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Cervical axial rotation

Fan Zhang, Hao-Cheng Xu, Bo Yin, Xin-Lei Xia, Xiao-Sheng Ma, Hong-Li Wang, Jun Yin, Ming-Hao Shao, Fei-Zhou Lyu, Jian-Yuan Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of endplate-conformed cervical cages by finite element method (FEM) analysis and cadaver study. METHODS: Twelve specimens (C2 -C7 ) and a finite element model (C3 -C7 ) were subjected to biomechanical evaluations. In the cadaver study, specimens were randomly assigned to intact (I), endplate-conformed (C) and non-conformed (N) groups with C4-5 discs as the treated segments. The morphologies of the endplate-conformed cages were individualized according to CT images of group C and the cages fabricated with a 3-D printer...
August 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
Daniel R Felbaum, Joshua E Ryan, Andrew B Stemer, Amjad N Anaizi
Rotational vertebral artery occlusion (RVAO) or bow hunter's syndrome most commonly affects the C1-2 level due to its importance in regulating rotational movement. We present a 50-year old man who had undergone several prior sub-axial cervical spine operations with increasing neck pain and severe symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency with bi-directional head rotation. Dynamic cerebral angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of left vertebral artery during head rotation to the right, and complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery during head rotation to the left...
September 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Young Seop Song, Kyung Yong Yang, Kibum Youn, Chiyul Yoon, Jiwoon Yeom, Hyeoncheol Hwang, Jehee Lee, Keewon Kim
OBJECTIVE: To compare optical motion capture system (MoCap), attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) sensor, and Microsoft Kinect for the continuous measurement of cervical range of motion (ROM). METHODS: Fifteen healthy adult subjects were asked to sit in front of the Kinect camera with optical markers and AHRS sensors attached to the body in a room equipped with optical motion capture camera. Subjects were instructed to independently perform axial rotation followed by flexion/extension and lateral bending...
August 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Leonard I Voronov, Krzysztof B Siemionow, Robert M Havey, Gerard Carandang, Avinash G Patwardhan
INTRODUCTION: Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX(®) cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Thomas Shiozawa, P Epe, S Herlan, M Müller, A Tropitzsch, I Tsiflikas, B Hirt
PURPOSE: The superior thyroid cornu (STC) of the thyroid cartilage is a variable structure that maybe associated with different clinical symptoms. This study evaluates the three-dimensional anatomy of the STC. METHODS: Measurements were conducted on 97 CT scans (45 male and 52 female). The protocol models a vector from the base to the tip of the STC and references the cornu to the midline. From these data, the length (C), the rotation angle (γ), the inclination angle (β), and the deviation of STC base (X 2) and tip (X 3) from the midline were measured...
August 29, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Primoz Petric, Christian Kirisits
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for image guided adaptive brachytherapy (BT) of cervical cancer. Ultrasound is an attractive alternative with reasonable costs and high soft tissue depiction quality. This technical note aims to demonstrate the proof of principle for use of TRAns Cervical Endosonography with rotating transducer in the context of brachytherapy (TRACE BT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: TRACE BT presentation is based on a single stage IIB cervical cancer patient...
June 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Leonard I Voronov, Krzysztof B Siemionow, Robert M Havey, Gerard Carandang, Frank M Phillips, Avinash G Patwardhan
INTRODUCTION: Supplemental posterior instrumentation has been widely used to enhance stability and improve fusion rates in higher risk patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). These typically involve posterior lateral mass or pedicle screw fixation with significant inherent risks and morbidities. More recently, cervical cages placed bilaterally between the facet joints (posterior cervical cages) have been used as a less disruptive alternative for posterior fixation...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Zhong Wang, Hui Zhao, Ji-Ming Liu, Li-Wen Tan, Peng Liu, Jian-Hua Zhao
The uncovertebral joint (UJ) is an important load-bearing structure in the subaxial cervical spine (SCS) and the medial wall of the intervertebral foramen (IVF). To investigate the UJ׳s role in load distribution and transmission under physiological loading, we developed and validated a detailed finite element model (C2-T1). Based on the initial model, two additional models were modified to simulate surgical resection and degeneration of UJs, to evaluate their influence on SCS kinematics and load distribution...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Yasushi Fujiwara, Bunichiro Izumi, Masami Fujiwara, Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Nobuo Adachi, Hideki Manabe
PURPOSE: C2 radiculopathy is known to cause occipito-cervical pain, but their pathology is unclear because of its rarity and unique anatomy. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism of C2 radiculopathy that underwent microscopic cervical foraminotomies (MCF). METHODS: Three cases with C2 radiculopathy treated by MCF were investigated retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 24 months. Pre-operative symptoms, imaging studies including para-sagittal CT and MRI, rotational dynamic CT, and intraoperative findings were investigated...
July 21, 2016: European Spine Journal
Nikolai Bogduk
Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Wei Ji, Jie Tong, Zhiping Huang, Minghui Zheng, Xiuhua Wu, Jianting Chen, Qingan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Ventral defect caused by resection of the lesions involving the upper cervical spine was commonly reconstructed with a fabricated mesh cage. Recently, a clival screw and plate fitted to the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction was developed for this pathological state. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability a clivus plate system fixation (CPSF) for the craniovertebral junction and compared with a conventional fashioned mesh cage fixation (FMCF)...
June 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
James W DeVocht, Kalyani Gudavalli, Maruti R Gudavalli, Ting Xia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of novel variations to the way cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) studies are conducted and the feasibility of using cervical axial rotation as an alternative objective measure of cervical pain/dysfunction. METHODS: Electromyographic data were collected from cervical paraspinal muscles of 5 participants with neck pain and 5 asymptomatic controls. Cervical FRP was conducted as reported in the literature with the participants seated, except that they started with the head fully flexed instead of being erect...
June 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
Thijs Willem Swinnen, Milica Milosevic, Sabine Van Huffel, Wim Dankaerts, Rene Westhovens, Kurt de Vlam
OBJECTIVE: The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) is the most popular method to assess activity capacity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), to our knowledge. It is endorsed by the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis international Society. But it may have recall bias or aberrant self-judgments in individual patients. Therefore, we aimed to (1) develop the instrumented BASFI (iBASFI) by adding a body-worn accelerometer with automated algorithms to performance-based measurements (PBM), (2) study the iBASFI's core psychometric properties, and (3) reduce the number of iBASFI items...
August 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
Cheng-Cheng Yu, Ding-Jun Hao, Yu-Li Ma, Da-Geng Huang, Hou-Kun Li, Hang Feng, Qian Hou
BACKGROUND Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has been widely used to restore and maintain mobility and function of the treated and adjacent motion segments. Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) resection has been shown to be efficient in anterior cervical decompression and fusion. However, less is known about the biomechanical effect of PLL removal versus preservation in cervical disc arthroplasty. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three motion segments of 24 ovine cervical spines (C2-C5) were evaluated in a robotic spine system with axial compressive loads of 50 N...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Luděk Ryba, Jan Cienciala, Richard Chaloupka, Martin Repko, Robert Vyskočil
Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
G Stein, C Meyer, L Ingenhoff, J Bredow, L P Müller, P Eysel, G Schiffer
Hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine are potentially hazardous due to relevant destabilization. Depending on the clinical condition, neurologic or vascular damage may occur. Therefore an exact knowledge of the factors leading to destabilization is essential. In a biomechanical investigation, 10 fresh human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in a spine simulator. The tested segments were C4 to 7. In the first step, physiologic motion was investigated. Afterwards, the three steps of injury were dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament, removal of the intervertebral disc/posterior longitudinal ligament, and dissection of the interspinous ligaments/ligamentum flavum...
May 24, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Kamran Majid, Mark Moldavsky, Saif Khalil, Manasa Gudipally
STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate the biomechanical stability of two extender plates in a human cervical cadaveric model. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate two extender plates, placed adjacent to initially implanted plates and compared their biomechanical stability to traditional techniques. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Traditionally, adjacent level degeneration is surgically treated by removing the previously implanted plate and extending the instrumentation to the new degenerated level...
May 18, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Manuel J Pellegrini, Richard R Glisson, Markus Wurm, Paul H Ousema, Michael M Romash, James A Nunley, Mark E Easley
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between ankle instability and subtalar joint instability is challenging because the contributions of the subtalar joint's soft-tissue constraints are poorly understood. This study quantified the effects on joint stability of systematic sectioning of these constraints followed by application of torsional and drawer loads simulating a manual clinical examination. METHODS: Subtalar joint motion in response to carefully controlled inversion, eversion, internal rotation, and external rotation moments and multidirectional drawer forces was quantified in fresh-frozen cadaver limbs...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Haibo Liu, Baocheng Zhang, Jianyin Lei, Xianhua Cai, Zhiqiang Li, Zhihua Wang
STUDY DESIGN: Finite element analysis. OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the construct stability of occipitoatlantoaxial (C0-C1-C2) fixation provided by occipital plate, rod and screw fixation with or without C1 Lateral Mass Screw (C1LMS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Occipitoatlantoaxial fixation techniques use C2 pedicle screw (C2PS) with and without C1LMS that are then incorporated into occipital plate fixation points using occipital screw...
April 23, 2016: Spine
Iman Zafarparandeh, Deniz U Erbulut, Ali F Ozer
Numerous finite element models of the cervical spine have been proposed, with exact geometry or with symmetric approximation in the geometry. However, few researches have investigated the sensitivity of predicted motion responses to the geometry of the cervical spine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetric assumption on the predicted motion by finite element model of the cervical spine. We developed two finite element models of the cervical spine C2-C7. One model was based on the exact geometry of the cervical spine (asymmetric model), whereas the other was symmetric (symmetric model) about the mid-sagittal plane...
July 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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