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tissue and exosomes

Stephen R Thom, Veena M Bhopale, Kevin Yu, Ming Yang
Inflammatory mediators are known to be elevated in association with decompression from elevated ambient pressure, but their role in tissue damage or overt decompression sickness is unclear. Circulating microparticles (MPs) are also know to increase and because interleukin (IL)-1β is packaged within these particles, we hypothesized that IL-1β was responsible for tissue injuries. Here, we demonstrate that elevations of circulating MPs containing up to 9-fold higher concentrations of IL-1β occur while mice are exposed to high air pressure (790 kPa), whereas smaller particles carrying proteins specific to exosomes are not elevated...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Benjamin P Towler, Sarah F Newbury
The process of RNA degradation is a critical level of regulation contributing to the control of gene expression. In the last two decades a number of studies have shown the specific and targeted nature of RNA decay and its importance in maintaining homeostasis. The key players within the pathways of RNA decay are well conserved with their mutation or disruption resulting in distinct phenotypes as well as human disease. Model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster have played a substantial role in elucidating the mechanisms conferring control over RNA stability...
August 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Minglin Lin, Weijia Liao, Mingjun Dong, Rongping Zhu, Juan Xiao, Tian Sun, Zhiyong Chen, Bin Wu, Junfei Jin
Neutral sphingomyelinase 1 (NSMase1) mediates caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. However, the role of NSMase1, especially exosome-borne NSMase1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), remains unclear. We report that NSMase1, which converts sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide, was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues. Low NSMase1 expression predicted poor long-term survival of HCC patients. NSMase1 downregulation in HCC resulted in increased SM and reduced ceramide (Cer) that led to an increased SM/Cer ratio. Interestingly, NSMase1 and NSMase activity were also decreased in exosomes isolated from HCC tissues and cell lines...
August 14, 2018: FEBS Journal
U Altanerova, J Jakubechova, K Benejova, P Priscakova, M Pesta, P Pitule, O Topolcan, J Kausitz, M Zduriencikova, V Repiska, C Altaner
The natural behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes in targeting tumors is a promising approach for curative therapy. Human tumor tropic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from various tissues and MSCs engineered to express the yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide fusion gene (yCD::UPRT-MSCs) released exosomes in conditional medium (CM). Exosomes from all tissue specific yCD::UPRT-MSCs contained mRNA of the suicide gene in the exosome's cargo. When the CM was applied to tumor cells, the exosomes were internalized by recipient tumor cells and in the presence of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) effectively triggered dose-dependent tumor cell death by endocytosed exosomes via an intracellular conversion of the prodrug 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yunbing Wu, Wei Qiu, Xinwei Xu, Jingjing Kang, Jingyan Wang, Yingying Wen, Xudong Tang, Yongmin Yan, Hui Qian, Xu Zhang, Wenrong Xu, Fei Mao
Exosomes released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an anti-inflammatory effect and can repair tissue injuries. Ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of various biological functions, including the regulation of inflammation. However, it remains unknown whether exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) may cure the mice of DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through the ubiquitin modification. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect and probe the mechanism relating to ubiquitination underlying the hucMSC-ex treatment in DSS-induced IBD of mice...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Rudolf K Braun, Chandramu Chetty, Vivek Balasubramaniam, Ryan Centanni, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Peiman Hematti, Marlowe W Eldridge
Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) derived exosomes mediate tissue protection and regeneration in many injuries and diseases by modulating cell protein production, protecting from apoptosis, inhibiting inflammation, and increasing angiogenesis. In the present study, daily intraperitoneal injection of MSC-derived exosomes protected alveolarization and angiogenesis in a newborn rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by 14 days of neonatal hyperoxia exposure (85% O2 ). Exosome treatment during hyperoxia prevented disruption of alveolar growth, increased small blood vessel number, and inhibited right heart hypertrophy at P14, P21, and P56...
August 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Barbara Bellei, Emilia Migliano, Marinella Tedesco, Silvia Caputo, Federica Papaccio, Gianluca Lopez, Mauro Picardo
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are considered to be a promising source in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In addition to direct cell replacement using adipose tissue or purified stem cells, intercellular molecule exchange by the adipose tissue complex, a vast array of bioactive secretory factors, demonstrated beneficial effects by reducing tissue damage and stimulation of endogenous repair. However, for therapeutic purposes, the use of secretome derivatives, such as full conditioned media or purified exosomes generated in vitro, may present considerable disadvantages for cell manufacturing, storage, product safety, and their potential as a ready-to-go therapeutic product...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Sarina K Mueller, Angela L Nocera, Simon T Dillon, Dawei Wu, Towia A Libermann, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: The coagulation pathway has been previously implicated in the etiopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) through analysis of individual proteins within the cascade. The purpose of this study was to: (1) apply a large-scale proteomic approach to confirm these previous findings; and (2) correlate the protein aberrations between tissue and exosomes to establish exosomal proteomics as a method to probe the pathophysiology of CRSwNP. METHODS: This investigation was an internal review board-approved study in which matched tissue and mucus exosomal proteomes were compared between control and CRSwNP (n = 10/group) using an aptamer-based proteomic array and confirmed using whole transcriptome sequencing...
August 9, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Shibao Li, Yao Zhao, Wenbai Chen, Lingyu Yin, Jie Zhu, Haoliang Zhang, Chenchen Cai, Pengpeng Li, Lingyan Huang, Ping Ma
Up-regulation of serum ephrinA2 is common in various malignancies and has been suggested as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the type of serum ephrinA2 expressed in PCa patients remains elusive. Furthermore, the level of exosomal ephrinA2 derived from serum is increased in patients with osteoporosis, a common complication of PCa patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. It is unknown whether exosomes derived from PCa patient serum contains ephrinA2...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Alessia Finotti, Matteo Allegretti, Jessica Gasparello, Patrizio Giacomini, Demetrios A Spandidos, Giuseppe Spoto, Roberto Gambari
In oncology, liquid biopsy is used in the detection of next-generation analytes, such as tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids and exosomes in peripheral blood and other body fluids from cancer patients. It is considered one of the most advanced non-invasive diagnostic systems to enable clinically relevant actions and implement precision medicine. Medical actions include, but are not limited to, early diagnosis, staging, prognosis, anticipation (lead time) and the prediction of therapy responses, as well as follow-up...
October 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jing Ren, Liang Ding, Dongya Zhang, Guoping Shi, Qianyun Xu, Sunan Shen, Yaping Wang, Tingting Wang, Yayi Hou
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathology of various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The crosstalk between carcinoma- associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor development and confers chemoresistance. In this study, we further investigated the underlying tumor-promoting roles of CAFs and the molecular mediators involved in these processes. Methods: The AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) mouse model was established, and RNA sequencing was performed...
2018: Theranostics
Bo Sun, Yiming Li, Yiming Zhou, Tien Khee Ng, Chao Zhao, Qiaoqiang Gan, Xiaodong Gu, Jianbin Xiang
Exosomal proteins are emerging as relevant diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer. This study was aimed at illustrating the clinical significance of exosomal Copine III (CPNE3) purified from the plasma of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The CPNE3 expression levels in CRC tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Plasma exosomes were isolated to examine the CPNE3 level using ELISA. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to investigate the CPNE3 levels between CRC tissues and matched plasma samples...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jianshu Ni, Hongchao Li, Yiwen Zhou, Baojun Gu, Yuemin Xu, Qiang Fu, Xufeng Peng, Nailong Cao, Qingchun Fu, Meng Jin, Guangxi Sun, Jihong Wang, Yinpeng Jin, Feng Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate whether local injection of exosomes derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) facilitates recovery of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in a rat model. METHODS: For the in vitro study, a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) array and proteomic analysis were performed. For the in vivo study, female rats were divided into four groups: sham, SUI, adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC), and exosomes (n = 12 each). The SUI model was generated by pudendal nerve transection and vaginal dilation...
August 3, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Youqiang Sun, Vincent Kuek, Yuhao Liu, Jennifer Tickner, Yu Yuan, Leilei Chen, Zhikui Zeng, Min Shao, Wei He, Jiake Xu
MiR-214 belongs to a family of microRNA (small, highly conserved noncoding RNA molecules) precursors that play a pivotal role in biological functions, such as cellular function, tissue development, tissue homeostasis, and pathogenesis of diseases. Recently, miR-214 emerged as a critical regulator of musculoskeletal metabolism. Specifically, miR-214 can mediate skeletal muscle myogenesis and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. MiR-214 also modulates osteoblast function by targeting specific molecular pathways and the expression of various osteoblast-related genes; promotes osteoclast activity by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten); and mediates osteoclast-osteoblast intercellular crosstalk via an exosomal miRNA paracrine mechanism...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shahrzad Nojehdehi, Sara Soudi, Ardeshir Hesampour, Shima Rasouli, Masoud Soleimani, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi
Exosomes derived from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) have immunomodulatory effects of T-cell inflammatory response and reduction of clinical symptoms on streptozotocin-induced of the type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Beside control group and untreated T1DM mice, a group of T1DM mice was treated with intraperitoneal injections of characterized exosomes derived from autologous AD-MSCs. Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured during the procedure. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used for evaluation of pancreatic islets using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and anti-insulin antibody...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zheng Yang, Zhuying Wei, Xia Wu, Huidi Yang
Exosomal micro (mi)RNAs have been suggested to have important roles in abdominal obesity, and to be associated with metabolic alterations via posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. However, exosomal miRNA profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have rarely been investigated. In the present study, microarray data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database with the following accession numbers: GSE68885 (exosomal miRNAs in SAT obtained from seven patients with obesity and five lean patients), GSE50574 (exosomal miRNAs in VAT obtained from seven patients with obesity and five lean patients) and GSE29718 [mRNAs in SAT (obtained from seven patients with obesity and eight lean patients) and VAT (obtained from three patients with obesity and two lean patients)]...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jie Li, Zhonghu Li, Peng Jiang, Minjie Peng, Xi Zhang, Kai Chen, Hui Liu, Huaqiang Bi, Xiangde Liu, Xiaowu Li
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication and that abundant circular RNAs (circRNAs) are present within exosomes. However, whether these exosomal circRNAs contribute to tumor invasion and metastasis remains unclear, as do their associated mechanisms. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of circ-IARS in 85 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, plasma exosomes, and Hs 766 T, Hs 766 T-L2 and human microvascular vein endothelial (HUVECs) cells...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Guping Mao, Shu Hu, Ziji Zhang, Peihui Wu, Xiaoyi Zhao, Ruifu Lin, Weiming Liao, Yan Kang
MicroRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, the most common chronic degenerative joint disease. Exosomes derived from miR-95-5p-overexpressing primary chondrocytes (AC-miR-95-5p) may be effective in treating osteoarthritis. Increased expression of HDAC2/8 occurs in the tissues and chondrocyte-secreted exosomes of patients with osteoarthritis and mediates cartilage-specific gene expression in chondrocytes. We have been suggested that exosomes derived from AC-miR-95-5p (AC-miR-95-5p-Exos) would enhance chondrogenesis and prevent the development of osteoarthritis by directly targeting HDAC2/8...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Wei Li, Yu-Qiang Gao
GC is one of the most leading malignancies all over the world, and is also the leading cause of cancer-related mortalities. At present, GC remains difficult to diagnose at an early stage. In this study, we first detected the expression of 9 selected miRNAs in the exosomes from 67 GC patients' circular exosomes and found 4 miRNAs level was significantly altered. Meanwhile, one out of 4 candidate miRNAs also had a higher expression in the GC tissue samples, and negative correlated with CDH1 expression. Predicted by bioinformatics tools, confirmed by dual luciferase assay and immunoblotting, we identified that CDH1 is a direct target of miR-217...
July 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Victor C Crentsil, Hui Liu, Donald F Sellitti
Previous reports have indicated that the abundance of specific microRNAs (miRNA) contained within the exosome/microvesicle compartment of patient biofluids may be useful in diagnosing specific types of cancer. In the present study, the 786-O cell line, which is derived from a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), was used as an in vitro ccRCC tumor model and the human renal proximal tubule cell line HK-2 was used as its normal renal tissue control to investigate the similarities of exosomal content of selected ccRCC miRNA biomarkers in the supernatant with the content of those markers in the cells themselves...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
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