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Health policy theory

Francesca Valeria Hansstein, Fabián Echegaray
BACKGROUND: Wearing a pollution mask is an effective, practical, and economic way to prevent the inhalation of dangerous particulate matter (PM). However, it is not uncommon to observe negligence in adopting such behaviour, and this especially among young segments of the population. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as conceptual framework, this study explores the role of socio-cognitive factors that affect the decision of wearing a pollution mask in the context of young educated people...
December 4, 2018: Globalization and Health
Barbara Willems, Piet Bracke
BACKGROUND: We investigate whether the extent of educational inequalities in the use of Pap smears (cervical cancer screening) and mammograms (breast cancer screening) in Belgium has changed over time in accordance with the pattern predicted by diffusion of innovation theory, as well as how the regional cancer screening policies of Flanders and Wallonia influence this pattern. METHODS: Data were obtained from five successive cross-sectional waves (1997-2001-2004-2008-2013) of the Belgian Health Interview Survey...
December 4, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Julie-Anne Martyn, Penny Paliadelis
Registered Nurses (RNs) are regulated health professionals who are educated and accountable for safe medication administration (MA). Binding their practice are standards, policies, procedure and legislation. MA competence is taught and assessed during professional pre-registration education programs. However, different philosophies, theories and models are used by education providers making curriculum content disparate and competency frameworks diverse. Additionally, healthcare contexts are increasingly complex and clinical environments unpredictable...
November 23, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Sonia Wutzke, Emily Morrice, Murray Benton, Andrew Milat, Lesley Russell, Andrew Wilson
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Australian efforts to tackle the burden from chronic diseases through prevention have included numerous strategies, committees, policies and programs. This research reflects on this changing landscape, with focus on the most recent, and most significant, investment and subsequent disinvestment in preventive health, the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH). The purpose is to better understand the place of the NPAPH in Australia's prevention landscape, explore views from senior health department personnel on the NPAPH and identify lessons for the future...
December 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Shun-Ichiro Bessho, Yoko Ibuka
Economic theory predicts that vaccination policies at the local level can be negatively affected by the policies of neighboring regions because of free-riding motives, whereas positive dependency may exist due to policy diffusions among localities. By using the unique variations in the provision of vaccination subsidies in Japan, we assess how vaccination policies in a local government are affected by the decisions of neighboring governments. We find that the provision of vaccination subsidies is positively correlated with the decisions of neighboring localities...
December 3, 2018: Health Economics
Erika Strazdins, Kathryn Dwan, Melanie Pescud, Lyndall Strazdins
Background: Increasing numbers of GPs are reducing the hours they work in clinical practice. The reasons for and implications of this are not well-understood. Objective: To investigate how the demands of general practice, especially new time pressures, impact GPs' professional and personal lives and work hour choices. Method: Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews with GPs working in Australia. Results: Time-bound consultation windows, the complexity of patients presenting to general practice and consequent administrative and emotional burdens placed upon GPs combined to increase time pressures and an intensifying clinical load...
December 1, 2018: Family Practice
Geoffrey Nelson, S Kathleen Worton, Eric Macnaughton, Sam Tsemberis, Tim MacLeod, Julian Hasford, Paula Goering, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Tim Aubry, Jino Distasio
In this study, we examine changes in the homeless-serving system in the context of a training and technical assistance initiative to scale up Housing First (HF) in 6 Canadian communities. Based on qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews with key stakeholders (k = 7, n = 35) and field notes gathered over a 3-year period (n = 146), we found 2 main system changes: (a) changes in the capacity of the service delivery system at multiple levels of analysis (from individual to policy) to implement HF, and (b) changes in the coordination of parts of the service delivery system and collaboration among local stakeholders to enhance HF implementation...
January 2019: Journal of Community Psychology
Liza Yurie Teruya Uchimura, Andréa Tenório Correia da Silva, Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana
Introduction: Characteristics of primary health care and emergency services may hamper their integration and, therefore, reduce the quality of care and the effectiveness of health systems. This study aims to identify and analyse policy, structural and organizational aspects of healthcare services that may affect the integration between primary health and emergency care networks. Theory and Methods: We conducted a qualitative research study based on grounded theory that included: (1) interviews with 30 health care leaders; and (2) documental analysis of the summaries of Regional Interagency Committee meetings from two regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Integrated Care
Jenny M Gormley
School nurses are expected to advocate for policies and procedures that support student health, safety, and school attendance. An educational activity to improve school nurse advocacy was developed and implemented based on advocacy literature, self-efficacy theory, and continuing education guidelines. A quantitative, repeated measure descriptive project design was used to compare school nurses' advocacy measures before and following an educational activity and 6 weeks after the activity. Immediately after the education, there were significant increases in advocacy knowledge ( p < ...
November 29, 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Jie Chen, Eva Hisako DuGoff, Priscilla Novak, Min Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: Hospital investments in care coordination services and innovative delivery models represent an important source for improving care efficiency and population health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore variation of hospital-initiated care coordination services and participation in Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) by community characteristics within an organizational theory framework. METHODS: Our main data sets included the 2015 American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Survey of Care Systems and Payment, American Community Survey, and Area Health Resource File...
November 27, 2018: Health Care Management Review
Edith K Wakida, Zohray M Talib, Dickens Akena, Elialilia S Okello, Alison Kinengyere, Arnold Mindra, Celestino Obua
BACKGROUND: The objective of the review was to synthesize evidence of barriers and facilitators to the integration of mental health services into PHC from existing literature. The structure of the review was guided by the SPIDER framework which involves the following: Sample or population of interest-primary care providers (PCPs); Phenomenon of Interest-integration of mental health services into primary health care (PHC); Design-influenced robustness and analysis of the study; Evaluation-outcomes included subjective outcomes (views and attitudes); and Research type-qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies...
November 28, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Yan Wang, Ron Hays, Marvin Marcus, Carl Maida, Jie Shen, Di Xiong, Steve Lee, Spolsky Vladimir, Ian Coulter, James Crall, Honghu Liu
BACKGROUND: Parents play an important role in their children's oral health behaviors, provide oral health access, initiate prevention, and coping strategies for health care. AIM: This paper develops a short form (SF) to assist parents to evaluate their children's oral health status using Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) framework that conceptualized health as physical, mental, and social components. DESIGN: Surveys of parents were conducted at dental clinics in Los Angeles County, together with an onsite clinical exam by dentists to determine clinical outcomes, Children's Oral Health Status Index (COHSI) and referral recommendations (RRs)...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Anwesa Chatterjee
OBJECTIVES: A chronic illness/condition typically generates some disturbance in people. In the context of this turmoil, some individuals might make a choice to use healing options outside of regular allopathic medicine. This study is an attempt to understand the processes through which health practices/healing options get named as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by chronic illness patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study used a grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze data...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Eltony Mugomeri
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of nutrition indicators is critical for informing nutrition policies and programs. The failure by many sub-Saharan countries to maintain functional surveillance systems for maternal and child health (MCH) hampers their capacity to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals relevant for MCH. The nutrition surveillance system (NSS) for MCH in the southern African country of Lesotho is no exception to this problem despite the country having some of the highest maternal and child mortality ratios globally...
November 26, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Odis Johnson, Christopher St Vil, Keon L Gilbert, Melody Goodman, Cassandra Arroyo Johnson
This article addresses the concern that death by legal intervention is a health outcome disproportionately experienced by boys and men of color, and predicated on the quality of the locations in which encounters with law enforcement occur. Using a more comprehensive cross-verified sample of police homicides from online databases and a nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies, this study examines whether neighborhood social disorganization, minority threat, and defense of inequality theories help explain the odds that males of color will have a fatal interaction with police (FIP)...
November 15, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Lill Sverresdatter Larsen, Bodil Hansen Blix, Torunn Hamran
The current Western health policy of ageing in place relies on a triad collaboration among patients, healthcare service providers and family caregivers. Such collaborations presuppose involvement in a vague juridical landscape. This article explores family caregivers' experiences with involvement in and influence on nursing home decision-making processes for persons with dementia. The data consist of 12 in-depth interviews with family caregivers. Using positioning theory, we demonstrate how family caregivers strive to balance their assumed duty to care for the person with their needs to care for themselves...
November 23, 2018: Dementia
Caroline Robitaille
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to understand contemporary psychostimulant use within the socio-cultural context of Western societies. Two objectives are addressed: to describe accounts of practices related to psychostimulant use among members of selected online fora and to examine how these are related to representations of the self. METHODS: This research is a qualitative study of psychostimulant use among members of selected online fora. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), this study focuses on three publicly accessible online discussion fora belonging to the Reddit website...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Maxwell J Smith, Alison Thompson, Ross E G Upshur
OBJECTIVES: 'Social justice' and 'health equity' are core values in public health. Yet, despite their normative character, the numerous normative accounts of social justice and equity are rarely acknowledged, meaning that these values are often unaccompanied by an explanation of what they require in practice. The objective of this study was to bridge this normative scholarship with information about how these 'core values' are integrated and interpreted by Canadian public health policy-makers...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Christopher John Bourke, Henrietta Marrie, Adrian Marrie
Objectives The aims of this study were to: (1) examine institutional racism's role in creating health outcome discrepancies for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples; and (2) assess the management of institutional racism in an Australian hospital and health service (HHS). Methods A literature review informed consideration of institutional racism and the health outcome disparities it produces. Publicly available information, provided by an Australian HHS, was used to assess change in an Australian HHS in five key areas of institutional racism: inclusion in governance, policy implementation, service delivery, employment and financial accountability...
November 21, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Pauline Boland, William M M Levack, Fiona P Graham, Meredith A Perry
BACKGROUND.: Adaptive equipment (AE) is frequently provided during stroke rehabilitation by occupational therapists. PURPOSE.: This study aimed to identify the AE that people typically use after a stroke and the outcomes achieved as a result, and to explore people's experiences obtaining and using AE, to inform both practice and policy in this field. METHOD.: A mixed-methods study, involving a postal questionnaire and interviews, used descriptive statistics and grounded theory to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively...
November 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
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