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tissue and exosomes

Nanthini Jayabalan, Andrew Lai, Valeska Ormazabal, Stefanie Adam, Dominic Guanzon, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ratana Lim, Thomas Jansson, Harold David McIntyre, Martha Lappas, Carlos Salomon
Context: Molecules produced by adipose tissue (AT) function as an endocrine link between maternal AT and fetal growth by regulating placental function in normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective: We hypothesised that AT-derived exosomes from women with GDM carry a specific set of proteins that influences glucose metabolism in placenta. Design: Exosomes were isolated from omental AT-conditioned media from pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (exo-NGT, n=65) and women with GDM (exo-GDM, n=82)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Carlos Castaño, Anna Novials, Marcelina Párrizas
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated blood glucose levels that drive the development of life-threatening complications. Diabetes results from a situation of insufficient insulin action, either by deficient production of the hormone by the pancreas, or by the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as liver, muscle or the adipose depots. Communication between organs is thus central to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Recently, several studies are evidencing that small vesicles called exosomes released by, amongst other, the adipose tissue, can regulate gene expression in other tissues, hence modulating inter-organ cross-talk...
December 4, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Feng-Wei Wang, Chen-Hui Cao, Kai Han, Yong-Xiang Zhao, Mu-Yan Cai, Zhi-Cheng Xiang, Jia-Xing Zhang, Jie-Wei Chen, Li-Ping Zhong, Yong Huang, Su-Fang Zhou, Xiao-Han Jin, Xin-Yuan Guan, Rui-Hua Xu, Dan Xie
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but remains a challenge for drug development. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are invaluable in identifying cancer pathologies, and providing therapeutic options for cancer patients. Here, we identified a lncRNA (lncRNA-APC1) activated by APC through lncRNA microarray screening, and examined its expression among a large cohort of CRC tissues. A decrease in lncRNA-APC1 expression was positively associated with lymph node and/or distant metastasis, a more advanced clinical stage, as well as a poor prognosis of CRC patients...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ana Lukic, Casper J E Wahlund, Cristina Gomez, Daniel Brodin, Bengt Samuelsson, Craig E Wheelock, Susanne Gabrielsson, Olof Radmark
Tumor-derived exosomes can modulate the cancer microenvironment and induce metastatic spread. Exosomes may carry enzymes for leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis, but the role of exosomal LTs has not been studied in cancer. We isolated exosomes and malignant cells from pleura exudates from 14 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Lipidomic profiles, migration and apoptosis were determined. Both exosomes and primary cancer cells contained g-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (GGT-1) and avidly transformed exogenous LTC4 to pro-tumorigenic LTD4 , for the cells to levels 100-fold above their endogenous CysLT production...
November 30, 2018: Cancer Letters
Carlos J Ramírez-Flores, Rosalba Cruz-Mirón, Rossana Arroyo, Mónica E Mondragón-Castelán, Tais Nopal-Guerrero, Sirenia González-Pozos, Emmanuel Ríos-Castro, Ricardo Mondragón-Flores
Toxoplasma gondii can infect all nucleated cells from warm-blooded organisms. After infection, Toxoplasma spreads throughout the body and migrates across biological barriers, such as the intestinal and blood-brain barriers, as well as the placenta in pregnant women. The mechanisms for parasite dissemination are still unknown; however, proteases could play a role as a virulence factor. The aim of this study was to detect and to characterize proteases in whole-cell extracts and in excretion/secretion products from tachyzoites of the RH strain isolated from infected mice...
December 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sarina K Mueller
The objective of this manuscripts to review current knowledge regarding exosomes as they relate to the physiology and pathology of the human nose as well as their role as biomarkers of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Exosomes are 30-150 nm membrane-bound vesicles secreted by virtually all cell types. Exosomes contribute to the rapid inter-epithelial transfer of proteins and mediate innate immunosurveillance and defense mechanisms in the human nasal cavity. Exosomes also protect their cell specific cargo from degradation by nucleases and proteases and mirrorCRS related tissue protein perturbations more effectively than whole mucus...
September 2018: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Razieh Dalirfardouei, Khadijeh Jamialahmadi, Elahe Mahdipour
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently the most promising candidates in regenerative medicine. Nonetheless, there are several limitations associated with the MSC tissue source such as infrequent and invasive bone marrow sampling methods. To overcome these limitations, we have procured MSCs from the menstrual blood (MenSCs) as a non-invasive source using a straightforward and cost-effective method. Moreover, we isolated MenSCs-derived exosomes as a safe and highly effective approach to exert the paracrine effects of MSCs...
December 2018: Tissue & Cell
Sonja Hartwig, Elisabetta De Filippo, Simon Göddeke, Birgit Knebel, Jorg Kotzka, Hadi Al-Hasani, Michael Roden, Stefan Lehr, Henrike Sell
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, secreting various adipokines, either directly or via extracellular vesicles, including exosomes. Exosomes are vesicles of 40-150 nm size that represent a novel concept of biomolecule release. We purified exosomes from isolated primary human preadipocytes differentiated to mature adipocytes. The analyses of these exosomal preparations by LC-MS identified 884 proteins, so called exoadipokines. The comparison of exoadipokines with previously identified human exosome-associated proteins in ExoCarta database show an overlap of 817 proteins, but also revealed 67 proteins not assigned to human exosomes, yet...
November 28, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Jun-Qiu Chen, Liang-Hu Huang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the potential of multi-directional differentiation, and can recruit endothelial cells, promote their proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, improve blood perfusion and oxygen suppliment, and repair damaged tissue. Exosome secreted by MSC contain mother cell-specific proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and acts as signaling molecule, playing an important role in cell communication, thereby altering target cell function. In this review, the biological characteristics of MSC and its exosome, the mechanism of promoting vascular regeneration in patients with ischemic diseases, and the mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) in the vascular ischemia of ischemic diseases are all summarized briefly...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Katherine Y Peng, Rocío Pérez-González, Melissa J Alldred, Chris N Goulbourne, Jose Morales-Corraliza, Mariko Saito, Mitsuo Saito, Stephen D Ginsberg, Paul M Mathews, Efrat Levy
In addition to being the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, expression of the ɛ4 allele of apolipoprotein E can lead to cognitive decline during ageing that is independent of Alzheimer's amyloid-β and tau pathology. In human post-mortem tissue and mouse models humanized for apolipoprotein E, we examined the impact of apolipoprotein E4 expression on brain exosomes, vesicles that are produced within and secreted from late-endocytic multivesicular bodies. Compared to humans or mice homozygous for the risk-neutral ɛ3 allele we show that the ɛ4 allele, whether homozygous or heterozygous with an ɛ3 allele, drives lower exosome levels in the brain extracellular space...
November 27, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sarina K Mueller, Angela L Nocera, Simon T Dillon, Xuesong Gu, Olaf Wendler, Hasan H Otu, Towia A Libermann, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are secreted epithelial-derived vesicles that contain a conserved protein array representative of their parent cell. Exosomes may be reproducibly and noninvasively purified from nasal mucus. The exosomal proteome can be quantified using SOMAscanTM , a highly multiplexed, aptamer-based proteomic platform. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has a unique predictive exosomal proteomic biosignature. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from whole mucus sampled from control and CRSwNP patients (n = 20 per group) by differential ultracentrifugation...
November 28, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Tatiana Shtam, Stanislav Naryzhny, Roman Samsonov, David Karasik, Igor Mizgirev, Artur Kopylov, Elena Petrenko, Yana Zabrodskaya, Roman Kamyshinsky, Daniil Nikitin, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Hava Gil-Henn, Anastasia Malek
PURPOSE: The interaction between malignant cells and surrounding healthy tissues is a critical factor in the metastatic progression of breast cancer (BC). Extracellular vesicles, especially exosomes, are known to be involved in inter-cellular communication during cancer progression. In the study presented herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of circulating plasma exosomes in the metastatic dissemination of BC and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. METHODS: Exosomes isolated from plasma of healthy female donors were applied in various concentrations into the medium of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines...
November 27, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Dorota Trzybulska, Eleni Vergadi, Christos Tsatsanis
Since the discovery of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) a new area has emerged in the field of biomarkers. NcRNAs are RNA molecules of different sizes that are transcribed as independent genes or as part of protein coding genes and are not translated, therefore they do not produce proteins. They have been classified according to their size and function and include microRNAs (miRNAs), piwiRNAs (piRNAs), snoRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These non-coding RNAs are present in different cell compartments participating in multiple cell functions, but they have also been identified in biological fluids, also known as cell-free or circulating ncRNAs, where they can be detected in exosomes, bound on lipoproteins as well as free circulating molecules...
November 2018: EJIFCC
Jamie L Betker, Brittany M Angle, Michael W Graner, Thomas J Anchordoquy
Many pharmaceuticals must be administered intravenously due to their poor oral bioavailability. In addition to issues associated with sterility and inconvenience, the cost of repeated infusion over a six-week course of therapy costs the healthcare system tens of billions of dollars per year. Attempts to improve oral bioavailability have traditionally focused on enhancing drug solubility and membrane permeability, and the use of synthetic nanoparticles has also been investigated. As an alternative strategy, some recent reports have clearly demonstrated that exosomes from cow milk are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in humans, and could potentially be used for oral delivery of drugs that are traditionally administered intravenously...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nesrine Ebrahim, Inas A Ahmed, Noha I Hussien, Arigue A Dessouky, Ayman Samir Farid, Amal M Elshazly, Ola Mostafa, Walaa Bayoumie El Gazzar, Safwa M Sorour, Yasmin Seleem, Ahmed M Hussein, Dina Sabry
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Autophagy has a defensive role against kidney damage caused by hyperglycemia. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes are currently considered as a new promising therapy for chronic renal injury. However, the renal-protective mechanism of exosomes on DN is not completely understood. We examined the potential role of MSC-derived exosomes for enhancement of autophagy activity and their effect on DN...
November 22, 2018: Cells
Yahong Chen, Ke Xue, Xiaodie Zhang, Zhiwei Zheng, Kai Liu
BACKGROUND: Developing cartilage constructed with the appropriate matrix composition and persistent chondrogenesis remains an enduring challenge in cartilage defects. Cartilage progenitor cell (CPC)-based tissue engineering has attracted recent attention because of its strong chondrogenic differentiation capacity. However, due to the lack of a suitable chondrogenic niche, the clinical application of CPC-regenerated cartilage in the subcutaneous environment remains a challenge. In this study, exosomes derived from chondrocytes (CC-Exos) were used to provide the CPC constructs with a cartilage signal in subcutaneous environments for efficient ectopic cartilage regeneration...
November 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Heyu Zhang, Yanzhe Wang, Qing Lv, Jun Gao, Liuting Hu, Zhiyi He
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity and mortality, with no effective treatment at present. One possible therapeutic strategy involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have shown promise in experimental models and have great potential for treating nervous illnesses in humans. However, many deficiencies in MSC treatment still need to be addressed, including their poor survival rate post-transplantation. Previously, we reported that the microRNA-21 (miR-21) is downregulated in ICH patients' blood and brain tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Huo Zhang, Mingxia Zhu, Xia Shan, Xin Zhou, Tongshan Wang, Jinying Zhang, Jinsong Tao, Wenfang Cheng, Gang Chen, Jian Li, Ping Liu, Qiang Wang, Wei Zhu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in global. The differential expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in CRC plasma of patients have the potential to serve as a diagnostic biomarker. We conducted a four-stage study to identify the potential plasma miRNAs for CRC detection. In the initial screening phase, Exiqon panel (miRCURY-Ready-to-Use-PCR-Human-panel-I + II-V1.M) including 3 CRC pools and 1 normal controls (NCs) pool were applied to acquire miRNA profiles...
November 17, 2018: Gene
Ioannis Azoidis, Sophie C Cox, Owen G Davies
Extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogenous population of exosomes and microvesicles that have critical roles in intercellular signalling and tissue development. These complex particles have been implicated as mediators of the therapeutic effects of stem cells via the transfer of an assorted cargo of proteins and nucleic acids, which can modulate inflammation and enhance endogenous regeneration in a range of tissues. In addition, extracellular vesicles have the capacity to be loaded with therapeutic molecules for targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals...
January 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Aifeng Zhang, Guoyun Wang, Lihua Jia, Tao Su, Lili Zhang
Endometriosis (Ems) is a condition that refers to the ectopic implantation and growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microRNA‑138 (miR‑138) in Ems and the possible underlying mechanism. Flow cytometry was measured CD11b level, cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays was analyzed using LDH activity kits. Cell apoptosis was measured using Annexin V‑FITC/PI double staining apoptosis detection kit and DAPI assays...
January 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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