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Feeding AND intolerance

Enrico Bertino, Laura Cavallarin, Francesco Cresi, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Giulia Ansaldi, Melissa Raia, Alessia Varalda, Marzia Giribaldi, Amedeo Conti, Sara Antoniazzi, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Alessandra Coscia
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the use of donkey milk-derived fortifier with commercial bovine milk-derived fortifier in very preterm or very low-birthweight newborns, in terms of feeding tolerance. METHODS: This trial included 156 newborns born at <32 weeks of gestational age and/or with a birthweight ≤1500 g. Newborns were randomized 1:1 to receive enteral feeding with either a bovine milk-based fortifier (BF-arm), or a new, donkey milk-derived fortifier (DF-arm) for 21 days...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Fauzia Shakeel, Melanie Newkirk, Taymeyah Altoubah, Denise Martinez, Ernest K Amankwah
BACKGROUND: We evaluated tolerance of hydrolyzed liquid protein (LP) supplement added to fortified human milk (HM) to optimize protein intake in preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective observational study of 31 subjects compared with 31 historic controls, receiving mothers own milk (MOM) and/or donor milk (DM) to assess LP tolerance, growth, and risk for morbidities was conducted. Milk was analyzed for nutrient content. Feeding intolerance, defined as cessation of feedings for ≥48 hours, abdominal distension and/or residuals, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and metabolic acidosis were used to assess safety, while weight and head circumference (HC) were used to evaluate growth...
October 15, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Karla Frida Torres Flister, Bruno Araújo Serra Pinto, Lucas Martins França, Caio Fernando Ferreira Coêlho, Pâmela Costa Dos Santos, Caroline Castro Vale, Daniela Kajihara, Victor Debbas, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes
Childhood consumption of added sugars, such as sucrose, has been associated to increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the mechanisms underlying NAFLD onset are incompletely defined, recent evidence has proposed a role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the metabolic outcomes of high-sucrose intake on weaned Swiss mice fed a 25% sucrose diet for 30, 60 and 90 days in comparison to regular chow-fed controls...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Adam M Deane, Marianne J Chapman, Annika Reintam Blaser, Stephen A McClave, Anton Emmanuel
Gastrointestinal dysmotility causes delayed gastric emptying, enteral feed intolerance, and functional obstruction of the small and large intestine, the latter functional obstructions being frequently termed ileus and Ogilvie syndrome, respectively. In addition to meticulous supportive care, drug therapy may be appropriate in certain situations. There is, however, considerable variation among individuals regarding what gastric residual volume identifies gastric dysmotility and would encourage use of a promotility drug...
October 7, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Anish Pillai, Susan Albersheim, Julie Matheson, Vikki Lalari, Sylvia Wei, Sheila M Innis, Rajavel Elango
There are concerns around safety and tolerance of powder human milk fortifiers to optimize nutrition in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and safety of a concentrated preterm formula (CPF) as a liquid human milk fortifier (HMF) for premature infants at increased risk of feeding intolerance. We prospectively enrolled preterm infants over an 18-month period, for whom a clinical decision had been made to add CPF to human milk due to concerns regarding tolerance of powder HMF...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
Raul Marin de Souza, Letícia de Souza, Adriano Emanuel Machado, Ana Cristina de Bem Alves, Fernanda Silva Rodrigues, Aderbal S Aguiar, Adair Roberto Soares Dos Santos, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar Moreira
While chronic high-fat feeding has long been associated with the rising incidence of obesity/type 2 diabetes, recent evidence has established that it is also associated with deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. In this regard, environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal housing technique composed of increased space, physical activity, and social interactions, which in turn increases sensory, cognitive, motor, and social stimulation. EE leads to improved cerebral health as defined by increased neurogenesis, enhanced learning and memory and resistance to external cerebral insults...
October 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Takao Nammo, Haruhide Udagawa, Nobuaki Funahashi, Miho Kawaguchi, Takashi Uebanso, Masaki Hiramoto, Wataru Nishimura, Kazuki Yasuda
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, detailed information, such as key transcription factors in pancreatic beta cells that mediate environmental effects, is not yet available. METHODS: To analyse genome-wide cis-regulatory profiles and transcriptome of pancreatic islets derived from a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, we conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (histone H3K27ac) and high-throughput RNA sequencing...
October 3, 2018: Diabetologia
Christine Denton, Amber Price, Julie Friend, Chandrashekhara Manithody, Keith Blomenkamp, Matthew Westrich, Vindhya Kakarla, William Phillips, Joseph Krebs, Salim Abraham Munoz, Hector Osei, Ajay Kumar Jain
For decades, parenteral nutrition (PN) has been a successful method for intravenous delivery of nutrition and remains an essential therapy for individuals with intolerance of enteral feedings or impaired gut function. Although the benefits of PN are evident, its use does not come without a significant risk of complications. For instance, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD)-a well-described cholestatic liver injury-and atrophic changes in the gut have both been described in patients receiving PN...
September 25, 2018: Children
Celina C Borges, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
AIMS: A prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported in association with the postmenopause. Thus, we aimed to experimentally study the effect of the vitamin D deficiency and ovariectomy, alone or combined, in the liver damage. MAIN METHODS: Three-months-old female mice C57BL/6 with bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 30) or a sham procedure (n = 30) were separated feeding control diet (C, n = 15) or a diet restricted in vitamin D (D-, n = 15) during additional 12 weeks...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ozkan Ilhan, Meltem Bor, Tansel Gunendi, Mustafa Erman Dorterler
Development of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) after a few weeks of repair of an oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) is a rare condition in early infancy. Although vomiting or feeding intolerance in operated cases of OA+TOF are attributed to oesophageal stricture, gastro-oesophageal reflux and oesophageal dysmotility, it may also be caused by HPS. Herein, we report a newborn infant who had OA and TOF operation on day 2 of life and diagnosed to have HPS at 15th day of age. Even though it is a rare anomaly, HPS should be kept on mind in the presence of persistent vomiting following repair of OA...
September 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Elizabeth J Reverri, Amy A Devitt, Janice A Kajzer, Geraldine E Baggs, Marlene W Borschel
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component in human milk after lactose and lipids. Preclinical research has demonstrated that HMOs and specifically 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) are more than a prebiotic and have multiple functions, including immune, gut, and cognition benefits. Previously, human milk has been the only source for significant levels of HMOs. The most abundant HMO in most mothers' breast milk is 2'-FL. Recently, 2'-FL has been synthesized and shown to be structurally identical to the 2'-FL found in human milk...
September 21, 2018: Nutrients
Wei Qi Fan, Amy Gan, Olivia Crane
The aim of this study was to observe after following a routine change in the feeding protocol whether the earlier introduction of nutrient supplements improved nutritional outcomes in moderately preterm to late preterm low birth weight (LBW) babies. In this prospective observational study, LBW babies between 31 and 39 weeks' gestation admitted to a Special Care Nursery were assigned to two groups (F80, n = 45, F160, n = 42) upon commencing nutrient supplement at total fluid intake achievement of 80 or 160 mL/kg/day...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Lisa K Lee, Rebekah A Burns, Rajvinder S Dhamrait, Harmony F Carter, Marissa G Vadi, Tristan R Grogan, David A Elashoff, Richard L Applegate, Marc Iravani
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in infants can cause a buildup of gastric contents. Orogastric tubes (OGTs) or nasogastric tubes (NGTs) are often placed in patients with pyloric stenosis before surgical management to prevent aspiration. However, exacerbation of gastric losses may lead to electrolyte abnormalities that can delay surgery, and placement has been associated with increased risk of postoperative emesis. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding OGT/NGT placement in these patients...
September 18, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Amadeu Z Silva, Felipe P L Costa, Ingrid L Souza, Mariana C Ribeiro, Morenna Alana Giordani, Diogo A Queiroz, Renata A M Luvizotto, André F Nascimento, Gisele F Bomfim, Mario M Sugizaki, Robert F H Dekker, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker, Eveline A I F Queiroz
AIMS: Obesity is associated with comorbidities such as diabetes and hepatic steatosis. β-Glucans have been described as effective in treating conditions including dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of botryosphaeran [(1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan] on obesity and its comorbidities, and understand its mechanism of action. MAIN METHODS: Obesity was induced in adult male Wistar rats by ingestion of a high-fat diet and water with sucrose (300 g/L) for 8 weeks...
October 15, 2018: Life Sciences
L Liu, S H Xu, P Zhang, C M Lu, G Q Cheng
Objective: To investigate the effect of red blood cell transfusion on the oxygenation of mesenteric tissue in premature infants. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, preterm infants with gestational age <37 weeks who were treated with red blood cell transfusions were enrolled from June 2017 to March 2018 in Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University. The infants were categorized into feeding intolerance group and feeding tolerance group according to the feeding intolerance standard...
September 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
G Eastwood, A A Cunningham, L D Kramer, S J Goodman
Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the U.S.A., was first detected on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) in the 1980s. However, little is known of its ecology, distribution or capacity for arbovirus transmission in the Galápagos. We characterize details of lifecycle (including gonotrophic period), temporal abundance, spatial distribution, vector competence and host-feeding behaviour. Culex quinquefasciatus was detected on five islands of the Galápagos during 2006-2011...
August 31, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Maryam Saboute, Ali Mazouri, Fatemeh NaimiDehnavi, Nasrin Khalesi, Zahra Farahani
Background: Feeding intolerance is a common complication in preterm neonates and is responsible for prolonged hospitalization. This study aimed at assessing the effects of high-dose oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in preterm infants. Methods: A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed during 2014 and 2015 (Tehran-Iran). Preterm neonates aged >14 days, who met the feeding intolerance criteria were selected for the study and their medical records were randomly assigned into 2 groups by simple randomization...
2018: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Nathan Diplock, Kate Johnston, Antoine Mellon, Laura Mitchell, Madison Moore, Daniel Schneider, Alyssa Taylor, Jess Whitney, Kera Zegar, John Kioko, Christian Kiffner
Over the past half-century, large mammal populations have declined substantially throughout East Africa, mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable direct exploitation. While it has been acknowledged that the loss of large mammals can have direct and cascading effects on community composition and ecosystem characteristics, limited quantitative work has been done on how declines of large herbivore populations impacts the abundance of mutualistic symbionts. Using a space-for-time observational approach, we quantified the large mammal community alongside the densities, host preferences and behaviors of mutualistic red-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus erythrorhynchus), and yellow-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus africanus) in northern Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
J Fouhse, K Yang, J Li, E Mills, T Ju, C S Alvarado, C B Chan, B P Willing
Objective: Rising worldwide prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases in children has accentuated the importance of developing prevention and management strategies. The objective of this study was to establish a model for childhood obesity using high-fat feeding of adolescent pigs, as pigs have a longer developmental period and are physiologically more similar to humans than rodents. Methods: Crossbred pigs were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet ( n  = 6/treatment) from postnatal day 49 to 84...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Susan P Gardner, Jonathan W Olson
Copper is both a required micronutrient and a source of toxicity in most organisms, including Campylobacter jejuni Two proteins expressed in C. jejuni (termed CopA and CueO) have been shown to be a copper transporter and multicopper oxidase, respectively. We have isolated strains with mutations in these genes and here we report that they were more susceptible to both the addition of copper in the growth media and to induced oxidative stress. Both mutant strains were defective in colonization of an avian host, and copper in the feed exacerbated the colonization deficiency...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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