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tissue and exosomes

Wenjun Hu, Zeyuan Ru, Wen Xiao, Zhiyong Xiong, Cheng Wang, Changfei Yuan, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a disorder characterized by unintended weight loss due to skeletal muscle wasting and adipose tissue loss. Although muscle atrophy in this condition has been well studied, the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue loss, which include browning, have not been investigated in detail. In this respect, though recent studies have shown that exosomes from cancer cells can promote lipolysis, the link between exosomes from cancer cells and CAC has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigate if exosomes from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells can induce lipolysis in vitro (in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and in vivo (in LLC tumor-bearing mice)...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nicola Baldini, Elena Torreggiani, Laura Roncuzzi, Francesca Perut, Nicoletta Zini, Sofia Avnet
BACKGROUND: Exosome-like nanovesicles are biological nanostructures mediating cell-to-cell communication and capable to load selected cargos also in the interaction among different species. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the content of exosome-like nanovesicles derived from Citrus limon L. and to analyze the effects of their uptake on human cells. METHOD: We isolated exosome-like nanovesicles from Citrus limon L. juice (EXO-CL) by differential centrifugation...
October 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Bruna Codispoti, Massimo Marrelli, Francesco Paduano, Marco Tatullo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages and show paracrine behavior by releasing endogenous factors that stimulate tissue repair and modulate local immune response. Each MSC type is affected by specific biobanking issues-technical issues as well as regulatory and ethical concerns-thus making it quite tricky to safely and commonly use MSC banking for swift regenerative applications. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include a group of 150⁻1000 nm vesicles that are released by budding from the plasma membrane into biological fluids and/or in the culture medium from varied and heterogenic cell types...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Edwin E Reza-Zaldivar, Mercedes A Hernández-Sapiéns, Benito Minjarez, Yanet K Gutiérrez-Mercado, Ana L Márquez-Aguirre, Alejandro A Canales-Aguirre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting regions of the central nervous system that exhibit synaptic plasticity and are involved in higher brain functions such as learning and memory. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, memory loss and behavioral disturbances of synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism. Cell therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment of AD. The use of adult stem cells, such as neural stem cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have the potential to decrease cognitive deficits, possibly by reducing neuronal loss through blocking apoptosis, increasing neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xin Chen, Rixin Chen, Wen-Su Wei, Yonghong Li, Zi-Hao Feng, Lei Tan, Jie-Wei Chen, Gangjun Yuan, Siliang Chen, Shen-Jie Guo, Kanghua Xiao, Zhuo-Wei Liu, Jun Hang Luo, Fang-Jian Zhou, Dan Xie
PURPOSE: Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of non-coding RNAs, have recently been drawn lots of attention in the pathogenesis of human cancers. However, the role of circRNAs in cancer cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify novel circRNAs that regulates urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) cells EMT and explored their regulatory mechanisms and clinical significance in UCBs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We first screened circRNA expression profiles using a circRNA microarray in paired UCB and normal tissues, and then studied the clinical significance of an up-regulated circRNA, circPRMT5, in a large cohort of UCB patients...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Xuegang Wang, Tao Wang, Chenxi Chen, Zhun Wu, Peide Bai, Shouchun Li, Bin Chen, Rongfu Liu, Kaiyan Zhang, Wei Li, Yuedong Chen, Jinchun Xing
Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to reflect molecular changes occurring in their cells of origin and are potential indicators in the early detection of cancers. This study aimed to determine whether certain exosomal miRNAs from tumor tissue can be used as noninvasive biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on ccRCC miRNA expression profiles and the literature, we selected six miRNAs (miR-210, miR-224, miR-452, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-34a) and analyzed their expression in tissues, sera, and serum exosomes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in hypoxia-induced (with CoCl2 ) renal cell lines...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Wenqian Li, Yunhui Lu, Xiaohui Yu, Minjie Yong, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Ovarian cancer (OC) is a lethal disease diagnosed at advanced stages due to the lack of specific biomarkers. Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), which has recently been found to be related to OC progression, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis and prognosis. The discovery of circulating exosomes as biomarkers for various diseases led us to explore exosomal TrkB in OC. Our previous study proved that the expression of TrkB was elevated in OC tissues. In this study, we focused on the detection of exosomal TrkB in OC...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Alessia Gallo, Valentina Agnese, Claudia Coronnello, Giuseppe M Raffa, Diego Bellavia, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Michele Pilato, Salvatore Pasta
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of circulating miRNA and protein activity on the severity of ascending aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). METHODS: By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, exosomal circulating expression levels (versus healthy aorta) of miRNAs and absolute levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -3 and -9), tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, -2, -3 and -4), and soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products AGEs (sRAGE) were evaluated in ascending dilated aortas of 71 patients with different valve morphotype...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Huihui Sun, Dong Li, Ming Yuan, Qiuju Li, Ni Li, Guoyun Wang
Endometriosis is a common multifactorial gynecological disorder defined as the proliferation of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Neuroangiogenesis (co-recruitment of nerves and blood vessels) is believed to play an integral part in the establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from abnormal endometrium may serve as the second identifier of endometriosis and play an important role in the development of endometriosis by regulating neuroangiogenesis...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Teresa W M Fan, Xiaofei Zhang, Chi Wang, Ye Yang, Woo-Young Kang, Susanne Arnold, Richard M Higashi, Jinze Liu, Andrew N Lane
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Patients with early stage lung cancer have the best prognosis with surgical removal of the tumor, but the disease is often asymptomatic until advanced disease develops, and there are no effective blood-based screening methods for early detection of lung cancer in at-risk populations. We have explored the lipid profiles of blood plasma exosomes using ultra high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (UHR-FTMS) for early detection of the prevalent non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC)...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xu Zhang, Hui Shi, Xiao Yuan, Pengcheng Jiang, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that mediate cellular communication in health and diseases. Neutrophils could be polarized to a pro-tumor phenotype by tumor. The function of tumor-derived exosomes in neutrophil regulation remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the effects of gastric cancer cell-derived exosomes (GC-Ex) on the pro-tumor activation of neutrophils and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: GC-Ex prolonged neutrophil survival and induced expression of inflammatory factors in neutrophils...
October 6, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Zaira Boussadia, Jessica Lamberti, Fabrizio Mattei, Elisabetta Pizzi, Rossella Puglisi, Cristiana Zanetti, Luca Pasquini, Federica Fratini, Luca Fantozzi, Federica Felicetti, Katia Fecchi, Carla Raggi, Massimo Sanchez, Stefania D'Atri, Alessandra Carè, Massimo Sargiacomo, Isabella Parolini
BACKGROUND: Microenvironment cues involved in melanoma progression are largely unknown. Melanoma is highly influenced in its aggressive phenotype by the changes it determinates in its microenvironment, such as pH decrease, in turn influencing cancer cell invasiveness, progression and tissue remodelling through an abundant secretion of exosomes, dictating cancer strategy to the whole host. A role of exosomes in driving melanoma progression under microenvironmental acidity was never described...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Rui Zheng, Mulong Du, Xiaowei Wang, Weidong Xu, Jiayuan Liang, Wenying Wang, Qiang Lv, Chao Qin, Haiyan Chu, Meilin Wang, Lin Yuan, Jing Qian, Zhengdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Extracellular communication within the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor progression. Although exosomes can package into long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to mediate extracellular communication, the role of exosomal lncRNA PTENP1 in bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. METHOD: We detected PTENP1 expression between patients with BC and healthy controls; the expression occurred in tissues and exosomes from plasma. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and the area under curve (AUC)...
October 3, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Janos Zempleni, Sonal Sukreet, Fang Zhou, Di Wu, Ezra Mutai
Exosomes are natural nanoparticles that play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Communication is achieved through the transfer of cargos, such as microRNAs, from donor to recipient cells and binding of exosomes to cell surface receptors. Exosomes and their cargos are also obtained from dietary sources, such as milk. Exosome and cell glycoproteins are crucial for intestinal uptake. A large fraction of milk exosomes accumulates in the brain, whereas the tissue distribution of microRNA cargos varies among distinct species of microRNA...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Dong Hyeon Lee, Hana Yoon, Sanghui Park, Jeong Seon Kim, Young-Ho Ahn, Kihwan Kwon, Donghwan Lee, Kwang Hyun Kim
Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is characterized by a large number of genetic alterations. DNA from urine is a promising source for liquid biopsy in urological malignancies. We aimed to assess the availability of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and exosomal DNA (exoDNA) in urine as a source for liquid biopsy in UBC. We included 9 patients who underwent surgery for UBC and performed genomic profiling of tumor samples and matched urinary cfDNA and exoDNA. For mutation analysis, deep sequencing was performed for 9 gene targets and shallow whole genome sequencing (sWGS) was used for the detection of copy number variation (CNV)...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Judong Luo, Changsong Zhang, Qiang Zhan, Fangmei An, Wenyu Zhu, Hua Jiang, Changsheng Ma
Evidence has also shown that micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) plays an important role in many cellular processes. However, it is unclear how ionizing radiation causes the miRNA and circular ribonucleic acid (circRNA) expression levels to change and how this change relates to esophageal injury. We analyzed RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) data from normal esophageal tissue and irradiated esophageal tissues and used computational approaches to identify and characterize differentially expressed miRNAs and circRNAs. We detected 27 miRNAs and 197 circRNAs that had significantly different expression levels after ionizing radiation treatment compared with normal control...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dezheng Yuan, Hang Chen, Shuo Wang, Furong Liu, Yajie Cheng, Jin Fang
Large external antigen (LEA) is considered as a colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated antigen, which was found via mAb ND-1 generated using hybridoma technology, but its molecular features remain unknown. To facilitate the clinical application of LEA, we identified LEA as a podocalyxin-like protein 1 (PODXL) with molecular weight of approximately 230 kDa, a hyperglycosylated protein, using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry in combination, and verified that ND-1-recognized epitope is on the terminal sialic acid of LEA...
September 12, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jan Kral, Vlasta Korenkova, Vendula Novosadova, Lucie Langerova, Michaela Schneiderova, Vaclav Liska, Miroslav Levy, Veronika Veskrnova, Julius Spicak, Alena Opattova, Katerina Jiraskova, Veronika Vymetalkova, Pavel Vodicka, Jana Slyskova
MicroRNA (miRNA) profiling represents a promising source of cancer-related biomarkers. miRNA signatures are specific for each cancer type and subgroups of patients with diverse treatment sensitivity. Yet this miRNA potential has not been satisfactorily explored in rectal cancer (RC). The aim of the study was to identify the specific miRNA signature with clinical and therapeutic relevance for RC. Expressions of 2555 miRNA were examined in 20 pairs of rectal tumors and matched non-malignant tissues by 3D-Gene Toray microarray...
October 1, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Tamara Saez, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia
Insulin resistance plays a key role in cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders. In states of insulin resistance several circulating factors may contribute to a defective insulin sensitivity in different tissues, including the vasculature. One of these factors influencing the vascular insulin resistance are the extracellular vesicles. The extracellular vesicles include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies which are released to the circulation by different vascular cells...
October 1, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Akash K George, Rubens Petit Homme, Anwesha Laha, Suresh C Tyagi
Higher levels of nonprotein amino acid homocysteine (Hcy), that is, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) (~5% of general population) has been associated with severe vasculopathies in different organs; however, precise molecular mechanism(s) as to how HHcy plays havoc with body's vascular networks are largely unknown. Interventional modalities have not proven beneficial to counter multifactorial HHcy's effects on the vascular system. An ancient Indian form of exercise called 'yoga' causes transient ischemia as a result of various body postures however the cellular mechanisms are not clear...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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