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Dynamic plates

Michiel A J van Limbeek, Paul B J Hoefnagels, Chao Sun, Detlef Lohse
In many applications, it is crucial to control the heat transfer rate of impacting drops on a heated plate. When the solid exceeds the so-called Leidenfrost temperature, an impacting drop is prevented from contacting the plate by its own evaporation. But the decrease in the resulting cooling efficiency of the impacting drop is yet not quantitatively understood. Here, we experimentally study the impact of such water drops on smooth heated surfaces of various substances. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous results for other liquids, water exhibits spray in the vertical direction when impacting sapphire and silicon...
September 22, 2017: Soft Matter
Klaus Bonazza, Bernhard Scheichl, Johannes Frank, Hanspeter Rottensteiner, Gerald Schrenk, Gernot Friedbacher, Peter L Turecek, Friedrich Scheiflinger, Günter Allmaier
Wall shear rates are critical for a broad variety of fluidic phenomena and are taken into account in nearly every experimental or simulation study. Generally, shear rates are not observable directly but rather derived from other parameters such as pressure and flow, often assuming somehow idealized systems. However, there is a biological system which is able to constantly measure the wall shear as a part of a regulatory circuit: The blood circulation system takes advantage of shear rate sensor (protein)molecules (multimeric forms of von Willebrand Factor, VWF), which are dissolved in the blood plasma and dramatically change their conformation under shear conditions...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi Shad, Mahdi Majlesi, Urs Granacher
INTRODUCTION: Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet in children. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine differences in ground reaction forces, loading rate, impulses, and free moment values during running in children with and without genu varus. METHODS: Thirty-six boys aged 9-14 volunteered to participate in this study...
2017: PloS One
María José Blanco, Iván Rodríguez-Martín, Ana I R Learte, Cristina Clemente, María Gregoria Montalvo, Motoharu Seiki, Alicia G Arroyo, Cristina Sánchez-Camacho
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large group of endoproteases that play important functions during embryonic development, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Within this family, we focused our study on Mt4-mmp (also called Mmp17) that belongs to a distinct subset that is anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety and with the catalytic site exposed to the extracellular space. Information about its function and substrates is very limited to date, and little has been reported on its role in the developing embryo...
2017: PloS One
Debnath Maji, Michael A Suster, Erdem Kucukal, Ujjal D S Sekhon, Anirban Sen Gupta, Umut A Gurkan, Evi X Stavrou, Pedram Mohseni
This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor, termed ClotChip, employs a three-dimensional, parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Interfaced with an impedance analyzer, the ClotChip measures the complex relative dielectric permittivity, ϵ Tr, of human whole blood in the frequency range of 40 Hz to 100 MHz. The temporal variation in the real part of the blood dielectric permittivity at 1 MHz features a time to reach a permittivity peak, Tpeak, as well as a maximum change in permittivity after the peak, ∆εr,max, as two distinct parameters of ClotChip readout...
September 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hyejung Choi, Joong-Jo Kim, Yong-Hwan Mo, Benjaram Mahipal Reddy
Dynamic process in the synthesis of silica nanotubes (SNTs) by utilizing glycyldodecylamide (GDA) as a soft template was thoroughly investigated. The morphological evolution from GDA to SNTs was deeply explored to elucidate the formation mechanism for optimizing the synthesis procedure. Various analytical tools, namely, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, Z-potential, and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms were employed during the synthesis procedure. The interactive structure of GDA was also investigated using TEM-EDX as a function of aging time...
September 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
T Fettweis, M N Onkelinx, C Schwartz, C Demoulin, J L Croisier, M Vanderthommen
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is highly prevalent in the general population and is even reported as early as at primary school. A poor sitting position has been suggested as an etiologic factor. This study analysed, in primary schoolchildren, the influence of a triangular dynamic cushion that aims to help children maintain their physiological lumbar lordosis and to induce movement to reduce the static effect of the sitting position. METHODS: Thirty 8-year-old children took part in this study...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
Susana Lopes, Christophe Correia, Gonçalo Félix, Mário Lopes, Ana Cruz, Fernando Ribeiro
OBJECTIVES: Low back pain affects the person's ability to keep balance, especially in challenging conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of Pilates exercises on postural sway and dynamic balance of young individuals with non-specific low back pain. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory design. SETTINGS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Forty-six participants with non-specific low back pain were randomized to a Pilates (n=23, 10 males; age: 21...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Pieter Gijsenbergh, Robert Puers
A semi-flexible polymer microtensiometer for local surface pressure measurements of Langmuir monolayers is presented. The current device geometry and read-out method via image analysis result in a theoretical accuracy of ±0.02mN⋅m(-1) for a dynamic range between 0 and 75mN⋅m(-1). The tensiometer sensitivity and dynamic range are easily tunable as they are solely based on the tensiometer spring dimensions. Finite element simulations are used to determine the response time of 20ms for a subphase viscosity of 1mPa⋅s...
September 5, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Naiting Gu, Benxi Yao, Linhai Huang, Changhui Rao
We propose a compact phase-shifting radial shearing interferometer based on a pixelated micro-retarder array (MRA). The MRA is made of a thin birefringence plate, and is composed of identical units that have pixels of four different thicknesses. We demonstrate that pixelated phase delay between two shearing beams can be introduced by applying the fast axis of birefringence plate in the horizontal or vertical orientation. We also present an approach to extract the wavefront under test with random phase shift, which dramatically reduces the machining difficulty of the MRA...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Ossama Elbanna, Mamoru Fujitsuka, Tetsuro Majima
The photocatalytic performance of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has been limited to low efficiency due to the fast charge recombination. Here, we constructed g-C3N4 nanosheets/TiO2 mesocrystals metal-free composite (g-C3N4 NS/TMC) to promote the efficiency of charge separation. The photocatalytic H2 evolution experiments indicate that coupling g-C3N4 NS with TMC increases photogenerated charge carriers in g-C3N4 NS/TMC composite due to efficient charge separation. g-C3N4 NS (31 wt%)/TMC shows the highest photocatalytic activity and the corresponding H2 evolution rate is 3...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tamiru Teshome, Ayan Datta
The electronic structures of novel heterostructures namely graphene-Au van der Waals (vdW) interfaces have been studied using Density Functional Theory. The dispersion-corrected PBE-D2 and PBE-D3 functionals perform well in describing the phonon spectrum and binding energies. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the van der Waals framework is able to survive large out of plane motions till 1200K. Beyond T = 1200K a transition of the quasiplanar Au into 3D-cluster like structure is observed. Novel dielectric capacitors consisting of two-dimensional, h-BN layers placed between graphene and Au is designed based on such 2D Au-graphene interfaces...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tawfiq Alqurashi, Yunuen Montelongo, Pavel Penchev, Ali K Yetisen, Stefan Dimov, Haider Butt
Femtosecond laser ablation allows direct patterning of engineering materials in industrial settings without requiring multistage processes such as photolithography or electron beam lithography. However, femtosecond lasers have not been widely used to construct volumetric microphotonic devices and holograms with high reliability and cost efficiency. Here, a direct femtosecond laser writing process is developed to rapidly produce transmission 1D/2D gratings, Fresnel Zone Plate lenses, and computer-generated holograms...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Mariia А Stepanova, Lilia R Kinziabulatova, Anna A Nikitina, Evgenia G Korzhikova-Vlakh, Tatiana B Tennikova
The development of sorbents for selective binding of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has a great importance for analytical science and medicine. In this work, two series of macroporous cholesterol-imprinted monolithic sorbents differing in the composition of functional monomers (methacrylic acid, butyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate), amount of a template (4, 6 and 8 mol%) used for molecular imprinting, as well as mean pore size were synthesized by in situ free-radical process in stainless steel housing of 50 mm × 4...
September 7, 2017: Electrophoresis
Andrea Nobili, Enrico Radi, Luca Lanzoni
The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist...
August 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
R Altobelli, M Salzano de Luna, G Filippone
The sequence of events which leads to the interfacial crowding of plate-like nanoparticles in co-continuous polymer blends is investigated through a combination of morphological and rheological analyses. Very low amounts (∼0.2 vol%) of organo-modified clay are sufficient to suppress phase coarsening in a co-continuous polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend, while lower particle loading allows for a tuning of the characteristic size of the polymer phases at the μm-scale. In any case, an interfacial network of nanoparticles eventually forms, which is driven by the preferred polymer-polymer interface...
September 6, 2017: Soft Matter
Yue Zhou, Xing Liu, Fangyuan Huang, Yang Liu, Xining Cao, Lianju Shen, Chunlan Long, Dawei He, Tao Lin, Guanghui Wei
BackgroundTo examine the mechanism of urethral seam formation during embryonal development of rat urethra.MethodsTime-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and the genital tubercles of male pups harvested on embryonic day (ED) 15, 16, 18, and 19. External morphology was observed under scanning electron microscope. Serial transverse sections were prepared to examine dynamic changes in the urethral seam morphology with hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and double immunofluorescence...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
Brandon L Barney, Daniel E Austin
A novel image-charge detection technique was used to investigate the mechanical elasticity of bare bacterial spores during high-velocity impact. Spores of Bacillus subtilis introduced to vacuum using electrospray and aerodynamic acceleration impacted and rebounded off of a glass plate. A dual-stage, asymmetric image-charge detector measured the velocity and direction of each spore both before and after impact with the glass surface. Two ranges of impact velocity were investigated, with average initial velocities of 197 ± 17 and 145 ± 12 m/s...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
Alexander Koptev, Sierd Cloetingh, Evgueni Burov, Thomas François, Taras Gerya
Results of a 3D modeling study inspired by recent seismic tomography of the Northern Atlantic mantle suggest that a complex pattern of hot mantle distribution with long horizontal flows originating from the Iceland mantle plume has been the norm in the geological past. In the Northern Atlantic the Iceland plume has a strong long-distance impact on intraplate deformation affecting both onshore and offshore parts of Norway's rifted margin. As a result, this margin is characterized by large magnitude differential topography sustained over at least several tens of Myr...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sophie Bourelle, Nilanjan Dey, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla, Benoit Berge, Vincent Gautheron, Jerome Cottalorda, Redha Taiar
PURPOSE: The present study aims to explore relationships between footedness and posturographic assessment in children aged from 4 to 10. A real-time computerised device was used on a force plate for movement analysis. It requires a static posturography to assess postural control of children with the same handedness and footedness. METHODS: Thirty eight right-handed and right-footed children organized in three age groups of 4 to 6 years old, 6 to 8 years old and 8 to 10 years old participated in the study...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
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