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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808261/atomic-force-microscopy-micro-rheology-reveals-large-structural-inhomogeneities-in-single-cell-nuclei
#1
Michael Lherbette, Ália Dos Santos, Yukti Hari-Gupta, Natalia Fili, Christopher P Toseland, Iwan A T Schaap
During growth, differentiation and migration of cells, the nucleus changes size and shape, while encountering forces generated by the cell itself and its environment. Although there is increasing evidence that such mechanical signals are employed to control gene expression, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced through the nucleus. To this end, we have measured the compliance of nuclei by applying oscillatory strains between 1 and 700 Hz to individual nuclei of multiple mammalian cell-lines that were compressed between two plates...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802368/study-of-the-effects-of-hearing-on-static-and-dynamic-postural-function-in-children-using-cochlear-implants
#2
Malihah Mazaheryazdi, Abdollah Moossavi, Javad Sarrafzadah, Saeed Talebian, Shohreh Jalaie
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the postural control perturbations by the center of pressure parameters in two main approaches, cochlear implant turned "on" and "off". METHODS: We included 25 children aged 8-10 years with unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral vestibular hypofunction deficit. To evaluate the postural function, each children was asked to stand on the force plate under 3 different conditions and cochlear implant turned "on" and "off": Condition (A) double stance from open eyes to closed eyes, Condition (B) double stance with open eyes engaging in the dual task and Condition (C) From double leg stance to one leg stance with open eyes for assessment of dynamic postural control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798994/intra-operative-fluoroscopic-radiation-exposure-in-orthopaedic-trauma-theatre
#3
Mustafa S Rashid, Sheweidin Aziz, Syed Haydar, Simon S Fleming, Amit Datta
INTRODUCTION: Radiation exposure from intra-operative fluoroscopy in orthopaedic trauma surgery is a common occupational hazard. References for fluoroscopy use in the operating room for commonly performed operations have not been reported adequately. This study aimed to report appropriate intra-operative fluoroscopy use in orthopaedic trauma and compare the effect of surgery type and surgeon grade on radiation exposure. METHODS: Data on 849 cases over an 18-month period were analysed retrospectively...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796271/nonergodicity-parameters-of-confined-hard-sphere-glasses
#4
Suvendu Mandal, Simon Lang, Vitalie Boţan, Thomas Franosch
Within a recently developed mode-coupling theory for fluids confined to a slit we elaborate numerical results for the long-time limits of suitably generalized intermediate scattering functions. The theory requires as input the density profile perpendicular to the plates, which we obtain from density functional theory within the fundamental-measure framework, as well as symmetry-adapted static structure factors, which can be calculated relying on the inhomogeneous Percus-Yevick closure. Our calculations for the nonergodicity parameters for both the collective as well as for the self motion are in qualitative agreement with our extensive event-driven molecular dynamics simulations for the intermediate scattering functions for slightly polydisperse hard-sphere systems at high packing fraction...
August 10, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792633/evolutionarily-diverse-syp1-qa-snares-jointly-sustain-pollen-tube-growth-in-arabidopsis
#5
Daniel Slane, Ilka Reichardt, Farid El Kasmi, Martin Bayer, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion is effected by SNARE proteins that reside on adjacent membranes and form bridging trans-SNARE complexes. Qa-SNARE members of the Arabidopsis SYP1 family are involved in membrane fusion at the plasma membrane or during cell plate formation. Three SYP1 family members have been classified as pollen-specific as inferred from gene expression profiling studies and two of them, SYP124 and SYP125, are confined to angiosperms. The SYP124 gene appears genetically unstable whereas its sister gene SYP125 shows essentially no variation among Arabidopsis accessions...
August 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790325/horizontal-mantle-flow-controls-subduction-dynamics
#6
E Ficini, L Dal Zilio, C Doglioni, T V Gerya
It is generally accepted that subduction is driven by downgoing-plate negative buoyancy. Yet plate age -the main control on buoyancy- exhibits little correlation with most of the present-day subduction velocities and slab dips. "West"-directed subduction zones are on average steeper (~65°) than "East"-directed (~27°). Also, a "westerly"-directed net rotation of the lithosphere relative to the mantle has been detected in the hotspot reference frame. Thus, the existence of an "easterly"-directed horizontal mantle wind could explain this subduction asymmetry, favouring steepening or lifting of slab dip angles...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789988/the-use-of-retronectin-in-studies-requiring-in-vitro-hiv-1-infection-of-human-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#7
Tetsuo Tsukamoto, Seiji Okada
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes damage, directly or indirectly, to the whole hematopoietic system, including CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). CXCR4-tropic strains of HIV-1 may affect the function of CD34(+)CXCR4(+) progenitor cells either by infecting the cells or modifying the dynamics of more differentiated hematopoietic cells. However, CD34(+) cells are known for their resistance to HIV-1 infection in vitro, which restricts any detailed analysis of the impact of HIV on HSPCs...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782813/incorporating-lsrk-ai-2-quorum-quenching-capability-in-a-functionalized-biopolymer-capsule
#8
Melissa K Rhoads, Pricila Hauk, Jessica Terrell, Chen-Yu Tsao, Hyuntaek Oh, Srinivasa R Raghavan, Sheref S Mansy, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Antibacterial resistance is an issue of increasing severity as current antibiotics are losing their effectiveness and fewer antibiotics are being developed. New methods for combating bacterial virulence are required. Modulating molecular communication among bacteria can alter phenotype, including attachment to epithelia, biofilm formation and even toxin production. Intercepting and modulating communication networks provide a means to attenuate virulence without directly interacting with the bacteria of interest...
August 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780727/interventions-for-humeral-shaft-fractures-mixed-treatment-comparisons-of-clinical-trials
#9
Y Zhao, J Wang, W Yao, Q Cai, Y Wang, W Yuan, S Gao
We designed a study to compare the efficacy of five main therapeutic options, including external fixation, open reduction and plate osteosynthesis (ORPO), minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), dynamic compression plate (DCP), and intramedullary nail (IMN) in treating humeral shaft fractures. Our results indicated that MIPO and IMN were recommended as the optimal treatments for clinical use. PURPOSE: Nowadays, five main therapeutic options are used in treating humeral shaft fractures: external fixation, open reduction and plate osteosynthesis (ORPO), minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), dynamic compression plate (DCP), and intramedullary nail (IMN)...
August 5, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773841/phase-morphology-and-mechanical-properties-of-cyclic-butylene-terephthalate-oligomer-containing-rubbers-effect-of-mixing-temperature
#10
István Zoltán Halász, Tamás Bárány
In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry...
August 24, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772739/discrete-particle-method-for-simulating-hypervelocity-impact-phenomena
#11
Erkai Watson, Martin O Steinhauser
In this paper, we introduce a computational model for the simulation of hypervelocity impact (HVI) phenomena which is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Our paper constitutes the first application of DEM to the modeling and simulating of impact events for velocities beyond 5 kms(-1). We present here the results of a systematic numerical study on HVI of solids. For modeling the solids, we use discrete spherical particles that interact with each other via potentials. In our numerical investigations we are particularly interested in the dynamics of material fragmentation upon impact...
April 2, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772553/the-effect-of-welding-energy-on-the-microstructural-and-mechanical-properties-of-ultrasonic-welded-copper-joints
#12
Jingwei Yang, Biao Cao, Qinghua Lu
The effects of welding energy on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of ultrasonic-welded pure copper plates were investigated. Complex dynamic recrystallization and grain growth occurred inside the weld zone during ultrasonic welding. At a low welding energy, a thin band of straight weld interfaces was observed and had an ultra-fine grain structure. With an increase in welding energy, the weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal, and eventually turned into a convoluted wavy pattern, bearing similarities to shear instabilities, as observed in fluid dynamics...
February 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767660/novel-co-culture-plate-enables-growth-dynamic-based-assessment-of-contact-independent-microbial-interactions
#13
Thomas J Moutinho, John C Panagides, Matthew B Biggs, Gregory L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin
Interactions between microbes are central to the dynamics of microbial communities. Understanding these interactions is essential for the characterization of communities, yet challenging to accomplish in practice. There are limited available tools for characterizing diffusion-mediated, contact-independent microbial interactions. A practical and widely implemented technique in such characterization involves the simultaneous co-culture of distinct bacterial species and subsequent analysis of relative abundance in the total population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765332/n1-src-kinase-is-required-for-primary-neurogenesis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#14
Philip A Lewis, Isobel C Bradley, Alastair R Pizzey, Harry V Isaacs, Gareth J O Evans
The presence of the neuronal-specific N1-Src splice variant of the C-Src tyrosine kinase is conserved through vertebrate evolution, suggesting an important role in complex nervous systems. Alternative splicing involving a N1-Src specific microexon leads to a five or six amino acid insertion into the SH3 domain of Src. A prevailing model suggests that N1-Src regulates neuronal differentiation via cytoskeletal dynamics in the growth cone. Here we have investigated the role of n1-src in the early development of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis, and find that n1-src expression is regulated in embryogenesis, with highest levels detected during the phases of primary and secondary neurogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763715/adding-an-arch-support-to-a-heel-lift-improves-stability-and-comfort-during-gait
#15
Xianyi Zhang, Bo Li, Kun Hu, Qiufeng Wan, Yuhao Ding, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Heel lifts have been widely used as a conservative treatment for some musculoskeletal problems and complaints. However, the heel rise caused by heel lifts may also affect the plantar pressure distribution and stability during walking. This study aimed to test whether adding an arch support to a heel lift would improve its stability and comfort through comparing the center of pressure (COP) during walking and subjective ratings between heel lifts with and without an arch support. Fifteen healthy male participants were asked to walk along an 8m walkway while wearing high-cut footwear with the control heel lifts and the heel lifts with an arch support...
July 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761792/plantar-pressure-distribution-of-ostrich-during-locomotion-on-loose-sand-and-solid-ground
#16
Rui Zhang, Dianlei Han, Songsong Ma, Gang Luo, Qiaoli Ji, Shuliang Xue, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
BACKGROUND: The ostrich is a cursorial bird with extraordinary speed and endurance, especially in the desert, and thus is an ideal large-scale animal model for mechanic study of locomotion on granular substrate. METHODS: The plantar pressure distributions of ostriches walking/running on loose sand/solid ground were recorded using a dynamic pressure plate. RESULTS: The center of pressure (COP) on loose sand mostly originated from the middle of the 3rd toe, which differed from the J-shaped COP trajectory on solid ground...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748136/study-on-community-structure-of-microbial-consortium-for-the-degradation-of-viscose-fiber-wastewater
#17
Chao-Qun Ding, Kun-Rong Li, Yun-Xia Duan, Shi-Ru Jia, He-Xin Lv, He Bai, Cheng Zhong
BACKGROUND: Enrichment culture was applied to obtain microbial consortium from activated sludge samples collected from biodegradation system, a chemical fiber plant in Hebei Province, China. Bacterial composition and community dynamic variation were assessed employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting technology based on amplified 16S rRNA genes in the entire process of enrichment culture for viscose fiber wastewater. RESULTS: Four bacteria named as VF01, VF02, VF03, and VF04 were isolated from the microbial consortium adopting the spray-plate method...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746386/tracmit-an-effective-pipeline-for-tracking-and-analyzing-cells-on-micropatterns-through-mitosis
#18
Olivier Burri, Benita Wolf, Arne Seitz, Pierre Gönczy
The use of micropatterns has transformed investigations of dynamic biological processes by enabling the reproducible analysis of live cells using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. With micropatterns, thousands of individual cells can be efficiently imaged in parallel, rendering the approach well suited for screening projects. Despite being powerful, such screens remain challenging in terms of data handling and analysis. Typically, only a fraction of micropatterns is occupied in a manner suitable to monitor a given phenotypic output...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741418/focal-adhesion-kinase-activation-is-necessary-for-stretch-induced-alignment-and-enhanced-differentiation-of-myogenic-precursor-cells
#19
Jens Isak Andersen, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Trine Fink, Vladimir Zachar
Myogenic precursors sense and dynamically respond to mechanical stimulation through complex integrin-mediated mechanotransduction, in which focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a fundamental intracellular signaling mediator. When skeletal myoblasts are exposed to uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (UCTS) they display uniform alignment and an enhanced rate of differentiation. In this work, we explored the role of FAK activation using C2C12 myoblasts that were grown on flexible culture plates and exposed to UCTS during the early differentiation phase...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741321/-articular-fractures-of-the-distal-femur-comparative-analysis-of-three-surgical-treatments
#20
F Souki-Chmeit, E Zambrano-Sanguinetti, A Sandia-Briceño, A Souki-Chmeit, M Brito-Velásquez
INTRODUCTION: The distal articular femur fracture is a serious injury that for years has been a problem in traumatology. It is often believed that produced varying degrees of permanent disability in the knee and that the fate of the joint was determined by the injury rather than treatment. OBJECTIVES: Present the results of surgical treatment of articular distal femur fractures type C2 with three treatment modalities: dynamic condylar screw (TDC), condylar buttress plate (PSC) and periarticular plate (PPA)...
January 2017: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
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