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Health of the poor

Marcie S Rubin, Natali Nunez, Jessica D Quick, Burton L Edelstein
OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterize US early childhood caries (ECC) programs. METHODS: A 39 question online survey was fielded to 245 ECC programs identified from the literature and peer programs. The 101 respondents (41 percent response rate) reported their program's geographic reach, type, areas of focus, target populations, approaches, affiliations, providers, goals, costs, and funding. RESULTS: Half of the programs affiliate with formal early childhood social service or nutrition programs...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
W Mengesha, R Steege, A Z Kea, S Theobald, D G Datiko
Background: Health extension workers (HEWs) are the key cadre within the Ethiopian Health Extension Programme extending health care to rural communities. National policy guidance supports the use of mHealth to improve data quality and use. We report on a mobile Health Management Information system (HMIS) with HEWs and assess its impact on data use, community health service provision and HEWs' experiences. Methodology: We used a mixed methods approach, including an iterative process of intervention development for 2 out of 16 essential packages of health services, quantitative analysis of new registrations, and qualitative research with HEWs and their supervisors...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Anne-Sophie Voisin, Dietmar Kültz, Frédéric Silvestre
Early-life represents a critically sensitive window to endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially leading to long-term repercussions on the phenotype later in life. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), are still poorly understood. To gain molecular understanding of these effects, we exposed mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) for 28 days post hatching (dph) to 4 and 120 ng/L 17-α-ethinylestradiol, a model xenoestrogen...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Emily B Graham, James C Stegen, Maoyi Huang, Xingyuan Chen, Timothy D Scheibe
Global investment in hydropower is rapidly increasing, fueled by a need to manage water availability and by incentives promoting renewable energy sources. This expansion poses unrecognized risks to the world's vulnerable freshwater ecosystems. While many hydropower impacts have been investigated, dam-induced alterations to subsurface processes influence river corridor ecosystem health in ways that remain poorly understood. We advocate for a better understanding of dam impacts on subsurface biogeochemical activity, its connection to hydrology, and follow-on trophic cascades within the broader river corridor...
November 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Patou Masika Musumari, Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S Pilar Suguimoto, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety symptoms are prevalent among university students in both developed and developing settings. Recently, grit, defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, has emerged as an indicator of success and well-being. However, the relationship between grit and poor mental health outcomes among university students is largely unknown. The current study investigates the relationship of grit with depression and anxiety among university students in Chiang Mai, Thailand...
2018: PloS One
Saeed Bashirian, Shabnam Seyedzadeh-Sabounchi, Samane Shirahmadi, Ali-Reza Soltanian, Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini, Farshid Vahdatinia
OBJECTIVE: Gingivitis and poor oral hygiene status are the most prevalent oral diseases among primary school students. Poor oral hygiene status, gingivitis and socio-demographic determinants have been shown to be associated with periodontal diseases. There is limited information on the gingivitis and oral hygiene status among Iranian children. In the present study, the status of gingivitis, oral hygiene status, and their association with socio-demographic determinants among schoolchildren aged 7-12 years old in Hamadan were investigated...
2018: PloS One
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent strategies that have been developed to enhance absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from dietary supplements. RECENT FINDINGS: The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have important physiologic functions, and numerous potential health benefits have been suggested by results from observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. EPA and DHA intakes in the average American diet are substantially below recommended levels...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Olivier Bourron, Franck Phan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most important public health diseases. Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology involves multiple pathways, in which micronutrients could play a role. Among them, interest has grown concerning vitamin K. The purpose of this review is to expose the latest studies on the role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism, a poorly known function of this vitamin. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal experimentations and human observational and interventional studies were analyzed to evaluate the role of this vitamin in glucose metabolism...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Manuela Tamburro, Vincenza Anzelmo, Paolo Bianco, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Giancarlo Ripabelli
OBJECTIVES: Despite the potential presence in many workplaces, biological risk is little known and largely underestimated, except in healthcare environments. Objectives: To evaluate perception, knowledge and behaviors adopted for protection and prevention of biological risk, related also to the occupational activity, among construction and agricultural workers. METHODS: Workers were recruited at farms and construction companies of Molise Region, Central Italy, which were visited within the surveillance activities planned by local institutions...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Savas Aslan, Mustafa Altindis, Recep Kara, Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Koroglu
<i>Background:</i> Screening of transmission routes and routine control of the food for foodborne-pathogens are vital in terms of public health. In this study, we aimed to investigate and evaluate the presence of E. coli O157:H7 strains and toxins in the cattle meat samples collected from different markets and butchers. <i>Methods:</i> We collected 116 raw minced cattle beef samples from the supermarkets and the butcher stores. We used bacterial culture-based conventional isolation methods as recommended by the CDC and FDA determination of STEC in the minced cattle beef samples...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Eun Mi Song, Ho-Su Lee, Ye-Jee Kim, Eun Hye Oh, Nam Seok Ham, Jeongseok Kim, Sung Wook Hwang, Sang Hyoung Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Suk-Kyun Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The risk and clinical impact of perianal disease (PAD) in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients have not been fully evaluated. We investigated the incidence of PAD in UC patients and compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of UC according to the presence of PAD. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study and a hospital-based cohort study. Using the 2010-2014 data from the Korean National Health Insurance claims database, we calculated incidence rates and standardized incidence ratios of PAD in UC patients compared with the general population...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Shabana Jamani, Carol Rodríguez, María M Rueda, Gabriela Matamoros, Maritza Canales, Gonzalo Bearman, Michael Stevens, Ana Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Pediculosis capitis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that receives little attention in countries where it continues to be endemic. This study aimed to understand the impact of Pediculus humanus capitis infestations in the lives of Honduran children living in extreme poverty. METHODS: A qualitative study on head lice infestation was conducted in June 2016 in a rural community in Honduras. Parents were invited to bring their children for head lice inspection using a dry-combing technique with a stainless steel-toothed comb with suction power...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Qian Wang, Shumei Cui, Li Zhou, Keke He, Liya Song, Haiyan Liang, Congfen He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Healthy skin harbors numerous microbes known to maintain its health and prevent attacks from external pathogens. The influence of chemical preservatives commonly used in cosmetic products on facial resident flora remains poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of five such preservatives on in vitro cultivated skin-resident bacteria. METHODS: Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated on blood agar, tryptic soy agar, and nutrient agar; Gram-negative bacteria were then selected on Hank's balanced salt solution containing antibiotics and Reasoner's 2A...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Susanne Singer, Hans-Joachim Vogel, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Bianca Erdmann-Reusch, Michael Fuchs, Katherine Taylor, Alexandra Meyer, Judith Keszte
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the use and outcome of rehabilitation after total laryngectomy in Germany. METHODS: We enrolled patients who were scheduled for total laryngectomy, approached them again after surgery, after 3 months and 1 year. Patients completed questionnaires and were interviewed. RESULTS: Of 309 participants, 14% had not received any rehabilitation. Reasons for nonuse were primarily ongoing treatment and poor health...
December 12, 2018: Head & Neck
Anne Boudier, Sébastien Chanoine, Simone Accordini, Josep M Anto, Xavier Basagaña, Jean Bousquet, Pascal Demoly, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Frederic Gormand, Joachim Heinrich, Christer Janson, Nino Künzli, Régis Matran, Christophe Pison, Chantal Raherison, Jordi Sunyer, Raphaelle Varraso, Deborah Jarvis, Bénédicte Leynaert, Isabelle Pin, Valérie Siroux
BACKGROUND: Research based on cluster analyses led to the identification of particular phenotypes confirming phenotypic heterogeneity of asthma. The long-term clinical course of asthma phenotypes defined by clustering analysis remains unknown, although it is a key aspect to underpin their clinical relevance. We aimed to estimate risk of poor asthma events between asthma clusters identified 20 years earlier. METHODS: The study relied on two cohorts of adults with asthma with 20-year follow-up, ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and EGEA (Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma)...
December 13, 2018: Allergy
Sandra L Spoelstra, Alla Sikorskii, Laura N Gitlin, Monica Schueller, Margaret Kline, Sarah L Szanton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Of older adults, 42% report problems with daily function, and physical function is the most important consideration for aging individuals. Thus, we implemented a model of care focused on improving physical function and examined health and use outcomes and satisfaction. DESIGN: A 3-year participatory, single-group pretrial/posttrial benchmarked to a usual care cohort that was evaluated prior to the study. SETTING: Four Medicaid home and community-based waiver sites in Michigan...
December 13, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Brittany M Mathes, Alastair Henry, Norman B Schmidt, Melissa M Norberg
OBJECTIVES: A prior study found that over 50% of treatment-seeking individuals who hoard incur at least one psychiatric work impairment day (i.e., they are unable to work or are less effective at work due to poor mental health) each month. The aim of the current study was to assess work-related variables associated with workplace impairment in a non-treatment-seeking sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. Self-report questionnaires were administered via Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
December 11, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Christine W Musyimi, Victoria N Mutiso, Lianne Loeffen, Anja Krumeich, David M Ndetei
BACKGROUND: Involvement of traditional health practitioners (THPs) in the form of collaboration with the formal health care system is suggested to improve the pathways to mental health care in Kenya, yet understanding of the current traditional practice and THPs' perspectives is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the views of THPs with respect to their mental health practice. METHODS: This study qualitatively explored the views of THPs, using four focus group discussions (FDGs) each consisting of 8-10 traditional and faith healers, resulting in a total of 36 participants...
December 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Amanual Getnet Mersha
BACKGROUND: One of the essential components of antenatal care (ANC) is birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR). Strengthening BP/CR measures is one of the principal strategies to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. The current study aimed at determining the level of men's knowledge about obstetric danger signs, and their involvement in BP/CR among community of Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional community based survey was conducted in Northwest Ethiopia from May 2016 to July 2016...
December 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Bo Ye, Junling Gao, Hua Fu
BACKGROUND: Frailty represents a public health priority and an increasingly prevalent condition in the ageing population. It is seen as reflecting an interaction among individual factors and a range of environmental elements. This study aims to examine the association between frailty and individual factors, physical and social environments among Chinese older people. METHODS: The data were from the Shanghai Healthy City Survey in 2017, which sampled 2559 older people aged ≥60 years from 67 neighbourhoods...
December 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
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