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Infectional disease of pediatric

Tzu-I Yang, Tu-Hsuan Chang, Chun-Yi Lu, Jong-Min Chen, Ping-Ing Lee, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen for pneumonia in children, especially in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccination era. Though self-limited disease was found in the majority of the patients, severe diseases occurred occasionally. The emergence of macrolide resistance was reported worldwide. It is important to delineate whether macrolide resistance or delayed treatment affects outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively collected pediatric patients with M...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
P Muggeo, E Calore, N Decembrino, S Frenos, F De Leonardis, A Colombini, F Petruzziello, K Perruccio, M Berger, R Burnelli, G A Zanazzo, N Santoro, S Cesaro
BACKGROUND: Invasive mucormycosis is a rare but frequently fatal fungal disease. The acute and rapidly progressive evolution causes unfavourable outcome in 22-59% of patients and its treatment represents a clinical challenge, especially in immunocompromised patients. Current data in pediatric oncological patients are limited. OBJECTIVES: The infection Working Group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) analyzed the episodes of invasive mucormycosis occurred between 2009 and 2016...
October 18, 2018: Mycoses
Nevine R El Baroudy, Amira S El Refay, Tamer A Abdel Hamid, Dina M Hassan, May S Soliman, Lobna Sherif
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the prevalent pediatric diseases. Coinfections of respiratory viruses and atypical bacterial respiratory pathogens are common. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of co-infection between respiratory pathogens including viruses, bacteria and atypical bacteria in a sample of Egyptian children presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This one-year prospective cohort study conducted in Abo El Rish Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University over one year included children presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory infection...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Irini D Batsis, Paul Wasuwanich, Wikrom W Karnsakul
In the present paper, we review the increased disease burden of Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) infection that is recognized worldwide; especially in children when the most common mode of transmission is vertically from infected mothers. In children with HBV and HCV infection, spontaneous clearance of the virus in the first years of life is not common, in contrast with adults, but these patients often stay asymptomatic until early adulthood, when disease has progressed to chronic hepatitis with increased risk of cirrhosis and its complication, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Audrey Dionne, Cathie-Kim Le, Steffany Poupart, Julie Autmizguine, Léamarie Meloche-Dumas, Jean Turgeon, Anne Fournier, Nagib Dahdah
INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) can be associated with concomitant viral or bacterial infections. Children with persistent or recurrent fever 36 hours after the end of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are considered to be resistant to treatment and are at increased risk for coronary complications. Although concomitant infection does not affect coronary outcome, it is unknown how it influences the response to IVIG treatment. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective cohort study between 2008 and 2016 in a tertiary pediatric university hospital, including 154 children, of which 59 (38%) had concomitant infection...
2018: PloS One
Cydni N Williams, Juan Piantino, Cynthia McEvoy, Nora Fino, Carl O Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Disorders requiring pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC) affect thousands of children annually. We aimed to quantify the burden of PNCC through generation of national estimates of disease incidence, utilization of critical care interventions (CCI), and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of the Kids Inpatient Database over three years to evaluate pediatric traumatic brain injury, neuro-infection or inflammatory diseases, status epilepticus, stroke, hypoxic ischemic injury after cardiac arrest, and spinal cord injury...
August 4, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Bonnie C Prokesch, Srikanth Nagalla, Fatemeh Ezzati, Shannan R Tujios, Arturo Dominguez, Weina Chen, Corey Kershaw, Prapti Patel, Carolina de la Flor, Jeannine Foster, Andrew A Martin, Maria Teresa de la Morena, Christian A Wysocki
PURPOSE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adults is rare but frequently fatal. Diagnosis is often delayed and treatment approaches vary significantly in contrast to the protocol-driven approach typically used in pediatric HLH. To improve care of these complex patients, this study retrospectively examined the prevalence, clinical characteristics, therapies and outcomes of adult HLH patients at two large tertiary care centers. METHODS: Adult patients with HLH confirmed by retrospective review of electronic medical records using HLH2004 criteria during admissions to the University of Texas Southwestern and Parkland Memorial Hospitals between June 2007 and June 2017 were studied...
October 6, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Daniel R Duncan, Paul D Mitchell, Kara Larson, Maireade E McSweeney, Rachel L Rosen
Importance: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are commonly prescribed to children with oropharyngeal dysphagia and resultant aspiration based on the assumption that these patients are at greater risk for reflux-related lung disease. There is little data to support this approach and the potential risk for increased infections in children treated with PPI may outweigh any potential benefit. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between hospitalization risk in pediatric patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and treatment with PPI...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Sophie Hierlmeier, Matthias Eyrich, Matthias Wölfl, Paul-Gerhardt Schlegel, Verena Wiegering
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been an effective method for treating a wide range of malignant or non-malignant disorders. In case of an autologous HSCT, patients receive their own stem cells after myeloablation before extraction. Allogeneic HSCT uses stem cells derived from a donor. Despite being associated with a high risk of early and long-term complications, it is often the last curative option. 229 pediatric patients, who between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015 received an HSCT at the University Children's Hospital Wuerzburg, were studied...
2018: PloS One
Andrew J Becker, Lauren C Heathcote, Inge Timmers, Laura E Simons
Introduction: The epidemiology of chronic pain in youth has been increasingly documented over the past decade. However, the precipitating events associated with the onset of pediatric chronic pain are not well studied. Objectives: Understanding the events that precede the onset of pain, and are reported by patients as germane to the early stages of their pain, may add one piece to the puzzle of the causal etiology of pediatric chronic pain disorders. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 320 young people attending a tertiary care chronic pain clinic with musculoskeletal chronic pain...
September 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Sima T Bhatt, Jeffrey J Bednarski, Julia Berg, Kathryn Trinkaus, Lisa Murray, Robert Hayashi, Ginny Schulz, Monica Hente, Michael Grimley, Ka Wah Chan, Naynesh Kamani, David Jacobsohn, Michael Nieder, Gregory Hale, Lolie Yu, Roberta Adams, Jignesh Dalal, Michael A Pulsipher, Paul Haut, Sonali Chaudhury, Jeffrey Davis, Jennifer Jaroscak, Martin Andreansky, Jennifer Willert, Shalini Shenoy
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a therapeutic option for many nonmalignant disorders (NMD) and is curative or prevents disease progression. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in HSCT for NMD may reduce regimen-related acute toxicities and late complications. Myeloablation is often replaced by immune suppression in RIC regimens to support donor engraftment. The pace of immune reconstitution following immune suppression by RIC regimens is influenced by agents used, donor source, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis/treatment...
October 12, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Stanley Cho, Elizabeth Spencer, Robert Hirten, Ari Grinspan, Marla C Dubinsky
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) increases morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is known to be very effective for RCDI in non-IBD patients with cure rates up to 91%. The same success rates of FMT have not been reported in IBD patients with RCDI, and the data in pediatrics is limited. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of FMT for RCDI in established pediatric IBD patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients with IBD and RCDI (≥3 episodes) who underwent FMT via colonoscopy at a tertiary care IBD center...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qian Wang, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Tao Liu, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and CVA10 are two of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The majority of CVA6 and CVA10 infections result in mild, self-limiting episodes (fever and herpangina) in pediatric populations; however, in some cases, can proceed to severe neurological disease and death. Efforts to mitigate viral transmission to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with infection would be greatly strengthened by the availability of an efficacious CVA6 and CVA10 bivalent vaccine...
October 10, 2018: Vaccine
Blake Palmer, Brad Kropp
Urologic causes of end-stage renal disease are estimated between 25% and 40% of causes. The goal of renal transplantation in chronic kidney disease patients is to provide renal replacement therapy with less morbidity, better quality of life, and improved overall survival compared with dialysis. A patient's urologic history can be a significant source of problems related to infections, recurrence of disease, and surgical complications. Many of the urologic risks are modifiable. Proper evaluation and management can mitigate the potential problems after transplantation, and these patients with complex urologic problems are seen to have similar graft function outcomes...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
Juhee Shin, Dong Hyun Lee, Nani Jung, Hee Joung Choi, Ye Jee Shim
Background: Reactive thrombocytosis (RT) is a common condition among children, although no studies have examined the etiology or clinical characteristics of RT among Korean children. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated children with RT at a single Korean tertiary center during a 10-year period. Results: RT accounted for 13.5% of children who were admitted to the pediatric ward (4,113/30,355): mild RT, 82.7%; moderate RT, 14.1%; severe RT, 1...
September 2018: Blood Research
Marta González-Vicent, Miguel A Díaz Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nowadays, T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplantation is considered a valid approach for children lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical donor for allogeneic transplantation. This kind of allogeneic transplant is now widely used especially for pediatric patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. However, relapsing disease and life-threatening viral infections are still relevant clinical problems as a consequence of delayed immune reconstitution...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Juan José Bethencourt Baute, Carlos Sanchez-Piedra, Dolores Ruiz-Montesinos, Marta Medrano San Ildefonso, Carlos Rodriguez-Lozano, Eva Perez-Pampin, Ana Ortiz, Sara Manrique, Rosa Roselló, Victoria Hernandez, Cristina Campos, Agustí Sellas, Walter Alberto Sifuentes-Giraldo, Javier García-González, Fernando Sanchez-Alonso, Federico Díaz-González, Juan Jesús Gómez-Reino, Sagrario Bustabad Reyes
BACKGROUND: Biologic therapy has changed the prognosis of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of use, drug survival, and adverse events of biologics in patients with JIA during the period from diagnosis to adulthood. METHODS: All patients included in BIOBADASER (Spanish Registry for Adverse Events of Biological Therapy in Rheumatic Diseases), a multicenter prospective registry, diagnosed with JIA between 2000 and 2015 were analyzed...
October 10, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Nergiz Erkut, Osman Akidan, Derya Selim Batur, Volkan Karabacak, Mehmet Sonmez
BACKGROUND: Although cure rates in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are quite high with combined chemotherapy regimens, complete response (CR) and long-term survival rates in adults are 80-90 and 30-40%, respectively. Currently, combined chemotherapy regimens, such as Hyper-CVAD and PETHEMA, are used in patients with adult ALL. However, there has been no study comparing the results of Hyper-CVAD and PETHEMA ALL-93. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we evaluated the results of Hyper-CVAD and PETHEMA ALL-93 in 51 ALL patients treated between September 2008 and March 2017 at the Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University...
October 10, 2018: Chemotherapy
Matthew D Egberg, Joseph A Galanko, Edward L Barnes, Michael D Kappelman
Background: Malnutrition is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), requiring timely and sufficient nutritional supplementation. In patients hospitalized for active disease, symptoms and/or altered intestinal function hinder enteral nutrition feasibility. In this scenario, parenteral nutrition (PN) is used. We aimed (1) to assess the frequency of PN use between 1997 and 2012 among hospitalized pediatric patients with IBD, (2) to determine the risk of in-hospital thrombus and infection associated with PN, and (3) to identify predictors of thrombus and infection in pediatric IBD hospitalizations utilizing PN...
October 10, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Pierluigi Toniutto, Davide Bitetto, Ezio Fornasiere, Elisa Fumolo
Liver transplantation (LT) has become the treatment of choice for a wide range of liver diseases in both adult and pediatric patients. Until recently, the largest proportion of LT in adults, were performed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) related cirrhosis. The recent availability of safe and effective direct antiviral agents to cure HCV infection in almost all patients whatever the HCV genotype and severity of liver disease, will reduce the need for LT in this category of recipients. Thus, it is presumed that in the next 1 to 2 decades HCV related liver disease will diminish substantially, whereas non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) will correspondingly escalate as an indication for LT...
October 5, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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