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Feeding AND intolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089335/short-term-feeding-of-a-ketogenic-diet-induces-more-severe-hepatic-insulin-resistance-than-a-obesogenic-high-fat-diet
#1
Gerald Grandl, Leon Straub, Carla Rudigier, Myrtha Arnold, Stephan Wueest, Daniel Konrad, Christian Wolfrum
KEY POINTS: A ketogenic diet is known to lead to weight loss and is considered metabolically healthy; however there are conflicting reports on its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity. KD fed animals appear metabolically healthy in the fasted state after 3 days of dietary challenge, whereas obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) fed animals show elevated insulin levels. A glucose challenge reveals that both KD and HFD fed animals are glucose intolerant. Glucose intolerance correlates with increased lipid oxidation and lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER); however, all animals respond to glucose injection with an increase in RER...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061916/long-term-high-protein-diet-intake-reverts-weight-gain-and-attenuates-metabolic-dysfunction-on-high-sucrose-fed-adult-rats
#2
Rosângela Maria Lopes Sousa, Nathalee Liberal Xavier Ribeiro, Bruno Araújo Serra Pinto, Jonas Rodrigues Sanches, Mariana Uchôa da Silva, Caio Fernando Ferreira Coêlho, Lucas Martins França, José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes
Background: Consumption of added sugars has been considered a worldwide public health concern by its association with metabolic syndrome and its comorbidities. Meanwhile, current studies have suggested high-protein diets to promote weight loss and improved metabolic outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term high-protein diet (HPD, 34.3% protein) intake on high-sucrose-fed rats. Methods: Weaned male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups: rats fed a standard chow (CT/CT, 10% sucrose) or rats fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD, 25% sucrose) for a 20-week observational period...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021962/long-term-effects-of-dietary-protein-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-mice
#3
Wei-Chieh Mu, Erin VanHoosier, Carrie M Elks, Ryan W Grant
Aging is the main factor involved in the onset of degenerative diseases. Dietary protein restriction has been shown to increase the lifespan of rodents and improve metabolic phenotype. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can act as nutrient signals that increase the lifespan of mice after prolonged supplementation. It remains unclear whether the combination of protein restriction and BCAA supplementation improves metabolic and immunological profiles during aging. Here, we investigated how dietary protein levels and BCAA supplementation impact metabolism and immune profile during a 12-month intervention in adult male C57BL/6J mice...
July 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019982/actg2-associated-visceral-myopathy-with-chronic-intestinal-pseudoobstruction-intestinal-malrotation-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-choledochal-cyst-and-a-novel-missense-mutation
#4
Rebecca R J Collins, Bradley Barth, Stephen Megison, Cory M Pfeifer, Luke M Rice, Samar Harris, Charles F Timmons, Dinesh Rakheja
Primary visceral myopathy caused by a pathogenic mutation in the gene encoding the enteric smooth muscle actin gamma 2 ( ACTG2) affects gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and often presents as chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. We present a case of pediatric onset chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction associated with a novel missense ACTG2 mutation c.439G>T/p.G147C. In addition to the known disease manifestations of feeding intolerance and intestinal malrotation, our patient had a late-onset hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and a late-onset choledochal cyst, the former of which has not previously been described in patients with ACTG2-associated visceral myopathy...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015674/gastric-residual-volumes-versus-abdominal-girth-measurement-in-assessment-of-feed-tolerance-in-preterm-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Shemi Thomas, Saudamini Nesargi, Preena Roshan, Renjita Raju, Shiny Mathew, Sheeja P, Suman Rao
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates often have feed intolerance that needs to be differentiated from necrotizing enterocolitis. Gastric residual volumes (GRV) are used to assess feed tolerance but with little scientific basis. PURPOSE: To compare prefeed aspiration for GRV and prefeed measurement of abdominal girth (AG) in the time taken to reach full feeds in preterm infants. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial. Infants with a gestational age of 27 to 37 weeks and birth weight of 750 to 2000 g, who required gavage feeds for at least 48 hours, were included...
August 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004947/feeding-tubes-in-children
#6
Andrea Volpe, Georgina Malakounides
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A practical guide to different feeding tubes available for nutritional support in children, focused on indications, placement methods and complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Enteral nutritional support refers to the delivery of nutrition into the gastrointestinal tract distal to the oesophagus. Different feeding tubes are available for exclusive or supplemental nutritional support in children who are unable to independently sustain their own growth, nutritional and hydration status...
July 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004904/ce-original-research-pain-in-nonverbal-children-with-medical-complexity-a-two-year-retrospective-study
#7
Brenna L Quinn, Jean C Solodiuk, Dominick Morrill, Sangeeta Mauskar
: Purpose: Children with medical complexity experience frequent pain. But it can be challenging to recognize unexpected behaviors as pain related, especially in the absence of self-report. Often these children undergo extensive workups aimed at diagnosing the sources of pain. This study had three objectives: to describe the signs and symptoms parents of nonverbal children with medical complexity found worrisome, to describe the sources of pain in these children, and to describe nursing pain assessment practices in this population...
August 2018: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001482/constitutive-activation-of-the-nutrient-sensor-mtorc1-in-myeloid-cells-induced-by-tsc1-deletion-protects-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#8
Vivian A Paschoal, Thiago Belchior, Mariane T Amano, Marina Burgos-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, Juliana Magdalon, Thayna S Vieira, Maynara L Andrade, Mayara F Moreno, Patricia Chimin, Niels O Câmara, William T Festuccia
SCOPE: To test whether myeloid cells Tsc1 deletion and therefore constitutive activation of the nutrient sensor mTORC1 protects from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice with Tsc1 deletion in myeloid cells (MTsc1KO) and littermate controls (MTsc1WT) were fed with HFD for 8 weeks and evaluated for body weight, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation. MTsc1KO mice were protected from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992586/the-effect-of-additives-for-reflux-or-dysphagia-management-on-osmolality-in-ready-to-feed-preterm-formula-practice-implications
#9
Deborah S Levy, Erika Osborn, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Saira Nawaz, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
BACKGROUND: A common osmolality threshold for feedings is to stay <450 mOsm/kg for normal infants. Preterm formulas are frequently modified to improve growth, modify nutrition, and manage gastroesophageal reflux (GER) or dysphagia. Relationships between osmolality and additives to ready-to-feed preterm formulas are unclear. Our aims were to evaluate and compare the effects of caloric density, thickening agent recipes, and supplements to ready-to-feed preterm formula on osmolality...
July 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992119/amino-acid-based-formula-in-premature-infants-with-feeding-intolerance-comparison-of-fecal-calprotectin-level
#10
Hyo-Jeong Jang, Jae Hyun Park, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee, Won Mok Lee
Purpose: We investigated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance (FI), and compared the FC levels according to the type of feeding. Methods: The medical records of 67 premature infants were reviewed retrospectively. The fully enteral-fed infants were classified into two groups; the FI group (29 infants) and the control group (31 infants). Seven infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and perinatal asphyxia were excluded...
July 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991526/human-and-bovine-colostrum-for-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Behnam Sadeghirad, Rebecca L Morgan, Dena Zeraatkar, Adriana M Zea, Rachel Couban, Bradley C Johnston, Ivan D Florez
CONTEXT: Human and bovine colostrum (HBC) administration has been linked to beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of HBC for reducing NEC, mortality, sepsis, time to full-feed and feeding intolerance in preterm infants. DATA SOURCES: We conducted searches through Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and gray literature...
August 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985874/erythromycin-and-reflux-events-in-premature-neonates-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Cortney R Ballengee, Faranek Davalian, Mark R Conaway, Cary G Sauer, David A Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in premature neonates may manifest as apnea, bradycardia, growth failure, aspiration or feeding intolerance. Erythromycin ethylsuccinate (EES), is often used as a pro-kinetic in the management of GERD, despite lack of evidence or safety from randomized controlled trials. We sought to study the efficacy of enteral EES at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in decreasing the frequency of GER events as determined by pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance (pH-MII) monitoring...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975550/phenotypical-heterogeneity-in-responder-r-and-non-responder-nr-male-apoe-3leiden-cetp-mice
#13
Erika Tarasco, Giovanni Pellegrini, Lynda Whiting, Thomas A Lutz
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. Several animal models were used to describe the MetS, however many of them do not mimic well the MetS pathophysiology in humans. The ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mouse model overcomes part of this limitation, since they have a humanised lipoprotein metabolism and a heterogeneous response to MetS, similarly to humans. The reported heterogeneity among them and their common classification into responder (R) and non-responder mice (NR); R mice show increased body weight, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, while NR mice do not show this expected phenotype when fed a Western type diet...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29965973/long-term-metabolic-effects-of-malnutrition-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-following-early-life-protein-restriction
#14
Prasad S Dalvi, Steven Yang, Nathan Swain, Junsoo Kim, Senjuti Saha, Celine Bourdon, Ling Zhang, Rose Chami, Robert H J Bandsma
Early postnatal-life malnutrition remains prevalent globally, and about 45% of all child deaths are linked to malnutrition. It is not clear whether survivors of childhood malnutrition suffer from long-term metabolic effects, especially when they are later in life exposed to a fat and carbohydrate rich obesogenic diet. The lack of knowledge around this dietary "double burden" warrants studies to understand the long-term consequences of children previously exposed to malnutrition. We hypothesized that an early-life nutritional insult of low protein consumption in mice would lead to long-term metabolic disturbances that would exacerbate the development of diet-induced insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961498/-cerebral-palsy-in-a-patient-with-arginase-deficiency
#15
Amanda Jichlinski, Lindsay Clarke, Matthew T Whitehead, Andrea Gropman
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are thought to present in infancy with acute decompensation including feeding intolerance and vomiting, lethargy, and coma. Most practitioners assume that children will be diagnosed in their first months of life. However, certain IEMs present more insidiously, and occasionally children fail to receive newborn screening resulting in delayed diagnoses, as metabolic and genetic disorders are overlooked causes of cognitive and neurologic deficits. Although signs and symptoms may be present but subtle, careful and detailed history taking, particularly of a child's diet and neurologic medical history, in addition to certain physical examination findings may suggest a diagnosis that is later supported by laboratory and radiographic testing...
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957868/nutrition-adequacy-therapeutic-enhancement-in-the-critically-ill-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-motilin-receptor-agonist-camicinal-gsk962040-the-nutriate-study
#16
Adam M Deane, Francois Lamontagne, George E Dukes, David Neil, Lakshmi Vasist, Matthew E Barton, Kimberley Hacquoil, Xiaoling Ou, Duncan Richards, Henry T Stelfox, Sangeeta Mehta, Andrew G Day, Marianne J Chapman, Daren K Heyland
BACKGROUND: Camicinal is a novel, nonmacrolide, motilin receptor agonist that accelerates gastric emptying in critically ill patients with established feed intolerance. The primary question was whether the preemptive administration of camicinal increased the provision of enteral nutrition (EN) to critically ill patients with risk factors that predisposed to feed intolerance. METHODS: This was an international, multicenter, parallel-group, blinded, randomized controlled trial...
July 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947693/early-oral-feeding-post-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-resection-and-primary-anastomosis-in-oncology
#17
Lilian Pinheiro Lopes, Taysa Machado Menezes, Diogo Oliveira Toledo, Antônio Talvane Torres DE-Oliveira, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, José Eduardo de Aguilar Nascimento
BACKGROUND: The practice of starving patients in the immediate period after upper gastrointestinal surgery is widespread. Early oral intake has been shown to be feasible and may result in faster recovery and decrease length of hospital. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of oral nutrition on postoperative early feeding after upper gastrointestinal surgeries. METHODS: Observational cohort design study with convenience retrospective data in both genders, over 18 years, undergoing to total gastrectomy and/or elective esophagectomy...
June 21, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931679/protein-supplementation-of-human-milk-for-promoting-growth-in-preterm-infants
#18
REVIEW
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants require high protein intake to achieve adequate growth and development. Although breast milk feeding has many benefits for this population, the protein content is highly variable, and inadequate to support rapid infant growth. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether protein-supplemented human milk compared with unsupplemented human milk, fed to preterm infants, improves growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes, without significant adverse effects...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924388/fat-supplementation-of-human-milk-for-promoting-growth-in-preterm-infants
#19
REVIEW
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: As preterm infants do not experience the nutrient accretion and rapid growth phase of the third trimester of pregnancy, they are vulnerable to postnatal nutritional deficits, including of fat. Consequently, they require higher fat intakes compared to their full term counterparts to achieve adequate growth and development. Human milk fat provides the major energy needs of the preterm infant and also contributes to several metabolic and physiological functions. Although human milk has many benefits for this population, its fat content is highly variable and may be inadequate for their optimum growth and development...
June 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914737/measuring-gastric-residual-volumes-in-critically-ill-burn-patients-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
C H Pham, Z J Collier, W L Garner, C M Kuza, T J Gillenwater
PURPOSE: Measuring gastric residual volumes (GRV) is common in intensive care units (ICU) in patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and are a common source of feeding interruptions. Interruptions in EN yield adverse outcomes and are an area of improvement in burn care. The objectives of this study are to summarize the literature's ICU GRV practices and offer practical suggestions to GRV management in the burn patient. METHODS: PubMed, SCOPUS, and OvidSP Medline were systematically reviewed using the keywords: burns; thermal injury; gastric residual volume; enteral feeding; tube feeding; enteral nutrition; gastric intolerance; ICU; critical illness...
June 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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