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Health policy theory

Sander C S Clahsen, Irene van Kamp, Betty C Hakkert, Theo G Vermeire, Aldert H Piersma, Erik Lebret
Why do countries regulate, or prefer to regulate, environmental health risks such as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and endocrine disruptors differently? A wide variety of theories, models, and frameworks can be used to help answer this question, though the resulting answer will strongly depend on the theoretical perspective that is applied. In this theoretical review, we will explore eight conceptual frameworks, from different areas of science, which will offer eight different potential explanations as to why international differences occur in environmental health risk management...
August 15, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Jens Kandt
Persistent health inequalities pose a continued research and policy challenge in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Current approaches to health research and promotion are predicated on a distinction between wider, social structural causes and individual, health-related behaviours often conceived of as lifestyle choices. Drawing on Bourdieu's theory of social practice, this paper develops an integrated perspective by observing associations between health and structured lifestyle practices. Using the UK Understanding Society household survey, a taxonomy of eight lifestyle clusters is identified, which exhibit significant health inequalities on a number of indicators...
August 13, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Yi-Sheng Chao, Marco Scutari, Tai-Shen Chen, Chao-Jung Wu, Madeleine Durand, Antoine Boivin, Hsing-Chien Wu, Wei-Chih Chen
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement helps to improve health outcomes and health care quality. However, the overall relationships among patient engagement measures and health outcomes remain unclear. This study aims to integrate expert knowledge and survey data for the identification of measures that have extensive associations with other variables and can be prioritized to engage patients. METHODS: We used the 2014 International Health Policy Survey (IHPS), which provided information on elder adults in 11 countries with details in patient characteristics, healthcare experiences, and patient-physician communication...
2018: PloS One
Jasmijn Slootjes, Saskia Keuzenkamp, Sawitri Saharso
Migrant women in Europe have a higher incidence of health problems and have disproportionately high unemployment rates. We examine how Dutch and Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese first and second generation migrant women escape the vicious cycle between health problems and unemployment by using the theory of the Sense of Coherence (SOC). We study how SOC works and whether SOC is also applicable outside the domain of health. Our findings from life story interviews ( N  = 54) show that women can escape this vicious cycle through the meaningful reconstruction of adversity...
2018: Comparative Migration Studies
Damayanti D Soekarjo, Airin Roshita, Anne-Marie Thow, Mu Li, Jee Hyun Rah
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the importance of adolescent health and well-being. Yet, little attention has been paid to adolescent nutrition, and few policies and programs are targeting to improve adolescent nutrition in Indonesia. OBJECTIVE: This analysis aimed to identify (1) the extent to which adolescents are considered in nutrition policy in Indonesia and (2) opportunities to improve nutrition policy content to effectively target adolescents...
August 13, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Anahita Esbati, Amanda Henderson, Jane Taylor, Margaret Barnes
PROBLEM: Despite evidence that implementation of the Initiative has been effective in increasing breastfeeding rates and duration of breastfeeding worldwide; the uptake is low with only 70 Baby Friendly accredited maternity facilities across Australia (approximately 23% of facilities). BACKGROUND: The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes shaped the foundation for the Initiative to implement practices that protect, promote and support breastfeeding...
August 8, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
K Currie, C King, K McAloney-Kocaman, N J Roberts, J MacDonald, A Dickson, S Cairns, N Khanna, P Flowers, J Reilly, L Price
BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of transmission of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), international guidelines recommend admission screening to identify hospital patients at risk of colonisation. However, routine monitoring indicates that optimum screening compliance levels are not always achieved. In order to enhance compliance, we must better understand those factors which influence staff screening behaviours. AIM: To identify factors which influence staff compliance with hospital MRSA screening policies...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ruth Pinedo González, Andrés Palacios Picos, Myriam de la Iglesia Gutiérrez
Sex workers are particularly vulnerable to violence, isolation, and stigmatization. This study uses the theory of loneliness to explore the relations among violence, self-esteem, loneliness, health, and drug use. Specifically, this study tested a model in which loneliness mediates the relationship between situational (violence) and characterological (self-esteem) loneliness factors and physical and psychological health and drug abuse. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from one region of Spain, recruited through the purposive sampling method...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jessie-Lee McIsaac, Grace Warner, Logan Lawrence, Robin Urquhart, Sheri Price, Jacqueline Gahagan, Mary McNally, Lois A Jackson
Background and Purpose: Over the last decade, the field of implementation science (IS) has yielded an array of theoretical approaches to clarify and understand how factors influence the application and scaling-up of evidence-based practice in health care. These developments have led to questions about whether IS theories and frameworks might be of value to population health researchers and decision makers. The purpose of this research was to conduct a critical interpretive synthesis to explore, if, and how, key IS theories and frameworks might inform population health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of illness across populations...
2018: AIMS Public Health
Sonja Marjanovic, Bryn Garrod, Talitha Dubow, Emma Pitchforth, Catherine A Lichten, Julian Elston, Emma Harte, Jon Sussex, Miaoqing Yang, Fahd Malik, Richard Lewis, Tom Ling
Urgent and Emergency Care (UEC) vanguards aim to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of UEC services so that patients receive the most appropriate care at the right time and in the right place, and so that unnecessary admissions to accident and emergency (A&E) and hospitals are reduced. The Southern Cluster comprises three such UEC vanguards. RAND Europe's evaluation examined the impacts of the vanguards, the processes underpinning delivery (and associated enablers and challenges), and implications for future policy and practice...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Evelyne de Leeuw
The study of Health in All Policies (HiAP) is gaining momentum. Authors are increasingly turning to wide swathes of political and social theory to frame (Program) Theory Based (or Informed) Evaluation (TBE) approaches. TBE for HiAP is not only prudent, it adds a level of elegance and insight to the research toolbox. However, it is still necessary to organize theoretical thinking appropriately. A commentary on a recent Int J Health Policy Manag paper argued that the framing of context and causality were hard to establish...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Sebastián Peña
Health in All Policies (HiAP) has gained attention as a potential tool to address complex health and societal challenges at global, regional, national and subnational levels. In a recent article, Lawless et al propose an evaluation framework developed in the context of the South Australia HiAP initiative. Strategies, mediators, activities and impacts identified in the framework could potentially be useful for evaluating HiAP in other settings. Creating and sustaining political will, managing conflicts of interest and achieving financially, politically and conceptually sustainable HiAP initiatives are challenges that could be further strengthened in the current framework...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Ditte Heering Holt, Nanna Ahlmark
It is well-established that population health is influenced by a multitude of factors, many of which lie outside the scope of the health sector. In the public health literature it is often assumed that intersectoral engagement with nonhealth sectors will be instrumental in addressing these social determinants of health. Due to the expected desirable outcomes in population health, several countries have introduced Health in All Policies (HiAP). However, whether this systematic, top-down approach to whole-of-government action (which HiAP entails) is efficient in changing government policies remains unclear...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Ketan Shankardass, Patricia O'Campo, Carles Muntaner, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Lauri Kokkinen
Since 2008, the government of South Australia has been using a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach to achieve their strategic plan (South Australia Strategic Plan of 2004). In this commentary, we summarize some of the strengths and contributions of the innovative evaluation framework that was developed by an embedded team of academic researchers. To inform how the use of HiAP is evaluated more generally, we also describe several ideas for extending their approach, including: deeper integration of interdisciplinary theory (eg, public health sciences, policy and political sciences) to make use of existing knowledge and ideas about how and why HiAP works; including a focus on implementation outcomes and using developmental evaluation (DE) partnerships to strengthen the use of HiAP over time; use of systems theory to help understand the complexity of social systems and changing contexts involved in using HiAP; integrating economic considerations into HiAP evaluations to better understand the health, social and economic benefits and trade-offs of using HiAP...
March 18, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Marjorie Bonello, Jane Morris, Natasha Azzopardi Muscat
The World Health Organisation identifies interprofessional education (IPE) as a key element for preparing a collaborative workforce. However, global implementation remains challenging due to individual, professional and organisational barriers. A qualitative case study explored the concept of introducing an undergraduate IPE programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta. A combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with a sample of sixty-four academics,health and education policy makers and newly qualified health professionals...
July 5, 2018: Health Policy
Kafayat Oboirien, Bronwyn Harris, Jane Goudge, John Eyles
BACKGROUND: Improving the quality of health care is a national priority in many countries to help reduce unacceptable levels of variation in health system practices, performance and outcomes. In 2012, South Africa introduced district-based clinical specialist teams (DCSTs) to enhance clinical governance at the lowest level of the health system. This paper examines the expectations and responses of local health system actors in the introduction and early implementation of this new DCST role...
August 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
William J Spurlin
This article works across multiple disciplinary boundaries, especially queer theory, to examine critically the controversial, and often socially controlling, role of biomedical knowledge and interventions in the realm of human sexuality. It will attempt to situate scientific/medical discourses on sexuality historically, socially, and culturally in order to expose the ways in which "proper" sexual health in medical research and clinical practice has been conflated with prevailing social norms at particular historical junctures in the 20th and 21st centuries...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Gry Wester, Kristine Bærøe, Ole Frithjof Norheim
Reducing inequalities in health and the determinants of health is a widely acknowledged health policy goal, and methods for measuring inequalities and inequities in health are well developed. Yet, the evidence base is weak for how to achieve these goals. There is a lack of high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting impact on the distribution of health and non-health benefits and lack of methodological rigour in how to design, power, measure, analyse and interpret distributional impact in RCTs...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Sisay Abayneh, Heidi Lempp, Jill Manthorpe, Charlotte Hanlon
Background: There is international recognition of the need for service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. However, little is known about how best to integrate this approach into the mental healthcare system; what works to advance involvement, under what conditions, how and when does involvement bring added value, and how can it work in resource-poor settings in low and middle-income countries. Objective: To describe the methodology for a realist systematic review protocol to synthesise the evidence to explain the contexts, outcomes, and underlying mechanisms for involvement of service users with severe mental health problems and their caregivers in mental healthcare policy-making and planning, advocacy, service development, monitoring and improvement...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Laura A Voith, Patricia Logan-Greene, Terri Strodthoff, Anna E Bender
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem affecting women, men, and children across the United States. Batterer intervention programs (BIPs) serve as the primary intervention for men who use violence, employing three primary modalities: psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and other forms of group therapy such as alcohol or drug treatment. However, research indicates that program effectiveness of the primary BIP modalities is limited, due, in part, to the theoretical underpinnings guiding intervention such as learned behavior (psychoeducation), patriarchy as the root cause (Duluth model), and "dysfunctional" thinking (CBT)...
July 30, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
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