from DLB and AD patients as well as non-diseased brain tissue. Exosomes extracted from brains diagnosed with either AD or DLB contained aggregate-prone proteins...
June 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Javier M Figueroa, Johan Skog, Johnny Akers, Hongying Li, Ricardo Komotar, Randy Jensen, Florian Ringel, Isaac Yang, Steven Kalkanis, Reid Thompson, Lori LoGuidice, Emily Berghoff, Andrew Parsa, Linda Liau, William Curry, Daniel Cahill, Chetan Bettegowda, Frederick F Lang, E Antonio Chiocca, John Henson, Ryan Kim, Xandra Breakefield, Clark Chen, Karen Messer, Fred Hochberg, Bob S Carter
Background: RNAs within extracellular vesicles (EVs) have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for patients with cancer and are identified in a variety of biofluids. Glioblastomas (GBMs) release EVs containing RNA into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here we describe a multi-institutional study of RNA extracted from CSF-derived EVs of GBM patients to detect the presence of tumor-associated amplifications and mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods: CSF and matching tumor tissue were obtained from patients undergoing resection of GBMs...
October 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Valerie Jeanneret, Fang Wu, Paola Merino, Enrique Torre, Ariel Diaz, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase released by the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons following membrane depolarization (Echeverry et al., 2010). Recent studies indicate that the release of tPA triggers the synaptic vesicle cycle and promotes the exocytosis (Wu et al., 2015) and endocytic retrieval (Yepes et al., 2016) of glutamate-containing synaptic vesicles. Here we used electron microscopy, proteomics, quantitative phosphoproteomics, biochemical analyses with extracts of the postsynaptic density (PSD), and an animal model of cerebral ischemia with mice overexpressing neuronal tPA to study whether the presynaptic release of tPA also has an effect on the postsynaptic terminal...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Shanli Zhu, Sai Wang, Yu Lin, Pengyue Jiang, Xiaobin Cui, Xinye Wang, Yuanbin Zhang, Weiqing Pan
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis. Secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a key role in pathogen-host interfaces. Previous studies have shown that S. japonicum adult worms can release microRNA (miRNA)-containing EVs, which can transfer their cargo to mammalian cells and regulate gene expression in recipient cells. Tissue-trapped eggs are generally considered the major contributor to the severe pathology of schistosomiasis; however, the interactions between the host and parasite in this critical stage remain largely unknown...
November 8, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Samantha Sheller, John Papaconstantinou, Rheanna Urrabaz-Garza, Lauren Richardson, George Saade, Carlos Salomon, Ramkumar Menon
At term, the signals of fetal maturity and feto-placental tissue aging prompt uterine readiness for delivery by transitioning quiescent myometrium to an active stage. It is still unclear how the signals reach the distant myometrium. Exosomes are a specific type of extracellular vesicle (EVs) that transport molecular signals between cells, and are released from a wide range of cells, including the maternal and fetal cells. In this study, we hypothesize that i) exosomes act as carriers of signals in utero-placental compartments and ii) exosomes reflect the physiologic status of the origin cells...
2016: PloS One
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, H Peiris, Y Koh, A Heiser, J J Loor, K M Moyes, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, M D Mitchell
Biomarkers that identify prepathological disease could enhance preventive management, improve animal health and productivity, and reduce costs. Circulating extracellular vesicles, particularly exosomes, are considered to be long-distance, intercellular communication systems in human medicine. Exosomes provide tissue-specific messages of functional state and can alter the cellular activity of recipient tissues through their protein and microRNA content. We hypothesized that exosomes circulating in the blood of cows during early lactation would contain proteins representative of the metabolic state of important tissues, such as liver, which play integral roles in regulating the physiology of cows postpartum...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Xavier Gallart-Palau, Aida Serra, Siu Kwan Sze
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) act as key mediators of intercellular communication and are secreted and taken up by all cell types in the central nervous system (CNS). While detailed study of EV-based signaling is likely to significantly advance our understanding of human neurobiology, the technical challenges of isolating EVs from CNS tissues have limited their characterization using 'omics' technologies. We therefore developed a new Protein Organic Solvent Precipitation (PROSPR) method that can efficiently isolate the EV repertoire from human biological samples...
May 23, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Xiaocheng Zhu, Dominik Skoneczny, Jeffrey D Weidenhamer, James M Mwendwa, Paul A Weston, Geoff M Gurr, Ragan M Callaway, Leslie A Weston
Bioactive plant secondary products are frequently the drivers of complex rhizosphere interactions, including those with other plants, herbivores and microbiota. These chemically diverse molecules typically accumulate in a highly regulated manner in specialized plant tissues and organelles. We studied the production and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones (NQs) in the roots of Echium plantagineum, an invasive endemic weed in Australia. Roots of E. plantagineum produced red-coloured NQs in the periderm of primary and secondary roots, while seedling root hairs exuded NQs in copious quantities...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
J Bi, L Koivisto, G Owen, P Huang, Z Wang, Y Shen, L Bi, A Rokka, M Haapasalo, J Heino, L Häkkinen, H S Larjava
Microvesicles (MVs) are extracellular vesicles secreted by various cell types that are involved in intercellular communication. We hypothesized that in human periodontal disease, the pocket epithelium releases MVs, which then modulate gene expression in the underlying fibroblasts to control periodontal inflammation. MVs were isolated from culture medium of gingival epithelial cells (GECs) treated with oral bacterial biofilm extract or left untreated. Biofilm treatment significantly increased MV release from the GECs...
June 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Michael J Wilson, Jeremy Lind, Akhouri A Sinha
Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months...
August 2015: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
W Michael Dismuke, Pratap Challa, Iris Navarro, W Daniel Stamer, Yutao Liu
Aqueous humor (AH) is a dynamic intraocular fluid that supports the vitality of tissues that regulate intraocular pressure. We recently discovered that extracellular nanovesicles called exosomes are a major constituent of AH. Exosomes function in extracellular communication and contain proteins and small RNA. Our goal was to characterize the physical properties of AH exosomes and their exosomal RNA (esRNA) content. We isolated exosomes from human AH collected during cataract surgery from five patients using serial ultracentrifugation...
March 2015: Experimental Eye Research
William E Butler, Nadia Atai, Bob Carter, Fred Hochberg
The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features...
2014: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Yonghua Zheng, Dragos Cretoiu, Guoquan Yan, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Laurentiu M Popescu, Xiangdong Wang
Telocytes (TCs) were recently described as interstitial cells with very long prolongations named telopodes (Tps; Establishing the TC proteome is a priority to show that TCs are a distinct type of cells. Therefore, we examined the molecular aspects of lung TCs by comparison with fibroblasts (FBs). Proteins extracted from primary cultures of these cells were analysed by automated 2-dimensional nano-electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D Nano-ESI LC-MS/MS)...
April 2014: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Kok Hian Tan, Soon Sim Tan, Siu Kwan Sze, Wai Kheong Ryan Lee, Mor Jack Ng, Sai Kiang Lim
OBJECTIVE: To circumvent the complex protein milieu of plasma and discover robust predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia (PE), we investigate if phospholipid-binding ligands can reduce the milieu complexity by extracting plasma extracellular vesicles for biomarker discovery. STUDY DESIGN: Cholera toxin B chain (CTB) and annexin V (AV) which respectively binds GM1 ganglioside and phosphatidylserine were used to isolate extracellular vesicles from plasma of PE patients and healthy pregnant women...
October 2014: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wade L Schulz, Amelia K Haj, Leslie A Schiff
Entry of reovirus virions has been well studied in several tissue culture systems. After attachment to junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), virions undergo clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by proteolytic disassembly of the capsid and penetration to the cytoplasm. However, during in vivo infection of the intestinal tract, and likely in the tumor microenvironment, capsid proteolysis (uncoating) is initiated extracellularly. We used multiple approaches to determine if uncoated reovirus particles, called intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs), enter cells by directly penetrating the limiting membrane or if they take advantage of endocytic pathways to establish productive infection...
December 2012: Journal of Virology
Maria Letizia Mastronardi, Hadj Ahmed Mostefai, Ferhat Meziani, Maria Carmen Martínez, Pierre Asfar, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
OBJECTIVE: Septic shock is characterized by hypotension and multiple organ failure after infection of microorganisms. Septic shock patients display high levels of circulating microparticles. These are small vesicles released from the plasma membrane of activated or apoptotic cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of in vivo injection of microparticles from nonseptic or septic subjects on protein expression in mouse tissues. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled experiments...
July 2011: Critical Care Medicine
Emilio Del Cacho, Margarita Gallego, Sung Hyen Lee, Hyun Soon Lillehoj, Joaquin Quilez, Erik P Lillehoj, Caridad Sánchez-Acedo
Current methods for sustainable control of avian coccidiosis, whether by prophylactic medication or parasite vaccination, are suboptimal. In this study, we describe an alternative immunization strategy against Eimeria tenella infection using parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs), or their derived exosomes, in the absence of free Ag. CD45(+) intestinal DCs were isolated from E. tenella-infected chickens and loaded ex vivo with an extract of sporozoites as parasite Ag. Extracellular vesicles purified from the Ag-pulsed DCs expressed surface proteins associated with DC-derived exosomes, including major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC I and MHC II), CD80, flotillin, and heat shock protein (HSP70)...
May 12, 2011: Vaccine
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