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Health policy theory

Matthew Fisher
The article by Susanne Hagen and colleagues on Health Promotion at Local Level in Norway discusses actions by municipal governments to assess and address heath inequities within their respective regions, as required under the Norwegian Public Health Act (PHA). Although the broad intent of the Norwegian government is to encourage action on social determinants of health (SDH), Hagen et al find that many of the initiatives undertaken by municipalities 'tend to cash out as single, targeted initiatives,' and focus on individual behaviours...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Jeremy Shiffman
Global health networks-webs of individuals and organizations linked by a shared concern for a particular condition-have proliferated over the past quarter century. In a recent editorial in this journal, I presented evidence that their effectiveness in addressing four challenges-problem definition, positioning, coalitionbuilding and governance-shapes their ability to influence policy. The editorial prompted five thoughtful commentaries that reflected on these and other challenges. In this follow-up editorial, I build on the commentaries to suggest ways of advancing research on global health networks...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Patrick Harris
Lawless et al provide a valuable narrative of using program logic to develop an evaluation of Health in All Policies (HiAP) in South Australia. In this commentary I argue that the paper and analysis is an extremely useful example of navigating the supposed black box of policy-making. However the original makes the reader work too hard and is distracting from the main narrative of explaining the logic behind the HiAP approach in South Australia. My response covers avoiding epistemological traps and weighing up the pragmatics of collaborative policy research with more complex institutional policy issues like power...
June 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Ole F Norheim
How can evidence from economic evaluations of the type the Disease Control Priorities project have synthesized be translated to better priority setting? This evidence provides insights into how investing in health, particularly though priority interventions and expanded access to health insurance and prepaid care, can not only save lives but also help alleviate poverty and provide financial risk protection. The article discusses some of the relevant factors needed to develop a Theory of Change for translating economic evidence to better priority setting within countries, and proposes some key strategic choices that are necessary to achieve the desired outputs and outcomes...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Hannah C Waters, Sarah Davidson
Government policy in England encourages communities to capacity build from within. Community psychology has explored the role of community resilience in this process. But what happens if a community appears to lack formalized resources? This article considers such a community in which a grassroots community center thrives outside the boundaries of formalized community organizations. It aimed to find out how this community mobilized, the benefits for those connected, and how the center survives. A grounded theory 'center as a living organism' was constructed from the accounts of eleven participants...
November 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Emma Garnett, Judith Green, Zaid Chalabi, Paul Wilkinson
Societal impact is an increasingly important imperative of academic funding. However, there is little research to date documenting how impact is accomplished in practice. Drawing on insights from Actor-Network Theory, we explore the research-policy interface within an interdisciplinary research project on the relationships between air pollution and human health. Health policy impact was important to the researchers for moral as well as pragmatic reasons but it was a goal that was seen as potentially in tension with that of doing science...
October 12, 2018: Health (London)
Elise Crayton, Alison J Wright, Mark Ashworth
BACKGROUND: Medications targeting stroke risk factors have shown good efficacy, yet adherence is suboptimal. A lack of underlying theory may contribute to the ineffectiveness of eliciting or sustaining behaviour change in many existing interventions targeting medication adherence in stroke. Intervention effectiveness and implementation could be enhanced by consideration of evidence base and theory to drive development. The purpose of this study is to identify appropriate components for a theory-driven and evidence-based medication adherence intervention for stroke survivors...
October 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Kathrine Carstensen, Marius Brostrøm Kousgaard, Viola Burau
There is a growing body of literature on sustainability, but its definition and the factors that affect it are not well understood. This paper focuses on the sustainment of health promotion interventions in community mental health organisations, where the institutional context has been found to play an important role. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used to characterise the extent of sustainment of health promotion interventions and to identify important factors that influence it. The study builds on a previously reported qualitative multiple case design focusing on four Danish community mental health organisations...
October 11, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Christian A Bellemare, Pierre Dagenais, Suzanne K-Bédard, Jean-Pierre Béland, Louise Bernier, Charles-Étienne Daniel, Hubert Gagnon, Georges-Auguste Legault, Monelle Parent, Johane Patenaude
OBJECTIVES: Integration of ethics into health technology assessment (HTA) remains challenging for HTA practitioners. We conducted a systematic review on social and methodological issues related to ethical analysis in HTA. We examined: (1) reasons for integrating ethics (social needs); (2) obstacles to ethical integration; (3) concepts and processes deployed in ethical evaluation (more specifically value judgments) and critical analyses of formal experimentations of ethical evaluation in HTA...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Cheryl Pritlove, Parissa Safai, Jan E Angus, Pat Armstrong, Jennifer M Jones, Janet Parsons
Within mainstream cancer literature, policy documents, and clinical practice, "work" is typically characterized as being synonymous with paid employment, and the problem of work is situated within the "return to work" discourse. The work that patients perform in managing their health, care, and everyday life at times of illness, however, is largely overlooked and unsupported. Drawing on feminist political economy theory, we report on a qualitative study of 12 women living with cancer. Major findings show that the work of patienthood cut across multiple fields of practice and included both paid and unpaid labor...
October 8, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Fernando Berrios, Daniel E Campbell, Marco Ortiz
It has been hypothesized that ecosystem health describes the state in which all processes operating within an ecosystem are functioning at a level of optimum efficiency to maximize system empower. In this study, systems analysis of networks and information flows is used within this definition of ecosystem health to assess the condition of the benthic ecosystems in three coastal bays in northern Chile. These highly productive ecosystems are characterized by the inflow of cold, nutrient-rich waters of low oxygen concentration derived from coastal upwelling of deep waters and the interruption of upwelling flow during El Niño events when warmer waters with higher oxygen and lower nutrient concentrations enter these coastal systems...
December 2018: Ecological Indicators
Dominic A Alaazi, Bukola Salami, Sophie Yohani, Helen Vallianatos, Philomina Okeke-Ihejirika, Christina Nsaliwa
Child discipline remains a topic of public health interest across the globe. Despite this enduring interest, very little is known about the child disciplinary practices of African immigrants in Canada. This paper explores the disciplinary practices of African immigrant parents in Alberta, a Canadian province with a recent surge in the population of African immigrants. Employing a critical ethnographic methodology, informed by transnational theory, we collected data through in-depth qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of African community leaders (n = 14), African immigrant parents (n = 32), policymakers (n = 2), and health and immigrant settlement workers (n = 10)...
October 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hye Kyung Kim, Tae Kyoung Lee
Guided by construal level theory (CLT), this study investigates the interplay between two framing approaches that address outcomes of obesity-related policies. A randomized experiment (N = 299) was conducted with a 2 (gain- vs. loss-frame) X 2 (societal- vs. individual-frame) between-participants design. Consistent with CLT, frame combinations with consistent construal levels were more persuasive. Compared to a societal-loss frame, a societal-gain frame was perceived as a stronger argument, which in turn increased policy support...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Ahmad Shah Salehi, Abdul Tawab Kawa Saljuqi, Nadia Akseer, Krishna Rao, Kathryn Coe
BACKGROUND: In 2002 Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and its development partners initiated a new paradigm for the health sector by electing to Contract-Out (CO) the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) to non-state providers (NSPs). This model is generally regarded as successful, but literature is scarce that examines the motivations underlying implementation and factors influencing program success. This paper uses relevant theories and qualitative data to describe how and why contracting out delivery of primary health care services to NSPs has been effective...
October 5, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Monica R Hill, Shelby Goicochea, Lisa J Merlo
BACKGROUND: Medical student exposure to stressors is associated with depression, burnout, somatic distress, decreases in empathy, serious thoughts about dropping out of medical school, suicidal ideation, and poor academic performance. Despite this, there have been no recent, multicenter, qualitative studies assessing medical students' perceptions of their greatest stressor(s). OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify the most significant stressors noted by medical students themselves, in order to inform the development of programs and policies to reduce medical student distress...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Fateme Goudarzi, Heidarali Abedi, Kourosh Zarea, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Seyedeh Zahra Hosseinigolafshani
Introduction: The care of patients in vegetative state at home is difficult because they need continuous medical interventions and extensive care. The present study aims to explain the process of home care of patients in vegetative state at home. Methods: This study was a qualitative research with a grounded theory approach. The participants were 22 people (included 17 family caregivers and 5 professional caregivers) who were enrolled in a purposive sampling. Data was gathered through unstructured interviews, observations and field notes...
September 2018: Journal of Caring Sciences
José Mendes Ribeiro, Marcelo Rasga Moreira
This essay article examines suicide among young people in Brazil on the basis of Durkheim's classical approaches as revisited in current discussions of social integration networks. It presents arguments regarding the behaviour of suicide mortality rates in the light of classical public health assumptions as to social causality in processes of health and illness. The mortality rates, updated in line with international statistics, review of data in Brazilian studies and recent series for Brazil, reveal suicide "aptitudes" by age, sex and social group...
September 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Chhabi L Ranabhat, Joel Atkinson, Myung-Bae Park, Chun-Bae Kim, Mihajlo Jakovljevic
Background: There are substantial differences in long term health outcomes across countries, particularly in terms of both life expectancy at birth (LEAB) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). Socio-economic status, disease prevention approaches, life style and health financing systems all influence long-term health goals such as life expectancy. Within this context, universal health coverage (UHC) is expected to influence life expectancy as a comprehensive health policy. The aim of the study is to investigate this relationship between Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and life expectancy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shelley Clark, Sangeetha Madhavan, Caroline Kabiru
Extensive research from sub-Saharan Africa shows that mothers frequently rely on help from other family members to ensure their children's health and well-being. Yet, there is considerable debate about the relative importance of support from grandmothers versus fathers. Using an innovative survey instrument to interview 462 unmarried mothers in a slum area of Nairobi, Kenya, we provide insight into this debate by showing that a status versus transfers approach to measuring kin support asks subtly different questions and yields different results...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Xueyin Zhao, Robert M Goodman
As health reform becomes a crucial task for both Chinese and United States government, public health organizations are required to adopt changes based on reform policy. Organizational Change Capacity theory is a Western theory that indicates the capacities that organizations should possess when pursuing successful organizational change. This study seeks to understand the applicability of this theory to Chinese public health organizations by contrasting organizations that have achieved success or remained challenged in implementing organizational change to optimize health reform...
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
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