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Feeding AND intolerance

Mulugeta Yohannis Kabalo
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been considered as the complex nutritional problem within developing countries. Alleviating its occurrence also exists in an anxiety. A series of studies were conducted to disclose evidences and documented by here author. Moreover key messages were abstracted with this review easing access of texts. RESULTS: Due to pitiable sanitary practices 30% of cow milk had massive bacterial isolates like Escherichia coli; while usage of raw milk has been common do...
December 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Farrukh R Virani, Travis Peery, Orlyn Rivas, Jeffrey Tomasek, Ravin Huerta, Charles E Wade, Jenny Lee, John B Holcomb, Karen Uray
BACKGROUND: Although feeding intolerance is a common complication in trauma patients, the incidence, development, and effects are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in which trauma patients were classified as having feeding intolerance based on time to reach feeding goal. Subsequently, we sorted patients by gastric residual volumes (GRVs) or symptoms of slowed gastrointestinal motility. RESULTS: One-third of trauma patients experienced delayed time to reach feeding goal after diet initiation...
December 3, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
B N Radford, V K M Han
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pregnancy condition in which fetal growth is suboptimal for gestation, and this population is at increased risk for type 2 diabetes as adults. In humans, maternal malnutrition and placental insufficiency are the most common causes of FGR, and both result in fetal undernutrition. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in mice will cause FGR and alter glucose metabolism in adult offspring. Pregnant CD-1 mice were subjected to MNR (70% of average ad libitum) or control (ad libitum) from E6...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Vijay Gupta, Grace Rebekah, Yesudas Sudhakar, Sridhar Santhanam, Manish Kumar, Niranjan Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To optimize growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, human milk fortification is standard of care in neonatal units of high income countries. However, commercial fortifiers may not be available or it may be too expensive in resource limited settings. As an alternative to using human milk fortifiers, we studied the effects of milk fortification with an infant formula on growth and biochemical parameters of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants Methods: We undertook a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital in south India...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Xuerong Song, Lucie Marandel, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy, Geneviève Corraze, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Edwige Quillet, Inge Geurden, Stephane Panserat
Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) is recognized as a typical "glucose-intolerant" fish, and the limits of dietary carbohydrate utilization have been investigated for many years. In this study, the objective was to test the molecular effects of dietary carbohydrates on intermediary metabolism in two major metabolic tissues, liver and muscle. Another objective was also to study if the response to carbohydrate intake depended on the genetic background. We fed two isogenic lines of rainbow trout (named A22h and N38h) with high carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate, 22...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Songpei Li, Xiu Zhou, Eunjung Jo, Ali Mahzari, Sherouk Fouda, Dongli Li, Kun Zhang, Ji-Ming Ye
Postnatal overconsumption of fat is believed to increase the susceptibility to metabolic disease in the later life. Here we examined whether prior exposure to high fat (HF) in the adulthood may also accelerate the development of metabolic disorders in mice. Adult mice (12 weeks) were pre-exposed to two episodes of a HF diet each for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of washout with a low-fat diet. The mice were then fed the same HF diet for 6 weeks. Unexpectedly, prior exposures to HF diet significantly alleviated body weight gain, visceral adiposity and glucose/insulin intolerance during the period of last HF feeding...
November 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Emna El Golli-Bennour, Rim Timoumi, Meriam Koroit, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi
Kefir is a fermented milk with numerous health favors counting restorative properties of bacterial flora, reduction of the symptoms of lactose intolerance, immune system stimulation, cholesterol reduction, as well as anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor properties. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species. ZEN often occurs as a contaminant in cereal grains and animal feeds. Human exposure occurs by ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated products and can cause serious health problems. This study aimed to assess the preventive effect of kefir against ZEN toxicity in cultured HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells; by the evaluation of cell viability, oxidative stress status and the initiation of apoptotic cell death pathway...
November 16, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Shane C Rainey, Bhavana S Kandikattu
A poorly feeding neonate presents the clinician with a diagnostic challenge. Feeding difficulties and irritability may be due to sepsis, congenital heart disease, inborn errors of metabolism, non-accidental head trauma, as well as a vast variety of other pathologies. Teratomas are rare pediatric tumors that can occasionally present in the immediate neonatal period and can manifest in the infant's central nervous system (CNS) with non-specific symptoms of poor feeding, lethargy, and somnolence. Operative resection remains the cornerstone of treatment; however, there is no well-defined role for adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation in these treatments...
September 11, 2018: Curēus
Islam Sh Ahmed, Ahmed Ma Hadi, Hassan H Hassan
AIM: To report the results of treatment of type 1 prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity using intravitreal injection of ultra-low dose of ranibizumab (0.1 mg in 0.01 mL). DESIGN: A retrospective observational case series study. METHODS: Review of files of eligible infants who received this form of treatment to determine the outcome of treatment and any associated ocular or systemic side effects. RESULTS: The study included 24 eyes of 12 preterm infants with mean gestational age of 29...
November 15, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Steven Cassar, Xin Huang, Todd Cole
Zebrafish are used as alternative model organisms for drug safety testing. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of zebrafish has genetic, neuronal, and pharmacological similarities to that of the mammals. GI intolerance during clinical testing of drug candidates is common and may pose a serious threat to human health. Testing for GI toxicity in preclinical mammalian models can be expensive in terms of time, test compound, and labor. The high-throughput method presented here may be used to predict GI safety issues...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Carlos J Roldan, Thomas Chai, Jennifer Erian, John Welker
Cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis (CTIOM) can cause intolerable oral pain resulting in difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speaking. Thus, leading to patients requiring aggressive measures, such as parenteral feeding, the placement of gastric feeding tubes and discontinuation of oncologic treatments. Although, pain is the debilitating symptom, current efforts seem to focus independently in the histological damage, not in pain and symptom care. Current strategies for managing pain from CTIOM entail maintaining oral hygiene and the use of oral rinses, topical anesthetics, prophylactic antimicrobials and systemic analgesics such as opioids...
November 1, 2018: Pain Management
Kevin P Foley, Soumaya Zlitni, Emmanuel Denou, Brittany M Duggan, Rebecca W Chan, Jennifer C Stearns, Jonathan D Schertzer
The intestinal microbiota and insulin sensitivity are rapidly altered after ingestion of obesogenic diets. We find that changes in the composition of the fecal microbiota precede changes in glucose tolerance when mice are fed obesogenic, low fiber, high fat diets (HFDs). Antibiotics alter glycemia during the first week of certain HFDs, but antibiotics show a more robust improvement in glycemic control in mice with protracted obesity caused by long-term feeding of multiple HFDs. Microbiota transmissible dysglycemia and glucose intolerance only occur when germ-free mice are exposed to obesity-related microbes for more than 45 days...
November 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Erin S Coyne, Nathalie Bédard, Ying Jia Gong, May Faraj, André Tchernof, Simon S Wing
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of fat accumulation and its metabolic consequences is crucial to understanding and treating obesity, an epidemic disease. We have previously observed that Usp19 deubiquitinating enzyme-null mice (Usp19-/- ) have significantly lower fat mass than wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, this study aimed to provide further understanding of the role of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 19 (USP19) in fat development, obesity and diabetes. METHODS: In this study, the metabolic phenotypes of WT and Usp19-/- mice were compared...
November 1, 2018: Diabetologia
Long T Nguyen, Hui Chen, Amgad Zaky, Carol Pollock, Sonia Saad
KEY POINTS: Maternal high-fat diet (MHF) consumption led to metabolic and liver disorders in male offspring, which are associated with reduced sirtuin (SIRT)1 expression and activity in the offspring liver SIRT1 overexpression in MHF offspring reduced their body weight and adiposity and normalized lipid metabolic markers in epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues SIRT1 overexpression in MHF offspring improved glucose tolerance, as well as systemic and hepatic insulin sensitivity SIRT1 overexpression ameliorated MHF-induced lipogenesis, oxidative stress and fibrogenesis in the liver of offspring...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Alberto Bartolome, Changyu Zhu, Lori Sussel, Utpal B Pajvani
Notch signaling regulates differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine lineage during embryogenesis, but the role of Notch in mature β cells is unclear. We found that islets derived from lean mice show modest β cell Notch activity, which increases in obesity and in response to high glucose. This response appeared maladaptive, as mice with β cell-specific deficient Notch transcriptional activity (β-Rbpj, β-DNMAML) showed improved glucose tolerance when subjected to high-fat diet feeding. Conversely, mice with β cell-specific expression of constitutively-active Notch1 (β-NICD) had a progressive loss of β cell maturity, due to proteasomal degradation of MafA, leading to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose intolerance with aging or obesity...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Abhishek Somasekhara Aradhya, Kanya Mukhopadhyay, Shiv Sajan Saini, Venkataseshan Sundaram, Sourabh Dutta, Praveen Kumar
BACKGROUND: Feed intolerance is common in growth-restricted infants with antenatal AREDF (absent or reverse end-diastolic flow) and presumed to be more severe in those with reverse end diastolic flow (REDF). Natural history of feeding in REDF is rarely reported in the literature. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of feed intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates with antenatal REDF. DESIGN: Preterm inborn neonates with gestation <37 weeks with antenatal REDF diagnosed between January 2015 and September 2017 were included in this retrospective cohort study...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kevin Walsh, Nuala Calder, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Tonny Ssenyondo, William Okiror, Charles Bernard Okalebo, Rita Muhindo, Ayub Mpoya, Elaine Holmes, Julian Marchesi, Gael Delamare de la Villenaise de Chenevarin, Gary Frost, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Changes in intestinal mucosal integrity and gut microbial balance occur in severe acute malnutrition (SAM), resulting in treatment failure and adverse clinical outcomes (gram-negative sepsis, diarrhoea and high case-fatality). Transient lactose intolerance, due to loss of intestinal brush border lactase, also complicates SAM, thus milk based feeds may not be optimal for nutritional rehabilitation. Since the gut epithelial barrier can be supported by short chain fatty acids, derived from microbiota fermentation by particular fermentable carbohydrates, we postulated that an energy-dense nutritional feed comprising of legume-based fermentable carbohydrates, incorporated with lactose-free versions of standard World Health Organization (WHO) F75/F100 nutritional feeds will enhance epithelial barrier function in malnourished children, reduce and promote resolution of diarrhoea and improve overall outcome...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Wenhao Chen, Changyi Yang, Hanqiang Chen, Baoquan Zhang
The present study aims to analyze the risk factors for metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity.A total of 238 preterm infants who were born at <34 weeks of gestation and were hospitalized for at least 6 weeks in the Department of Neonatology, Fujian Maternity and Children Hospital between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2015 were enrolled in the study. Sixteen preterm infants diagnosed with MBD were selected as the case group, and 32 non-MBD preterm infants were matched 2:1 at admission into the study...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
James Cantley, Aimee Davenport, Laurène Vetterli, Nandor J Nemes, P Tess Whitworth, Ebru Boslem, Le May Thai, Natalie Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Kyle L Hoehn, David E James, Trevor J Biden
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis, and beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Glucose triggers insulin secretion in beta cells via oxidative mitochondrial pathways. However, it also feeds mitochondrial anaplerotic pathways, driving citrate export and cytosolic malonyl-CoA production by the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) enzyme. This pathway has been proposed as an alternative glucose-sensing mechanism, supported mainly by in vitro data...
October 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Prisca Da Lozzo, Andrea Magnolato, Irene Del Rizzo, Fabio Sirchia, Irene Bruno, Egidio Barbi
Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder of fructose metabolism caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B enzyme [1]. The disease is typically expressed when fructose- and sucrose-containing foods are first introduced in the diet; acute manifestations include nausea, vomiting, abdominal distress, and symptomatic hypoglycemia [1,2]. Chronic fructose ingestion eventually leads to poor feeding, growth retardation and gradual liver and/or renal failure [3,4]. Some patients may remain undiagnosed until adulthood because of a self-protective avoidance of sweet tasting food that prevents the development of acute toxicity from fructose containing food; however, these subjects may suffer intermittent symptoms throughout life, leading to potentially serious misdiagnosis [4]...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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