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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#1
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530184/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-mentha-pulegium-and-investigation-of-their-antibacterial-antifungal-and-anticancer-activity
#2
Ali Hamad Abd Kelkawi, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
A simple and eco-friendly method for efficient synthesis of stable colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Mentha pulegium extracts is described. A series of reactions was conducted using different types and concentrations of plant extract as well as metal ions to optimize the reaction conditions. AgNPs were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zetasizer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528238/effects-of-grab-bar-on-utilized-friction-and-dynamic-stability-when-elderly-people-enter-the-bathtub
#3
Yusuke Sekiguchi, Tomohisa Kato, Keita Honda, Hiroyasu Kanetaka, Shin-Ichi Izumi
BACKGROUND: The effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to examine the age-related effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability during lateral stepping over an obstacle when entering bathtub. METHODS: Sixteen young, healthy adults and sixteen elderly adults participated. The subjects performed lateral stepping over an obstacle with and without vertical and horizontal bars...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527468/insight-into-electric-field-induced-rupture-mechanism-of-water-in-toluene-emulsion-films-from-a-model-system
#4
Desislava Dimova, Stoyan Pisov, Nikolay Panchev, Miroslava Nedyalkova, Sergio Madurga, Ana Proykova
This paper presents a model, which we have designed to get insight into the development of electro-induced instability of a thin toluene emulsion film in contact with the saline aqueous phase. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate the role of charge accumulation in the toluene-film rupture induced by a DC electric field. Two ensembles-NVT and NPT-are used to determine the critical value of the external field at which the film ruptures, the charge distribution and capacitance of the thin film, number densities, and the film structure...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526115/different-life-cycle-strategies-of-the-dinoflagellates-fragilidium-duplocampanaeforme-and-its-prey-dinophysis-acuminata-may-explain-their-different-susceptibilities-to-the-infection-by-the-parasite-parvilucifera-infectans
#5
Bora Lee, Myung Gil Park
Some marine dinoflagellates form ecdysal cyst (=temporary cysts) as part of their life cycle or under unfavorable growth conditions. Whether the dinoflagellates form ecdysal cysts or not may influence susceptibility to parasitism. In this study, parasite prevalence relative to inoculum size of the parasitoid Parvilucifera infectans zoospores for two dinoflagellate hosts (i.e., Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme and Dinophysis acuminata), which have different life cycle strategies, was examined. Further, susceptibility of cysts to parasitism, encystment signal, duration of encystments, and effects of induced encystment on diel periodicity, using ecdysal cyst-forming F...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525289/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-and-neurons-using-electric-field-stimulation-and-high-speed-fluorescence-imaging
#6
Neil J Daily, Zhong-Wei Du, Tetsuro Wakatsuki
Electrophysiology of excitable cells, including muscle cells and neurons, has been measured by making direct contact with a single cell using a micropipette electrode. To increase the assay throughput, optical devices such as microscopes and microplate readers have been used to analyze electrophysiology of multiple cells. We have established a high-throughput (HTP) analysis of action potentials (APs) in highly enriched motor neurons and cardiomyocytes (CMs) that are differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
May 19, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522397/cellulose-acetate-poly-lactic-acid-coaxial-wet-electrospun-scaffold-containing-citalopram-loaded-gelatin-nanocarriers-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#7
Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Majid Salehi, Shahriar Hojjati-Emami
The current study aimed to develop a biodegradable three-dimensional drug-loaded scaffold with the core-shell structured fibrils using coaxial wet-electrospinning for neural tissue engineering application. Poly lactic acid was wet-electrospun as the core, whereas cellulose acetate was fabricated into the fibril's shell. The scaffold then was coated with citalopram-loaded gelatin nanocarriers (CGNs) produced by nanoprecipitation. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that the fibrils formed a nonwoven structure with the average diameter of ∼950nm...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515659/the-flow-separation-delay-in-the-boundary-layer-by-induced-vortices
#8
Ishtiaq A Chaudhry, Tipu Sultan, Farrukh A Siddiqui, M Farhan, M Asim
ABSTRACT: A series of experiments involving the particle image velocimetry technique are carried out to analyse the quantitative effectiveness of the synthesized vortical structures towards actual flow separation control. The streamwise vortices are synthesized from the synthetic jet actuator and introduced into the attached and separating boundary layer developed on the flat plate surface. Two types of actuators with different geometrical set-ups are used to analyse the evolution of vortical structures in the near wall region and their impact towards achieving separation delay in the boundary layer...
2017: Journal of Visualization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507985/control-of-neuronal-migration-and-aggregation-by-reelin-signaling-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Yuki Hirota, Kazunori Nakajima
The mammalian cerebral neocortex has a well-organized laminar structure, achieved by the highly coordinated control of neuronal migration. During cortical development, excitatory neurons born near the lateral ventricle migrate radially to reach their final positions to form the cortical plate. During this process, dynamic changes are observed in the morphologies and migration modes, including multipolar migration, locomotion, and terminal translocation, of the newborn neurons. Disruption of these migration processes can result in neuronal disorders such as lissencephaly and periventricular heterotopia...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506530/ipsilateral-proximal-and-shaft-femoral-fractures
#10
Eric Lawson, Soumaila Madougou, Pascal Chigblo, Gildas Quenum, Abdourahmane Ouangré, Fiacre Tidjani, Oswald Goukodadja, Aristote Hans-Moevi Akué
PURPOSE: To study the management and evaluate anatomical and functional outcomes of patients with ipsilateral proximal and shaft femoral fractures. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and analytic study lasted for ten years and a half ranging from January 1, 2005 to June 30, 2015. The following parameters were studied: epidemiology, fracture characteristics, therapeutic, anatomical and functional outcomes. The correlation between different parameters was analyzed with Fischer test...
April 19, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504771/laguerre-gaussian-modal-q-plates
#11
Mushegh Rafayelyan, Etienne Brasselet
We propose space-variant uniaxial flat optical elements designed to generate pure Laguerre-Gaussian modes with arbitrary azimuthal and radial indices l and p from an incident Gaussian beam. This is done via the combined use of the dynamic and the geometric phases. Optimal design protocol for the mode conversion efficiency is derived, and the corresponding characteristics are given for -6≤l≤6 and 0≤p≤5. The obtained "modal q-plates" may find many applications whenever the radial degree of freedom of a light field is at play...
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501155/morphology-tunable-polydopamine-nanoparticles-and-their-application-in-fe-3-detection
#12
Peng Qi, Dun Zhang, Yi Wan
In this work, we discovered the morphology transformation property of polydopamine (PDA) nanomaterials, the addition of Fe(3+) initiated the dramatic morphology transformation of PDA dots from aggregated plate-like to uniform willow-leaf-like morphology. Further study revealed that this fascinating morphology transformation process could be attributed to the oxidative nature and coordination characteristic of Fe(3+). This is the first report on the morphology transformation ability of PDA, and a probable self-assembled mechanism was proposed to explain this issue...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491029/sample-entropy-univariate-and-multivariate-multi-scale-entropy-in-comparison-with-classical-postural-sway-parameters-in-young-healthy-adults
#13
Clint Hansen, Qin Wei, Jiann-Shing Shieh, Paul Fourcade, Brice Isableu, Lina Majed
The present study aimed to compare various entropy measures to assess the dynamics and complexity of center of pressure (COP) displacements. Perturbing balance tests are often used in healthy subjects to imitate either pathological conditions or to test the sensitivity of postural analysis techniques. Eleven healthy adult subjects were asked to stand in normal stance in three experimental conditions while the visuo-kinesthetic input was altered. COP displacement was recorded using a force plate. Three entropy measures [Sample Entropy (SE), Multi-Scale Entropy (MSE), and Multivariate Multi Scale Entropy (MMSE)] describing COP regularity at different scales were compared to traditional measures of COP variability...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482358/continental-crust-formation-on-early-earth-controlled-by-intrusive-magmatism
#14
A B Rozel, G J Golabek, C Jain, P J Tackley, T Gerya
The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the "Plutonic squishy lid" tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus...
May 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482203/transition-from-shod-to-barefoot-alters-dynamic-stability-during-running
#15
Antonis Ekizos, Alessandro Santuz, Adamantios Arampatzis
INTRODUCTION: Barefoot running recently received increased attention, with controversial results regarding its effects on injury risk and performance. Numerous studies examined the kinetic and kinematic changes between the shod and the barefoot condition. Intrinsic parameters such as the local dynamic stability could provide new insight regarding neuromuscular control when immediately transitioning from one running condition to the other. We investigated the local dynamic stability during the change from shod to barefoot running...
April 27, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481389/comparison-of-the-effects-of-curcumin-tramadol-and-surgical-treatments-on-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-chronic-constriction-injury-in-rat
#16
Dilek Ceyhan, Atacan Emre Kocman, Engin Yildirim, Orhan Ozatik, Sule Aydin, Kose Aydan
AIM: Nerve entrapment syndromes are the most common causes of neuropathic pain. Surgical decompression is preferred method of treatment. The goal of the study was to compare the efficacy of curcumin, tramadol and chronic constriction release treatment (CCR), individually or together, in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty male-rats were divided into eight study groups. Group 1 was the sham group. Group 2 was the control group with established chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
April 4, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480460/optimized-droplet-digital-cfu-assay-ddcfu-provides-precise-quantification-of-bacteria-over-a-dynamic-range-of-6%C3%A2-logs-and-beyond
#17
O Scheler, N Pacocha, P R Debski, A Ruszczak, T S Kaminski, P Garstecki
Standard digital assays need a large number of compartments for precise quantification of a sample over a broad dynamic range. We address this issue with an optimized droplet digital approach that uses a drastically reduced number of compartments for quantification. We generate serial logarithmic dilutions of an initial bacterial sample as an array of microliter-sized droplet plugs. In a subsequent step, these droplets are split into libraries of nanoliter droplets and pooled together for incubation and analysis...
May 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480220/culture-of-ipscs-derived-pancreatic-%C3%AE-like-cells-in-vitro-using-decellularized-pancreatic-scaffolds-a-preliminary-trial
#18
Jian Wan, Yan Huang, Pengcheng Zhou, Yibing Guo, Cen Wu, Shajun Zhu, Yao Wang, Lei Wang, Yuhua Lu, Zhiwei Wang
Diabetes mellitus is a disease which has affected 415 million patients in 2015. In an effort to replace the significant demands on transplantation and morbidity associated with transplantation, the production of β-like cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was evaluated. This approach is associated with promising decellularized scaffolds with natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and ideal cubic environment that will promote cell growth in vivo. Our efforts focused on combining decellularized rat pancreatic scaffolds with mouse GFP(+)-iPSCs-derived pancreatic β-like cells, to evaluate whether decellularized scaffolds could facilitate the growth and function of β-like cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477114/quantitative-and-dynamic-imaging-of-atm-kinase-activity-by-bioluminescence-imaging
#19
Shyam Nyati, Grant Young, Brian Dale Ross, Alnawaz Rehemtulla
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA damage response, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473635/vesicle-dynamics-during-plant-cytokinesis-reveals-distinct-developmental-phases
#20
Chloë Triplet van Oostende, Dominique Guillet, Thomas Triplet, Elvis Pandzic, Paul W Wiseman, Anja Geitmann
Cell division in plant cells requires the deposition of a new cell wall between the two daughter cells. The assembly of this plate requires coordinated movement of cargo-vesicles whose size is below the diffraction limited resolution of the optical microscope. We combined high spatial and temporal resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy with advanced image processing tools and fluorescence fluctuation methods and distinguished three distinct phases during cell plate expansion in tobacco BY-2 cells: Massive delivery of pre-existing vesicles to a disk shaped region at the equatorial plane precedes a primary rapid expansion phase followed by a secondary, slow expansion phase during which the extremity of the circular plate seeks contact with the mother wall and brings about the separation of the two portions of cytoplasm...
May 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
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