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Immune-mediated neuropathy

Renato D'Alonzo, Elisabetta Mencaroni, Lorenza Di Genova, Daniela Laino, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is mainly recognized as a respiratory pathogen, although it is associated with the development of several extra-respiratory conditions in up to 25% of the cases. Diseases affecting the nervous system, both the peripheral (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS), are the most severe. In some cases, particularly those that involve the CNS, M. pneumoniae -related neuropathies can lead to death or to persistent neurologic problems with a significant impact on health and a non-marginal reduction in the quality of life of the patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Svetlana Blitshetyn, Louise Brinth, Jeanne E Hendrickson, Manuel Martinez-Lavin
This article reviews the case series reported from several countries describing patients with suspected severe side effects to the HPV vaccines. The described symptom clusters are remarkably similar and include disabling fatigue, headache, widespread pain, fainting, gastrointestinal dysmotility, limb weakness, memory impairment episodes of altered awareness, and abnormal movements. This constellation of symptoms and signs has been labeled with different diagnoses such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), small fiber neuropathy (SFN), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), or fibromyalgia...
November 27, 2018: Immunologic Research
Robert D Fealey
Peripheral neuropathy affecting autonomic and small sensory fibers can cause abnormalities of both autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation. Quantitative autonomic and sensory neurophysiologic tests and quantification of the linear density of intraepidermal nerve fibers potentially can stratify those at risk of impaired thermoregulation during cold and heat challenges. New data relating to thermoregulatory sweating impairment in neuropathy are presented in this chapter. Of 516 neuropathy patients analyzed, 345 were found to have thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) abnormalities with a mean percentage of anterior body surface anhidrosis (TST%) of 12% and a significant reduction in total body sweat rate, although the rate of core temperature rise with heating (slope) was not significantly different from that of patients with a normal TST...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Haruki Koike, Ryoji Nishi, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a form of chronic neuropathy that is presumably caused by heterogeneous immune-mediated processes. Recent advances in the search for autoantibodies against components expressed at nodal regions, such as the nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, have substantially contributed to clarifying the pathogenesis of CIDP in a subpopulation of patients. In particular, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies to paranodal junction proteins, including neurofascin-155 and contactin-1, have attracted the attention of researchers...
December 4, 2018: Neurology
Maria Rotaru, Sanda Marchian, Gyula Laszlo Fekete, Gabriela Mariana Mariana Iancu
Dear Editor, Eczema is an inflammatory dermatitis mediated by cellular immunity, with an etiology in which environmental, immunological, and genetic factors are involved. Skin inflammation through proinflammatory cytokines creates a favorable environment for microbial antigens and optimal conditions for infection (1). In case of underlying immunosuppression, inflammatory features of dermatitis and superimposed infections are more severe. The presence of minor trauma of the skin in the form of fissures can favor both easier inoculation of some bacterial germs, leading to a dermatitis superinfection, and/or the transcutaneous inoculation of atypical mycobacteria, with a possibility of developing localized types of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TLA)...
October 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Elisabetta Zucchi, Francesco Cavallieri, Giada Giovannini, Francesca Antonelli, Maria Teresa Mascia, Roberta Bedin, Jessica Mandrioli
A 64 years-old woman presented subacute onset distal paraesthesia concurrently with cold-induced urticaria, a rare form of physical urticaria. Both the disturbances developed a fortnight after an upper respiratory tract infection. EMG confirmed an exclusively sensory polyneuropathy, with prolongation of distal latencies and reduction of amplitudes. Anti-GQ1b and anti-GT1a antigangliosides antibodies were found in serum. The clinical workout included CSF analysis, cryoglobulin and paraprotein search, neurotropic infective agents, neoplastic markers and extensive autoimmune disease antibodies analysis, all of which resulted negative...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Gary M Owens
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a symmetric demyelinating peripheral neuropathy with either a progressive or relapsing remitting course. CIDP is both debilitating and degenerative, leaving patients with functional impairment due to nerve damage in their extremities. Along with its medical burden, CIDP has a significant economic impact, with disease-related expenses and the often fairly high costs related to the immune therapies used to treat the disease. Costs for patients with this disorder often exceed those of other immune-mediated neuromuscular diseases...
September 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
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October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Bernd C Kieseier, Emily K Mathey, Claudia Sommer, Hans-Peter Hartung
Since the discovery of an acute monophasic paralysis, later coined Guillain-Barré syndrome, almost 100 years ago, and the discovery of chronic, steroid-responsive polyneuropathy 50 years ago, the spectrum of immune-mediated polyneuropathies has broadened, with various subtypes continuing to be identified, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). In general, these disorders are speculated to be caused by autoimmunity to proteins located at the node of Ranvier or components of myelin of peripheral nerves, although disease-associated autoantibodies have not been identified for all disorders...
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Theresa Meldgaard, Søren Schou Olesen, Adam D Farmer, Klaus Krogh, Anne Astrid Wendel, Birgitte Brock, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Christina Brock
The incidence of the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes is rising, mirroring the increase in the worldwide prevalence. Arguably, the most common microvascular complication is neuropathy, leading to deleterious changes in both the structure and function of neurons. Amongst the various neuropathies with the highest symptom burden are those associated with alterations in the enteric nervous system, referred to as diabetic enteropathy. The primary aim of this review is to provide a contemporaneous summary of pathophysiology of diabetic enteropathy thereby allowing a "molecule to mechanism" approach to treatment, which will include 4 distinct aspects...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Johannes J Roggenbuck, Joseph Boucraut, Emilien Delmont, Karsten Conrad, Dirk Roggenbuck
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare immune-mediated neuropathy with demyelination of nerve fibers as leading morphological feature. The course of disease can be chronic progressive or remitting relapsing. Whereas for acute immune-mediated neuropathies several serological markers have been identified and used successfully in clinical routine, the serological diagnosis of chronic variants such as CIDP has not yet been evolved satisfactory. The typical CIDP and its various atypical variants are characterized by a certain diversity of clinical phenotype and response to treatment...
September 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Boglárka Emese Skopkó, Ádám Deák, Clara Matesz, Barna Kelentey, Tímea Bácskai
Pefloxacin is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Besides its advantageous characteristics, side effects including the hypofunction of salivary glands, decreased saliva production, and peripheral neuropathy were observed during the administration of pefloxacin. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the number of serotonergic immunoreactive fibers and mast cells after pefloxacin treatment in the parotid and sublingual glands of rats to detect the possible neurotoxic effect of pefloxacin...
September 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Jan Senderek
This paper is a practical survey of immune-mediated, inflammatory and hereditary neuropathies along with recommendations for diagnostic procedures. The large group of immune-mediated, inflammatory neuropathies includes the Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and their subtypes, vasculitic, paraneoplastic and paraproteinemic neuropathies as well as neuropathies resulting from connective tissue disorders. Besides clinical features such as time-dependent progression and distribution of sensorimotor deficits, characteristic electroneurographic findings and antibody profiles are considered...
September 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Viktoria Papp, Annika R Langkilde, Morten Blinkenberg, Karen Schreiber, Poul Erik Hyldgaard Jensen, Finn Sellebjerg
BACKGROUND: Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody (Ab) can be found in different immune-mediated inflammatory CNS disorders. The full range of clinical manifestations may not have been fully discovered yet. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 184 adults (age ≥ 16) were tested for anti-MOG antibody (Ab) with a cell-based assay. To define the relevant target population for anti-MOG antibody testing in a neurology clinic, we divided the entire study population based on the presenting symptoms and classified cases followed for multiple sclerosis (MS) according to the clinical features and response to disease-modifying therapy...
September 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jacob Appelbaum, David Wells, Joseph B Hiatt, Gideon Steinbach, F Marc Stewart, Hannah Thomas, Paul Nghiem, Raj P Kapur, John A Thompson, Shailender Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the treatment of choice for several cancers and can be associated with remarkable clinical benefit, but can also cause serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Management of rare and severe irAEs is challenged by an incomplete knowledge of their natural history and pathogenetic mechanisms. We report a case of fatal acute-onset gastro-intestinal (GI) hypomotility from myenteric plexus neuropathy following a single dose of ipilimumab plus nivolumab given for treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)...
August 31, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Francisco Oliveira, Vinicius Schoeps, Wilson Sanvito, Berenice Valerio
As the celiac disease (CD), the non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has also been associated with several autoimmune manifestations. It is rarely associated with myasthenia gravis (MG). This paper shall introduce the case of a young female patient, initially presenting a peripheral neuropathy framework. During clinical and neurological follow-up, she began to present symptoms of various immune-mediated morbidities. Diseases related to gluten represent a clinical spectrum of manifestations with a trigger in common, the ingestion of gluten...
April 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Deepankshi Sharma, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi, Anjana Bali
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression and irritation of the median nerve, which travels through the carpal tunnel in the wrist. Increased fibrosis is a hallmark of the development and pathology of CTS. Different growth factors have been demonstrated to play a potential role in the development of CTS. Studies have described an increase in the expression of growth factors, including Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and interleukins (growth factors for immune and inflammatory cells) in SSCT (sub-synovial connective tissue) in CTS patients...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Klaudia Kwiatkowski, Joanna Mika
The treatment of neuropathic pain resulting from nervous system malfunction remains a challenging problem for doctors and scientists. The lower effectiveness of conventionally used analgesics in neuropathic pain is associated with complex and not fully understood mechanisms of its development. Undoubtedly, interactions between immune and nervous system are crucial for maintenance of painful neuropathy. Nerve injury induces glial cell activation and thus enhances the production of numerous pronociceptive factors by these cells, including interleukins and chemokines...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Katie Beadon, Raquel Guimarães-Costa, Jean-Marc Léger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) has specific clinical and electrophysiologic features but can be difficult to diagnose if cases are not typical. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) remains the core initial and long-term treatment. In this review, recent advances in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of MMN are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathology of MMN likely depends on immune-mediated attack of the nodes of Ranvier and paranodal regions leading to conduction block...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Noor E Taams, Nicolette C Notermans, Willem-Jan R Fokkink, Anne P Tio-Gillen, Ruth Huizinga, Marco W J Schreurs, Bart C Jacobs
Antibodies to the ganglioside GD1b have been reported in various forms of immune-mediated neuropathy, but their clinical relevance for diagnosis and prognosis is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of anti-GD1b antibodies in acute and chronic immune-mediated neuropathies, and the clinical presentation and outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher-GBS overlap syndrome (MF-GBS). Anti-GD1b, anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b antibodies were tested in serum of patients with GBS (N = 165), Miller Fisher syndrome (N = 10), MF-GBS (N = 28), monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance neuropathy (MGUS; N = 101), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (N = 29), paraneoplastic syndrome with anti-Hu-associated neuropathy (PNS; N = 11), other auto-immune diseases (AID; N = 60), and healthy controls (HC; N = 60)...
August 12, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
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