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Infectional disease of pediatric

Caroline H Shiboski, Tzy-Jyun Yao, Jonathan S Russell, Mark I Ryder, Russell B Van Dyke, George R Seage, Anna-Barbara Moscicki
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the association between combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and oral health outcomes (dental and periodontal) among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youth. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of oral health among PHIV youth participating in the Oral Health substudy of Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). Dentists at research sites were trained/calibrated on how to perform a standardized oral mucosal, dental, and periodontal examination...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
Liron Grossmann, Priscila Badia Alonso, Adam Nelson, Javier El-Bietar, Kasiani C Myers, Adam Lane, Heidi Andersen, David Haslam, Sonata Jodele, Stella M Davies, Christopher E Dandoy
Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with poor outcomes following stem cell transplantation (SCT). We describe the demographics, treatment, complications, and outcome of 23 pediatric SCT recipients who developed three or more BSIs in the first year after SCT at our center from 2011 through 2016. The majority underwent allogeneic SCT (n = 22/23;96%), mainly from an unrelated donor (n = 19/22,86%); developed grade 2-4 graft versus host disease (GVHD; n = 14/23, 61%), all steroid refractory; and were diagnosed with thrombotic microangiopathy (n = 21/23, 91%)...
August 9, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Aarti Shakkottai, Louise M O'Brien, Samya Z Nasr, Ronald D Chervin
Cystic fibrosis is a chronic, life-shortening illness that affects multiple systems and results in frequent respiratory infections, chronic cough, fat malabsorption and malnutrition. Poor sleep is often reported by patients with cystic fibrosis. Although objective data to explain these complaints have been limited, they do show poor sleep efficiency and frequent arousals. Abnormalities in gas exchange are also observed during sleep in patients with cystic fibrosis. The potential impact of these abnormalities in sleep on health and quality of life remains largely unstudied...
July 6, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Hai Peng Yan, Miao Li, Xiu Lan Lu, Yi Min Zhu, Wen-Xian Ou-Yang, Zheng Hui Xiao, Jun Qiu, Shuang Jie Li
BACKGROUND: The mortality rate due to severe sepsis is approximately 30-60%. Sepsis readily progresses to septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction, representing a significant problem in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The aim of this study was to explore the value of plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for early diagnosis and prognosis in children with sepsis. METHODS: A total of 123 children with sepsis who were hospitalized in the Hunan Children's Hospital PICU from July 2013 to December 2014 were divided into the general sepsis group (n = 70) and severe sepsis group (n = 53) based on diagnostic standards...
August 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Ewa Matuszczak, Marta Komarowska, Marzena Tylicka, Wojciech Dębek, Ewa Gorodkiewicz, Anna Tokarzewicz, Anna Sankiewicz, Adam Hermanowicz
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin B (CatB) belongs to a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases and plays an important role in intracellular proteolysis. OBJECTIVES: The concentration of CatB and 20S proteasome was evaluated in the serum of children with appendicitis, before and after surgery, on a basis of an innovative method for determining biomolecules concentration - surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two children with acute appendicitis, who were treated at the Department of Pediatric Surgery (Medical University of Bialystok, Poland), were randomly included into the study (age: 5-17 years, mean age: 11...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Gisela M Silva, Helena Moreira Silva, Joao Nascimento, Jean-Pierre Gonçalves, Fernando Pereira, Rosa Lima
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antimicrobial resistance, primarily for clarithromycin decreases the success of treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the local pattern of first-line antimicrobials resistance and the eradication rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study of H. pylori infected patients (positive histological or cultural exams) treated at Centro Materno-Infantil do Norte from January of 2013 to October of 2017...
August 9, 2018: Helicobacter
R Placzek, M Gathen, S Koob, C Jacobs, M M Ploeger
OBJECTIVE: Growth disorders (e. g. caused by congenital hip dislocation, Perthes disease or bacterial coxitis) often lead to an infantile deformity of the proximal femur with a shortened femoral neck and displaced grater trochanter. In 1988, Morscher and Buess described a femoral neck lenghtening osteotomy for treatment of adults. For the first time, we show a modification of this osteotomy for children and adolescents with a locking plate system. The aim is to restore the normal anatomy of the femoral neck and biomechanics of the proximal femur...
August 8, 2018: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Hans D Ochs, Isaac Melamed, Michael Borte, James N Moy, Barbara Pyringer, Ai Lan D Kobayashi, Alan P Knutsen, William Smits, Anna Pituch-Noworolska, Roger H Kobayashi
AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% preparation (Panzyga® ; Octapharma AG, Lachen, Switzerland) in predominantly antibody-deficient children with primary immunodeficiency disease. METHODS: Data from two prospective, open-label and noncontrolled multicenter Phase III studies of IVIG 10% that included 25 patients <16 years of age were analyzed for efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety. RESULTS: The rate of serious bacterial infections was 0...
August 8, 2018: Immunotherapy
Grégoire Stalder, Camillo Ribi, Michel André Duchosal
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Abstract. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a group of rare diseases characterized by over-activation of the immune system. They form two groups: primary and secondary HLH. Primary HLH are linked to mutations impairing lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Secondary HLH are triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases or neoplasia, the remaining cases being labeled idiopathic. HLH manifest as febrile states, cytopenias and hepatosplenomegaly. In the absence of treatment, they quickly lead to multiple organ failure...
August 2018: Praxis
Anthony R Flores, J Chase McNeil, Brittany Shah, Chris Van Beneden, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Bacterial infections caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are common in childhood. Few study reports have provided data on pediatric-specific trends in the epidemiology and bacterial strain characteristics of GAS infections. Methods: We prospectively collected GAS isolates from the clinical microbiology laboratory at Texas Children's Hospital between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2017. Patient characteristics and GAS disease categories were determined through chart review...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Victoria J Wright, Jethro A Herberg, Myrsini Kaforou, Chisato Shimizu, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Hannah Shailes, Anouk M Barendregt, Stephanie Menikou, Stuart Gormley, Maurice Berk, Long Truong Hoang, Adriana H Tremoulet, John T Kanegaye, Lachlan J M Coin, Mary P Glodé, Martin Hibberd, Taco W Kuijpers, Clive J Hoggart, Jane C Burns, Michael Levin
Importance: To date, there is no diagnostic test for Kawasaki disease (KD). Diagnosis is based on clinical features shared with other febrile conditions, frequently resulting in delayed or missed treatment and an increased risk of coronary artery aneurysms. Objective: To identify a whole-blood gene expression signature that distinguishes children with KD in the first week of illness from other febrile conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: The case-control study comprised a discovery group that included a training and test set and a validation group of children with KD or comparator febrile illness...
August 6, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
A Orsi, C Azzari, E Bozzola, G Chiamenti, G Chirico, S Esposito, F Francia, P Lopalco, R Prato, R Russo, A Villani, E Franco
Combination vaccines represent a valuable technological innovation in the field of infectious disease prevention and public health, because of their great health and economic value from the individual, societal, and healthcare system perspectives. In order to increase parents' and healthcare professionals' confidence in the vaccination programs and maintain their benefits to society, more information about the benefits of innovative vaccination tools such as combination vaccines is needed. Purpose of this work is an examination of available hexavalent vaccines, that protect against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b infections...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Lena Faust, Anne McCarthy, Yoko Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global public health concern. Due to the presence of multiple risk factors such as poor housing conditions and food insecurity in Canadian Indigenous communities, this population is at particularly high risk of TB infection. Given the challenges of screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in remote communities, a synthesis of the existing literature regarding current screening strategies among high-risk groups in low-incidence countries is warranted, in order to provide an evidence base for the optimization of paediatric LTBI screening practices in the Canadian Indigenous context...
August 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mark T Mackay, Maja Steinlin
This review will discuss important developments in childhood arterial ischemic stroke over the past decade, focusing on improved understanding of the causes, consequences, and targets for intervention. Risk factors for childhood arterial ischemic stroke are different to adults. Infections, particularly herpes group viruses, are important precipitants for stroke. Non-atherosclerotic arteriopathies are the most common cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke and an important predictor of recurrent events. Recent advances include the identification of serum biomarkers for inflammation and endothelial injury, and imaging biomarkers to monitor for vascular progression...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
L Q Zhong, L Wang, H M Song, W Wang, M Wei, Y Y He
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation (SPENCDI). Methods: The clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, treatment and genetic analysis of a patient diagnosed with SPENCDI who was admitted to the Department of Pediatrics in Peking Union Medical College Hospital in October 2016 were analyzed. Then literature review was done after searching articles in PubMed and several Chinese databases with the key words "spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation" up to the date of November 2017...
August 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
F Y Yu, R N Zhu, J Deng, Q W Song, L P Jia, L Y Liu, Y Qian
Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of enterovirus (EV)-associated diseases among children in Beijing from 2010 to 2016. Methods: This was a repeated cross-sectional study. The throat swabs were collected from children with probable EV-associated diseases at the Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from 2010 to 2016. The samples were sent for pan-EV, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) detection by real-time fluorescence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ...
August 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Daniel J Miller, Patrick J Cahill, Joseph A Janicki, Lindsay P Stephenson, Paul D Choi
BACKGROUND: Enhancing the safety, quality, and value of care provided is a point of emphasis for modern health care systems. We performed a review of recent literature to highlight those efforts relevant to pediatric musculoskeletal care. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for all papers related to quality improvement, patient safety, and/or value in pediatric orthopaedics published from October 1, 2012 to October 31, 2017, yielding 193 papers. RESULTS: A total of 36 papers were selected for review based upon new findings...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
A Aggarwal, S Phatak, P Srivastava, A Lawrence, V Agarwal, R Misra
Introduction About 10-20% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have onset in childhood and have more severe organ involvement. Survival of juvenile SLE patients is improving worldwide. Long-term data of childhood onset SLE from developing countries is scarce. Methods Clinical and laboratory data at initial presentation and follow-up visits were retrieved from clinic files, hospital information system and personal interviews. Treatment received, complications, flares, outcomes and death were recorded...
August 2, 2018: Lupus
Katia Perruccio, Luisa Sisinni, Antonio Perez-Martinez, Jaime Valentin, Ilaria Capolsini, Maria Speranza Massei, Maurizio Caniglia, Simone Cesaro
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus (HHV-6) infection is increasingly recognized among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, 30% being the risk of reactivation in the haploidentical setting. It has been associated with encephalitis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft failure. Here we report two cohorts of pediatric haploidentical manipulated HSCT in which, despite many differences, HHV-6 reactivation and disease occurred with very high incidence compared to data reported in literature, and represented the main early post-transplant infectious complication compared to other viral, bacterial or fungal infections...
July 29, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Amir Human Hoveidaei, Hoda Soufi, Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a common acquired bleeding disorder in pediatric patients, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a low platelet count. Organ transplant can transfer such diseases, but the occurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after liver transplant is rare. Here, we report a 17-month-old girl who was diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and who had a history of liver transplant 11 months earlier. Treatment of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection led to a successful outcome...
July 31, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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