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Health of the poor

Anna Nobili, Cris Glazebrook, Jon Arcelus
The study aims to systematically extract and analyse data about Quality of Life (QoL) in the transgender population. A systematic literature search and meta-analysis were conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases, up to July 2017. Only English language quantitative studies, in adults, which reported the means for validated QoL measures were included. Random-effect meta-analysis was adopted to pool data and estimate the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). From 94 potentially relevant articles, 29 studies were included within the review and data extraction for meta-analysis was available in 14 studies...
August 18, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Emma L Rayner, Ilona Airikkala-Otter, Aswin Susheelan, Richard J Mellanby, Natascha V Meunier, Andrew Gibson, Luke Gamble
Wounds in working donkeys are a common and preventable welfare problem in many countries. Mutilations, iatrogenic injuries carried out by owners, are a particularly distressing welfare issue. However, little is known about their nature and prevalence. The project aim was to assess the general health and establish the prevalence, nature and severity of mutilations and other skin wounds in donkeys from several communities in Tamil Nadu, India, that were part of a donkey welfare initiative run by the Worldwide Veterinary Service charity...
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
Tanja Högg, José M A Wijnands, Elaine Kingwell, Feng Zhu, Xinya Lu, Charity Evans, John D Fisk, Ruth Ann Marrie, Yinshan Zhao, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest the existence of a prodromal period in multiple sclerosis, but little is known about the phenotypic characteristics. This study aims to characterize the multiple sclerosis (MS) prodrome using data mining analytics in the healthcare setting. METHODS: We identified people with MS and matched general population controls using health administrative data in two Canadian provinces (British Columbia and Saskatchewan). Using a training dataset (66...
August 8, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Huiliang Yang, Akash A Shah, Sandra B Nelson, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Fungal spinal epidural abscess (FSEA) is a rare entity with high morbidity and mortality. Reports describing the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of FSEA are scarce in the literature. PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of FSEA. STUDY DESIGN: This study is designed as a retrospective clinical case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: A continuous series of patients with the diagnosis of FSEA who presented at our institution from 1993 to 2016...
August 16, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
C Kelly, M Callaghan, M Molcho, S Nic Gabhainn, A Alforque Thomas
BACKGROUND: The food environment within and surrounding schools may influence children's diets. This study explored if the internal and external school food environments were associated with intake of specific food groups among adolescents. METHODS: Participants were a subset of 5344 post-primary school students that took part in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Four school-level variables were created: urban/rural, disadvantaged status, percentage fast food premises within one kilometer of the school and food sold in the school...
August 16, 2018: Appetite
Stuart M Fraser, Glenda L Torres, Chunyan Cai, H Alex Choi, Anjail Sharrief, Tiffany R Chang
INTRODUCTION: Medical and socioeconomic factors may impact decisions to change the goals of care for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to comfort measures only. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively collected data on patients with ICH, including baseline patient demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and ICH score. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of change to comfort measures only status...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Cátia Sofia da Costa Domingues, Beatriz Prazeres Serambeque, Mafalda Sofia Laranjo Cândido, Carlos Miguel Machado Marto, Francisco José de Baptista Veiga, Ana Bela Sarmento Antunes Cruz Ribeiro, Ana Rita Ramalho Figueiras, Maria Filomena Roque Botelho, Marília de Assunção Rodrigues Ferreira Dourado
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) being the most representative type. OSCC is a public health problem with high morbidity and poor survival rate. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is emerging as a hallmark in OSCC. METHODS: In this study, we described the role of microRNAs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulation in OSCC based on a PubMed search using articles published in English between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2018...
August 18, 2018: Head & Neck
Rovshan M Ismailov, Zaytuna D Khasanova
BACKGROUND: No data exist regarding oncology/hematology team members' knowledge of and views on biosimilars in Colorado, USA. Published research has suggested that health professionals may have a poor understanding of many issues related to biosimilars. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to increase oncology/hematology team members' knowledge of biosimilars and then use an anonymous online survey to assess the knowledge gained. We also aimed to examine oncology/hematology team members' overall interest in the subject and their motivation to learn more about biosimilars in the future...
August 17, 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Ruth Webster, Abdul Salam, H Asita de Silva, Vanessa Selak, Sandrine Stepien, Senaka Rajapakse, Stanley Amarasekara, Naomali Amarasena, Laurent Billot, Arjuna P de Silva, Mervyn Fernando, Rama Guggilla, Stephen Jan, Jayanthimala Jayawardena, Pallab K Maulik, Sepalika Mendis, Suresh Mendis, Janake Munasinghe, Nitish Naik, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Gotabaya Ranasinghe, Simon Thom, Nirmali Tisserra, Vajira Senaratne, Sanjeewa Wijekoon, Santharaj Wijeyasingam, Anthony Rodgers, Anushka Patel
Importance: Poorly controlled hypertension is a leading global public health problem requiring new treatment strategies. Objective: To assess whether a low-dose triple combination antihypertensive medication would achieve better blood pressure (BP) control vs usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label trial of a low-dose triple BP therapy vs usual care for adults with hypertension (systolic BP >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP >90 mm Hg; or in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease: >130 mm Hg and/or >80 mm Hg) requiring initiation (untreated patients) or escalation (patients receiving monotherapy) of antihypertensive therapy...
August 14, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Elizabeth S Barnert, Ryan J Coller, Bergen B Nelson, Lindsey R Thompson, Thomas S Klitzner, Moira Szilagyi, Abigail M Breck, Paul J Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Defining and measuring health for children with medical complexity (CMC) is poorly understood. We engaged a diverse national sample of stakeholder experts to generate and then synthesize a comprehensive list of health outcomes for CMC. METHODS: With national snowball sampling of CMC caregiver, advocate, provider, researcher, and policy or health systems experts, we identified 182 invitees for group concept mapping (GCM), a rigorous mixed-methods approach...
August 17, 2018: Pediatrics
Kathryn E Ackerman, Madhusmita Misra
Female athletes often experience amenorrhoea at various times during training, but this should not be considered normal. Low energy availability is a common cause of menstrual dysfunction, and amenorrhoea can serve as a warning sign of some of the health and performance consequences associated with inadequate energy, including poor bone accrual and low bone mineral density. Adolescence is an important time for bone accrual, growth, and development, making delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhoea particularly concerning in young athletes...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, David M Maahs, Michael Seid, Jamie Crandell, Franziska K Bishop, Kimberly A Driscoll, Christine M Hunter, Jessica C Kichler, Debra Standiford, Joan M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes commonly have poor glycaemic control. We aimed to test the efficacy of a newly developed adaptive behavioral intervention (Flexible Lifestyles Empowering Change; FLEX) on metabolic and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Young people (13-16 years, type 1 diabetes duration >1 year, HbA1c of 64-119 mmol/mol [8·0-13·0%], and without other serious medical conditions or pregnancy) from two clinical sites (Colorado and Ohio, USA) were eligible for enrolment...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Francesca Solmi, Daniela Melamed, Glyn Lewis, James B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences might represent non-specific markers of poor mental health in adolescence. However, only a few predominantly cross-sectional studies have tested their association with disordered eating behaviours in adolescent and adult populations. The aim of this study was to explore the association between psychotic experiences at age 13 years, and disordered eating behaviours and body-mass index (BMI) at age 18 years. METHODS: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in Avon (England, UK) including mothers with an expected delivery date between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992, and their children...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Shona J Lee, Jennifer J Palmer
BACKGROUND: The recent development of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) enables elimination programmes to decentralise serological screening services to frontline health facilities. However, patients must still undertake multiple onwards referral steps to either be confirmed or discounted as cases. Accurate surveillance thus relies not only on the performance of diagnostic technologies but also on referral support structures and patient decisions. This study explored why some RDT-positive suspects failed to complete the diagnostic referral process in West Nile, Uganda...
August 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Silvestro Ojja, Stevens Kisaka, Michael Ediau, Doreen Tuhebwe, Angela N Kisakye, Abdullah A Halage, Richard K Mugambe, Joan N Mutyoba
BACKGROUND: Over 80% of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) occurs in low-income countries. Children under 5 account for 20-30% of the burden in endemic areas. This study assessed the prevalence, intensity and factors associated with STH infections among preschool-age children (PSAC) in Hoima district, Uganda. The PSAC are particularly vulnerable because the chronicity of this condition usually affects their physical and mental growth and development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 562 PSAC (1-5 years old) in 6 counties of Hoima district using Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) method...
August 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mandeep Kumar Singh, Bhrigu Kumar Das, Sandeep Choudhary, Deepak Gupta, Umesh K Patil
Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are multifarious, dissimilar, and long-lasting, fatal diseases with a remarkable influence on health worldwide. DM is not only related to cardiovascular diseases, neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy, but also related to a number of liver diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. Recently, it is hypothesized that DM has a greater risk for many forms of cancer, such as breast, colorectal, endometrial, pancreatic, gallbladder, renal, and liver cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
July 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Halenur Bozdağ, Esra Akdeniz, Belgin Devranoğlu, Murat Haksever, Bülent Emre Bilgiç, Hüseyin Tayfun Kutlu
Background/aim: We aimed to investigate whether oocyte morphologic abnormalities affected cycle outcome in poor responder infertile women who fulfilled the Bologna criteria. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from infertile couples who underwent ICSI and embryo transfer at the Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children’s Health Training and Research Hospital Assisted Reproduction Unit in İstanbul, Turkey. They were allocated to two groups: Group A, poor responders, and Group B, normal responders...
August 16, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Safwat Y Diab, Esa Palosaari, Raija-Leena Punamäki
Mental health problems are common in war-affected areas, but children have different levels of vulnerability. Based on ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 2005), this study analyses how factors related to the child (cognitive capacity), their family (parental depression and parenting styles), and their school (teachers' practices and peer relations) mediate the association between traumatic stress (traumatic war experiences and stressful life-events) and child mental health (posttraumatic stress and psychological distress symptoms)...
August 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ling-Bing Meng, Ze-Mou Yu, Peng Guo, Qing-Qing Wang, Ruo-Mei Qi, Meng-Jie Shan, Jian Lv, Tao Gong
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases (CCVDs) are global health problems due to the characteristic of high mortality. It is found that atherosclerosis (AS), a main cause of CCVDs, is significantly relevant to the change of intimal and media thickness. Neutrophil count (NEU) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (N/L) are recognized possible risk factors for atherosclerosis (AS). However, there are few studies on the separate relationship between carotid intimal thickness, media thickness and NEU, N/L...
August 3, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Isobel E M Evans, David J Llewellyn, Fiona E Matthews, Robert T Woods, Carol Brayne, Linda Clare
There is evidence to suggest that social isolation is associated with poor cognitive health, although findings are contradictory. One reason for inconsistency in reported findings may be a lack of consideration of underlying mechanisms that could influence this relationship. Cognitive reserve is a theoretical concept that may account for the role of social isolation and its association with cognitive outcomes in later life. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relationship between social isolation and cognition in later life, and to consider the role of cognitive reserve in this relationship...
2018: PloS One
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