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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552389/visualizing-the-heterogeneous-breakdown-of-a-fractal-microstructure-during-compaction-by-neutron-dark-field-imaging
#1
R P Harti, J Valsecchi, P Trtik, D Mannes, C Carminati, M Strobl, J Plomp, C P Duif, C Grünzweig
Structural properties of cohesive powders are dominated by their microstructural composition. Powders with a fractal microstructure show particularly interesting properties during compaction where a microstructural transition and a fractal breakdown happen before compaction and force transport. The study of this phenomenon has been challenging due to its long-range effect and the subsequent necessity to characterize these microstructural changes on a macroscopic scale. For the detailed investigation of the complex nature of powder compaction for various densification states along with the heterogeneous breakdown of the fractal microstructure we applied neutron dark-field imaging in combination with a variety of supporting techniques with various spatial resolutions, field-of-views and information depths...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552357/nucleus-specific-x-ray-stain-for-3d-virtual-histology
#2
Mark Müller, Melanie A Kimm, Simone Ferstl, Sebastian Allner, Klaus Achterhold, Julia Herzen, Franz Pfeiffer, Madleen Busse
Histological investigations are indispensable with regards to the identification of structural tissue details but are limited to two-dimensional images, which are often visualized in one and the same plane for comparison reasons. Nondestructive three-dimensional technologies such as X-ray micro- and nanoCT have proven to provide valuable benefits for the understanding of anatomical structures as they allow visualization of structural details in 3D and from arbitrary viewing angles. Nevertheless, low attenuation of soft tissue has hampered their application in the field of 3D virtual histology...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549379/compatibility-of-co-2-laser-surgery-and-fluorescence-detection-in-head-and-neck-cancer-cells
#3
Julia Odenthal, Peter Friedl, Robert P Takes
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of cancer requires tumor excision with emphasis on function preservation which is achieved in (early stage) laryngeal cancer by transoral carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser surgery. Whereas conventional laser surgery is restricted by the surgeon's visual recognition of tumor tissue, new approaches based on fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) improve the detection of the tumor and its margin. However, it is unclear whether fluorophores are compatible with high-power laser application or whether precision is compromised by laser-induced bleaching of the dye...
December 14, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545837/brain-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-atrophy-in-individuals-at-increased-risk-of-cognitive-decline
#4
I K Martikainen, N Kemppainen, J Johansson, J Teuho, S Helin, Y Liu, S Helisalmi, H Soininen, R Parkkola, T Ngandu, M Kivipelto, J O Rinne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relationship between brain β-amyloid and regional atrophy is still incompletely understood in elderly individuals at risk of dementia. Here, we studied the associations between brain β-amyloid load and regional GM and WM volumes in older adults who were clinically evaluated as being at increased risk of cognitive decline based on cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty subjects (63-81 years of age) were recruited as part of a larger study, the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability...
December 13, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544388/radiculoplasty-with-reconstruction-using-3d-printed-artificial-dura-mater-for-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-sacral-canal-cysts-two-case-reports
#5
Bin Liu, Zhenyu Wang, Guozhong Lin, Jia Zhang
RATIONALE: Currently, interventional injection of albumin glue and nerve sleeve plasty by cyst excision is the main treatment for sacral cysts. However, albumin glue can only be used in patients with partial cystic neck stenosis, and surgical treatment may result in postoperative complications such as numbness and cyst recurrence. Here, a modified radiculoplasty is presented, in which the lamina is restored with the nerve root wrapped with 3-dimensional (3D)-printed artificial dura mater...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543937/looking-deep-into-nature-a-review-of-micro-computed-tomography-in-biomimicry
#6
REVIEW
Anton du Plessis, Chris Broeckhoven
Albert Einstein once said "look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better". Looking deep into nature has in the last few years become much more achievable through the use of high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT). The non-destructive nature of microCT, combined with three-dimensional visualization and analysis, allows for the most complete internal and external "view" of natural materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scale. This capability brings with it the possibility to learn from nature at an unprecedented level of detail in full three dimensions, allowing us to improve our current understanding of structures, learn from them and apply them to solve engineering problems...
December 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538891/selective-and-super-selective-c-arm-based-cone-beam-ct-angiography-cbcta-with-dynact-for-cyberknife-radiosurgery-planning-of-intracranial-arteriovenous-malformations-avms
#7
Oliver Edwin Holmes, Janos Szanto, Vered Tsehmaister Abitbul, Taleb Al Mansoori, Hanan Al-Qahtani, John Sinclair, Daniela Iancu, Shawn Malone
Background: Successful radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires accurate delineation of the nidus in 3D. Exact targeting and precise equipment is needed to achieve obliteration of the nidus while minimizing toxicity to the surrounding brain. In some micro-AVMs and poorly visible AVMs we have used cone beam CT angiography (CBCTA) with selective and super-selective angiography where a micro-catheter is advanced into the feeding arteries- to assist with nidus definition for CyberKnife radiosurgery planning...
2018: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536101/analysis-for-remodeling-of-hepatic-tissue-structures-in-3d-during-regeneration
#8
Kota Kaneko
It has been demonstrated that the liver remarkably alter its tissue structures during regeneration, and various types of liver stem or progenitor cells locating in specific areas in the liver tissue contribute to regeneration. Therefore, it is important to analyze the dynamic rearrangement of the liver tissue structures in 3D for better understanding the process and mechanism of liver regeneration. Here we describe a macroscopic analysis method to visualize the whole 3D structure of the vasculatures and the biliary tree, which are dynamically remodeled during regeneration, and a microscopic analysis method to visualize detailed structures at the cellular level, which can compensate what cannot be detected in the macroscopic analysis...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536083/computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-and-venography-with-a-low-dose-of-contrast-medium
#9
Jun Nakane, Norinari Honda, Kazuhiro Tsuchiya
The authors developed a method to ensure sufficient opacification of pulmonary vasculature for separate depiction of arteries and veins in three-dimensional form with a small dose of contrast medium utilizing a test injection to determine optimal timing of computed tomography (CT) scanning. The dose was determined by a simulation based on a pharmacokinetic model. The contrast medium was administered at a rate of 5.0 mL/s for 3 s, followed by helical scanning at the timing determined by a dynamic CT scanning following the test injection...
December 10, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535968/visual-acuity-in-patients-with-keratoconus-a-comparison-with-matched-regular-myopic-astigmatism
#10
Michael Mimouni, Riham Najjar, Gilad Rabina, Igor Vainer, Igor Kaiserman
PURPOSE: To compare uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) between patients with keratoconus (KC) and matched patients with regular myopic astigmatism. METHODS: This retrospective study included consecutive patients diagnosed with KC between 2008 and 2013 at Care-Vision Laser Centers, Tel-Aviv, Israel, and matched patients with regular myopic astigmatism. Data included were central corneal thickness (CCT), spherical equivalent (SE), cylinder (CYL), mean keratometric power, maximum keratometric power (Kmax ), UDVA, CDVA, and defocus equivalent (DEQ)...
December 7, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535382/unconventional-facial-entry-points-confirmed-using-a-3d-ct-reconstruction-guided-stereotactic-approach-to-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-for-the-treatment-of-trigeminal-neuralgia-a-series-of-case-reports
#11
Zhigang Guo, Zhijia Wang, Kai Li, Chao Du, Xingli Zhao, Min Cheng, Yu Tian
Objectives: Patients with trigeminal neuralgia who are refractory to medical therapy may choose to undergo Gasserian ganglion percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. However, in cases where the foramen ovale is difficult to access due to various anatomical anomalies, the typical estimation of the facial entry point is suboptimal. Methods: Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction imaging performed before surgery revealed anatomical variations in each of the four adult patient cases that made it more difficult to successfully access the foramen ovale (FO) for percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation...
December 7, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534956/a-micro-x-ray-computed-tomography-dataset-of-fossil-echinoderms-in-an-ancient-obrution-bed-a-robust-method-for-taphonomic-and-palaeoecologic-analyses
#12
Mhairi Reid, Emese M Bordy, Wendy L Taylor, Stephan G le Roux, Anton du Plessis
Background: Taphonomic and palaeoecologic studies of obrution beds often employ conventional methods of investigation such as physical removal and extraction of fossils from their host rock (matrix) by mechanical preparation. This often-destructive method is not suitable for studying mould fossils, which are voids left in host rocks due to dissolution of the original organism in post-depositional processes. Findings: Micro computed tomography (µCT) scan data of 24 fossiliferous rock samples revealed thousands of Palaeozoic echinoderms, and digitally "stitching" together individually µCT scanned rock samples within 3D space allows for quantifiable taphonomic data on a fossil echinoderm-rich obrution deposit from the Devonian (Emsian) of South Africa...
December 7, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534955/a-preliminary-clinical-trial-comparing-split-treatments-to-the-face-and-hand-with-autologous-fat-grafting-and-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-a-3d-irb-approved-study
#13
Gordon H Sasaki
Background: Numerous methodologies have been suggested to enhance fat graft survival, but few long-term studies are available. Objectives: The authors of this institutional review board-approved study investigated the safety and efficacy of utilizing platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Methods: Each of 10 patients received equal volumes of syringe-harvested, centrifuged fat to opposing midfaces with a lateral submuscular aponeurotic system-plication or no face lift and hands that were combined with equal volumes of either concentrated PRP or normal saline...
December 10, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534951/mixed-reality-holograms-for-heart-surgery-planning-first-user-experience-in-congenital-heart-disease
#14
H Brun, R A B Bugge, L K R Suther, S Birkeland, R Kumar, E Pelanis, O J Elle
Aims: Proof of concept and feasibility study for preoperative diagnostic use of mixed reality (MR) holograms of individual 3D heart models from standard cardiac computed tomography angiograms (CTA) images. Optimal repair for complex congenital heart disease poses high demands on 3D anatomical imagination. Three-dimensional printed heart models are increasingly used for improved morphological understanding during surgical and interventional planning. Holograms are a dynamic and interactive alternative, probably with wider applications...
December 6, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530366/interaction-driven-enhancement-of-depth-perception-in-angiographic-volumes
#15
Simon Drouin, Daniel A DiGiovanni, Marta Anna Kersten-Oertel, Louis Collins
User interaction has the potential to greatly facilitate the exploration and understanding of 3D medical images for diagnosis and treatment. However, in certain specialized environments such as in an operating room (OR), technical and physical constraints such as the need to enforce strict sterility rules, make interaction challenging. In this paper, we propose to facilitate the intraoperative exploration of angiographic volumes by leveraging the motion of a tracked surgical pointer, a tool that is already manipulated by the surgeon when using a navigation system in the OR...
December 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530363/deep3dsaliency-deep-stereoscopic-video-saliency-detection-model-by-3d-convolutional-networks
#16
Yuming Fang, Guanqun Ding, Jia Li, Zhijun Fang
Stereoscopic saliency detection plays an important role in various stereoscopic video processing applications. However, conventional stereoscopic video saliency detection methods mainly use independent low-level features instead of extracting them automatically, and thus, they ignore the intrinsic relationship between the spatial and temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel stereoscopic video saliency detection method based on 3D convolutional neural networks, namely Deep 3D Video Saliency (Deep3DSaliency)...
December 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527292/improved-visualization-of-hypodense-liver-lesions-in-virtual-monoenergetic-images-from-spectral-detector-ct-proof-of-concept-in-a-3d-printed-phantom-and-evaluation-in-74-patients
#17
N Große Hokamp, V C Obmann, R Kessner, K R Laukamp, T Persigehl, S Haneder, N Ramaiya
OBJECTIVES: The well-known boost of iodine associated-attenuation in low-keV virtual monoenergetic images (VMI_low) is frequently used to improve visualization of lesions and structures taking up contrast media. This study aimed to evaluate this concept in reverse. Hence to investigate if increased attenuation within the liver allows for improved visualization of little or not-enhancing lesions. METHODS: A 3D-printed phantom mimicking the shape of a human liver exhibiting a lesion in its center was designed and printed...
December 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525064/monochromatic-breast-computed-tomography-with-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-and-phase-retrieved-image-comparison-and-full-volume-reconstruction
#18
Luca Brombal, Bruno Golosio, Fulvia Arfelli, Deborah Bonazza, Adriano Contillo, Pasquale Delogu, Sandro Donato, Giovanni Mettivier, Piernicola Oliva, Luigi Rigon, Angelo Taibi, Giuliana Tromba, Fabrizio Zanconati, Renata Longo
A program devoted to performing the first in vivo synchrotron radiation (SR) breast computed tomography (BCT) is ongoing at the Elettra facility. Using the high spatial coherence of SR, phase-contrast (PhC) imaging techniques can be used. The latest high-resolution BCT acquisitions of breast specimens, obtained with the propagation-based PhC approach, are herein presented as part of the SYRMA-3D collaboration effort toward the clinical exam. Images are acquired with a <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>60</mml:mn> <mml:mtext>-</mml:mtext> <mml:mi>μ</mml:mi> <mml:mi>m</mml:mi> <mml:mtext> </mml:mtext> <mml:mtext>pixel</mml:mtext> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> dead-time-free single-photon-counting CdTe detector...
July 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525032/3d-printing-encompassing-the-facets-of-dentistry
#19
REVIEW
Gunpreet Oberoi, Sophie Nitsch, Michael Edelmayer, Klara Janjić, Anna Sonja Müller, Hermann Agis
This narrative review presents an overview on the currently available 3D printing technologies and their utilization in experimental, clinical and educational facets, from the perspective of different specialties of dentistry, including oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, endodontics, prosthodontics, and periodontics. It covers research and innovation, treatment modalities, education and training, employing the rapidly developing 3D printing process. Research-oriented advancement in 3D printing in dentistry is witnessed by the rising number of publications on this topic...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524109/tracking-feature-based-attention
#20
Veronica Chu, Michael D'Zmura
Feature-based attention (FBA) helps one detect objects with a particular color, motion, or orientation. FBA works globally; the attended feature is enhanced at all positions in the visual field. This global property of FBA lets one use stimuli presented in the peripheral visual field to track attention in a task presented centrally. The present study explores the use of SSVEPs, generated by flicker presented peripherally, to track attention in a visual search task presented centrally. We evaluate whether this use of EEG to track FBA is robust enough to track attention when performing visual search within a dynamic 3D environment presented with a head-mounted display (HMD)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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