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Dynamic plates

Paula Viviani, Adrian Lifschitz, Jorge García, María Laura Maté, Miguel Angel Quiroga, Carlos Lanusse, Guillermo Virkel
1. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from food-producing animals have not been extensively used to study xenobiotic metabolism, and thus information on this field of research is sparse. 2. The aims of the present work were to further validate the technique of production and culture of bovine PCLS and to characterize the metabolic interaction between the anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) and the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) inhibitor methimazole (MTZ). 3. Nine (9) steers were used as donors. PCLS were produced and incubated under two methods, a dynamic organ culture (DOC) incubator and a well-plate (WP) system...
October 21, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Shehla Akbar, Fazal Subhan, Nasiara Karim, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Gowhar Ali, Wajahat Mahmood, Khwaja Fawad
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is the most prevalent, persistent and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus often coupled with vulvodynia that may present as an isolated symptom or as a part of constellation of other neuropathic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Flavonoids have selective affinity for GABA receptors and 6-methoxyflavanone (6-MeOF) is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA responses at human recombinant GABAA receptors. GABAergic and opioidergic system inhibition have been shown to facilitate neuropathic pain...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wei-Tao Wu, Andrea Blue Martin, Alberto Gandini, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
This study is motivated by the development of a blood cell filtration device for removal of malaria-infected, parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). The blood was modeled as a multi-component fluid using the computational fluid dynamics discrete element method (CFD-DEM), wherein plasma was treated as a Newtonian fluid and the red blood cells (RBCs) were modeled as soft-sphere solid particles which move under the influence of drag, collisions with other RBCs, and a magnetic force. The CFD-DEM model was first validated by a comparison with experimental data from Han et al...
2016: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics
Mattias Björnmalm, Matthew Faria, Xi Chen, Jiwei Cui, Frank Caruso
The interaction of engineered particles with biological systems determines their performance in biomedical applications. Although standard static cell cultures remain the norm for in vitro studies, modern models mimicking aspects of the dynamic in vivo environment have been developed. Herein, we investigate fundamental cell-particle interactions under dynamic flow conditions using a simple and self-contained device together with standard multiwell cell culture plates. We engineer two particle systems and evaluate their cell interactions under dynamic flow, and we compare the results to standard static cell cultures...
October 17, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chao Tang, Haibo Huang, Peng Gao, Xi-Yun Lu
The self-propulsion of a three-dimensional flapping flexible plate near the ground is studied using an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow and a finite-element method for plate motion. When the leading edge of the flexible plate is forced into a vertical oscillation near the ground, the entire plate moves freely due to the fluid-structure interaction. The mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the plate near the ground are elucidated. Based on the propulsive behaviors of the flapping plate, three distinct regimes due to the ground effect can be qualitatively identified...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Aimée C Smith, Jonathan R Roberts, Pui Wah Kong, Stephanie E Forrester
Analysing the centre of pressure (COP) and centre of gravity (COG) could reveal stabilising strategies used by golfers throughout the golf swing. This study identified and compared golfers' COP and COG patterns throughout the golf swing in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions using principal component analysis (PCA) and examined their relationship to clubhead velocity. Three-dimensional marker trajectories were collected using Vicon motion analysis and force plate data from two Kistler force plates for 22 low-handicap golfers during drives...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Christopher McCrum, Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Gaspar Epro, Kenneth Meijer, Hans H C M Savelberg, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Posturography is used to assess balance in clinical settings, but its relationship to gait stability is unclear. We assessed if dynamic gait stability is associated with standing balance in 12 patients with unilateral vestibulopathy. Participants were unexpectedly tripped during treadmill walking and the change in the margin of stability (MoSchange) and base of support (BoSchange) relative to non-perturbed walking was calculated for the perturbed and first recovery steps. The centre of pressure (COP) path during 30s stance with eyes open and closed, and the distance between the most anterior point of the COP and the anterior BoS boundary during forward leaning (ADist) were assessed using a force plate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Regina Irwin, Sandi Raehtz, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Increasing evidence indicates a strong link between intestinal health and bone health. For example, inflammatory bowel disease can cause systemic inflammation, weight loss and extra-intestinal manifestations such as decreased bone growth and density.  However, the effects of moderate intestinal inflammation without weight loss on bone health have never been directly examined; yet this condition is relevant not only to IBD but to conditions of increased intestinal permeability and inflammation as seen with ingestion of high fat diets, intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic syndrome and food allergies...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Marie Bagger Bohn, Annemette Krintel Petersen, Dennis Brandborg Nielsen, Henrik Sørensen, Martin Lind
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency leads to altered stability of the knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic, rotational stability of the knee, expressed as rotational stiffness, between anterior cruciate ligament-deficient (ACLD) knees, their contralateral intact knees (ACLI) and a knee healthy control group during walking, running and 90° pivoting. We hypothesized a larger tibial internal rotation, a smaller knee joint external moment and a lower rotational stiffness in the ACLD group compared to the ACLI and the control group...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Alison H Chang, Joan S Chmiel, Orit Almagor, Ali Guermazi, Pottumarthi V Prasad, Kirsten C Moisio, Laura Belisle, Yunhui Zhang, Karen Hayes, Leena Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Knee sagittal dynamic joint stiffness (DJS) describes the biomechanical interaction between change in external knee flexion moment and flexion angular excursion during gait. In theory, greater DJS may particularly stress the patellofemoral (PF) compartment and thereby contribute to PF osteoarthritis (OA) worsening. We hypothesized that greater baseline knee sagittal DJS is associated with PF cartilage damage worsening 2 years later. METHODS: Participants all had OA in at least one knee...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Akitoshi Miyamoto, Kotomi Sugiura, Katsukiko Mikoshiba
Monitoring the dynamic patterns of intracellular signaling molecules, such as inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and Ca(2+), that control many diverse cellular processes, provides us significant information to understand the regulatory mechanism of cellular functions. For searching more sensitive and higher dynamic range probes for signaling molecules, convenient and supersensitive high throughput screening systems are required. Here we show the optimal "in Escherichia coli (E. coli) colony" screening method based on the twin-arginine translocase (Tat) pathway and introduce a novel application of a confocal microscope as a supersensitive detection system to measure changes in the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent probes in E...
October 1, 2016: Cell Calcium
Giuseppina Mandalari, Simona Chessa, Carlo Bisignano, Luisa Chan, Arianna Carughi
Modulation of the human gut microbiota has proven to have beneficial effects on host health. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sun-dried raisins (SR) on the composition of the human gut microbiota. A full model of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes simulated mastication, a dynamic gastric model, a duodenal model and a colonic model of the human large intestine, was used. An increase in the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was observed by plate-counting in response to the addition of either SR or FOS after 8 and 24 h fermentation...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Predrag Grubor, Milorad Mitković, Milan Grubor, Milan Mitković, Luigi Meccariello, Gabriele Falzarano
INTRODUCTION: Artificial models can be useful at approximate and qualitative research, which should give the preliminary results. Artificial models are usually made of photo-elastic plastic e.g.. juvidur, araldite in the three-dimensional contour shape of the bone. Anatomical preparations consist of the same heterogeneous, structural materials with extremely anisotropic and unequal highly elastic characteristics, which are embedded in a complex organic structure. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Examine the budget voltage and deformation of: dynamic compression plate (DCP), locking compression plate (LCP), Mitkovic internal fixator (MIF), Locked intramedullary nailing (LIN) on the compressive and bending forces on juvidur and veal bone models and compared the results of these two methods (juvidur, veal bone)...
July 16, 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
William B Hawley, Richard M Allen, Mark A Richards
The boundary between Earth's strong lithospheric plates and the underlying mantle asthenosphere corresponds to an abrupt seismic velocity decrease and electrical conductivity increase with depth, perhaps indicating a thin, weak layer that may strongly influence plate motion dynamics. The behavior of such a layer at subduction zones remains unexplored. We present a tomographic model, derived from on- and offshore seismic experiments, that reveals a strong low-velocity feature beneath the subducting Juan de Fuca slab along the entire Cascadia subduction zone...
September 23, 2016: Science
Jongbum Kim, Sajid Choudhury, Clayton DeVault, Yang Zhao, Alexander V Kildishev, Vladimir M Shalaev, Andrea Alu, Alexandra Boltasseva
Conventional plasmonic materials, namely noble metals, hamper the realization of practical plasmonic devices due to their intrinsic limitations, such as lack of capabilities to tune in real-time their optical properties, failure to assimilate with CMOS-standards, and severe degradation at elevated temperatures. Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is a promising alternative as plasmonic material throughout the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. In addition to compatibility with established silicon-based fabrication procedures, TCOs provide great flexibility in the design and optimization of plasmonic devices since their intrinsic optical properties can be tailored and dynamically tuned...
October 5, 2016: ACS Nano
Bin Zhang, Nichola Selway, Kinnari J Shelat, Sushil Dhital, Jason R Stokes, Michael J Gidley
The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
David R Espeso, Esteban Martínez-García, Víctor de Lorenzo, Ángel Goñi-Moreno
The often striking macroscopic patterns developed by motile bacterial populations on agar plates are a consequence of the environmental conditions where the cells grow and spread. Parameters such as medium stiffness and nutrient concentration have been reported to alter cell swimming behavior, while mutual interactions among populations shape collective patterns. One commonly observed occurrence is the mutual inhibition of clonal bacteria when moving toward each other, which results in a distinct halt at a finite distance on the agar matrix before having direct contact...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shabnam Samsami, Sadegh Saberi, Nima Bagheri, Gholamreza Rouhi
BACKGROUND: Vertical femoral neck fractures in the youth could be happened in high-energy accidents, and because of dominant shearing forces, this fracture is considered as a troublesome injury with a controversy regarding selection of the best fixation method. OBJECTIVE: The long term goal of this quasi-experimental study was to find the more stable fixation method among cannulated screws (CSs), proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP), and dynamic hip screw with derotational screw (DHS+DS) for this kind of fracture...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Joanna Maria Radziwill-Bienkowska, Doan Thanh Lam Le, Pawel Szczesny, Marie-Pierre Duviau, Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Pascal Loubière, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Jacek Karol Bardowski, Magdalena Kowalczyk
Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions will provide important information that can help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying probiotic adhesion. This study focused on the adhesive properties of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 strain, previously shown to persist in the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free rats. The shear flow-induced detachment of L. lactis cells was investigated under laminar flow conditions. Such a dynamic approach demonstrated increased adhesion to bare and mucin-coated polystyrene for IBB477, compared to that observed for the MG1820 control strain...
September 29, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J Bruns, K Raabe, G Deuretzbacher
We analysed nine patients who had had a megaprosthesis implanted into the distal femur and knee joint for treatment of sarcomas. Data obtained from the leg operated on were compared with those from the contralateral side and healthy volunteers. Gait data, kinematics, ground reaction forces and the EMG from five muscles around the knee joint were analysed by means of a video-based analysis system recording data from reflection markers ; a Kistler-plate recorded the GRF and a ten channel surface EMG the muscle activity...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
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