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Work load assessment

T Engelhardt, D Ayansina, G T Bell, V Oshan, J S Rutherford, N S Morton
The anaesthesia practice in children observational trial of 31,127 patients in 261 European hospitals revealed a high (5.2%) incidence of severe critical events in the peri-operative period and wide variability in practice. A sub-analysis of the UK data was undertaken to investigate differences compared with the non-UK cohort in the incidence and nature of peri-operative severe critical events and to attempt to identify areas for quality improvement. In the UK cohort of 7040 paediatric patients from 43 hospitals, the overall incidence of peri-operative severe critical events was lower than in the non-UK cohort (3...
December 10, 2018: Anaesthesia
Stephanie V Koebele, Justin M Palmer, Bryanna Hadder, Ryan Melikian, Carly Fox, Isabel M Strouse, Dale DeNardo, Christina George, Emily Daunis, Adrianna Nimer, Loretta P Mayer, Cheryl A Dyer, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Approximately one-third of women experience hysterectomy, or the surgical removal of the uterus, by age 60, with most surgeries occurring prior to the onset of natural menopause. The ovaries are retained in about half of these surgeries while, for the other half, hysterectomy occurs concurrently with oophorectomy. The dogma is that the non-pregnant uterus is dormant. There have been no preclinical assessments of surgical variations in menopause including hysterectomy, with and without ovarian conservation, on endocrine and cognitive changes...
December 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Luis Alarcón, Matías Rau, Hernán Prat, René Fernández, Jaime Carmona, Juan P Zhindon, Javiera González, Teresa Massardo
BACKGROUND: Dipyridamole (DIP) is the most commonly employed pharmacological stressor for myocardial perfusion tomography (SPECT) in patients unable to reach an adequate work load. AIM: To assess the predictive capacity of DIP SPECT on survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 985 adults aged 66 ±11 years (45% women) with rest and DIP-SPECT. The main indications for the procedure were coronary artery disease (CAD) screening in 66% and known CAD in 33%...
August 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Maud van Dorst, Kees Okkersen, Roy P C Kessels, Frederick J A Meijer, Darren G Monckton, Baziel G M van Engelen, Anil M Tuladhar, Joost Raaphorst
The myriad of neuropsychiatric manifestations reported in myotonic dystrophy type 1 may have its origin in alterations of complex brain network interactions at the structural level. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that altered white matter microstructural integrity and network organisation were present in a cohort of individuals with DM1 compared to unaffected controls, which was expected to be associated with CNS related disease manifestations of DM1. We performed a cross-sectional neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI in 25 myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients and 26 age, sex and educational level matched unaffected controls...
November 28, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ottavia Zoboli, Manfred Clara, Oliver Gabriel, Christoph Scheffknecht, Monika Humer, Heike Brielmann, Sandra Kulcsar, Helene Trautvetter, Steffen Kittlaus, Arabel Amann, Ernis Saracevic, Jörg Krampe, Matthias Zessner
Occurrence and concentration of a broad spectrum of micropollutants are investigated in Austrian river catchments, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organotin compounds, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and metals. The parallel analysis across multiple environmental and engineered compartments sheds light on the ratio of dissolved and particulate transport and on differences in concentration levels between point and diffuse emission pathways. It is found that some PAHs and organotins are present in rivers, groundwater and bulk deposition at higher concentrations than in municipal wastewater effluents...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
J Sandjojo, W A Gebhardt, A M E E Zedlitz, J Hoekman, E Dusseldorp, J A den Haan, A W M Evers
BACKGROUND: Support staff of adults with intellectual disability (ID) play an important role in promoting independence in home and community settings. However, little is known about the types of behaviours staff should use to promote independence and instruments that assess such behaviour do not yet exist. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and initially validate a reliable questionnaire that measures the degree to which support staff display behaviours that promote independence in people with ID...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Yuting Pan, Yiwen Liu, Lai Peng, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Wei Wei, Dongbo Wang, Bing-Jie Ni
A common and long-existing operational issue of wastewater denitrification is the unexpected accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) that could suppress the activity of various microorganisms involved in biological wastewater treatment process and nitrous oxide (N2O) that could emit as a potent greenhouse gas. Recently, it has been confirmed that the accumulation of these denitrification intermediates in biological wastewater treatment process is greatly influenced by the electron competition between the four denitrification steps...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Patricia Bres, María Eugenia Beily, Brian Jonathan Young, Javier Gasulla, Mariano Butti, Diana Crespo, Roberto Candal, Dimitrios Komilis
Poultry manure (PM) can contain ammonium and ammonia nitrogen, which may inhibit the anaerobic process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of anaerobic digestion of PM co-digested with fruit and vegetable waste. Two semi-continuous bench scale (19L) stirred tank reactors were used. The operating conditions were: 34.5 °C, 2 gVS/L.d (organic load rate), 28 d of hydraulic retention time and 100 revolutions per m (1 h × 3 times by day) for the agitation. The reactors were fed PM and a mixture of PM and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) at equal proportions (based on wet weight)...
December 2018: Waste Management
Daniel Bunout, Gladys Barrera, Sandra Hirsch, Teresa Jimenez, María Pia de la Maza
BACKGROUND: Sedentariness may be an important risk factor for sarcopenia. The aim of this work was to assess the association between muscle mass and strength and markers of usual physical activity such as activity energy expenditure and peak oxygen uptake. METHODS: Young and old participants were assessed measuring body composition by DEXA (double beam X ray absorptiometry), handgrip strength, peak oxygen consumption and workload during an exercise calorimetry in a braked cycle ergometer and a 72 h activity energy expenditure using Actiheart actigraphs...
December 3, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Kantrol Kumar Sahu, Monika Kaurav, Ravi Shankar Pandey
The oral route is one of the most convenient routes for drug and/or vaccine delivery. Yet variable nature of gastrointestinal tract due to transient changes in pH, physiology, and flora throughout the gut together with hostile nature of peptide drugs/vaccines when given by this route results in limited success. Colon targeting is a recent area of interest for most of the research among which hard gelatin coated capsules is one such important and useful contrivance. The present study assesses the mucosal immunization with HBsAg loaded lyophilized nanoparticles delivered in the colonic region using enteric coated minicapsules...
November 29, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
David Pierre, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Laura Scholl, Kevor TenHuisen, Jeremy L Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion of modular tapers continues to be a concern in total joint replacements. Surgical factors that may affect taper seating mechanics include seating load magnitude and load orientation. Seating mechanics is defined as the seating load versus displacement behavior. In this study, mixed-alloy (CoCrMo/Ti-6Al-4V) modular head-neck 5°40' taper junctions were seated over a range of axially-oriented loads and off-axis orientations, capturing load-displacement during seating...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Anouk W Vaes, Jeannet M L Delbressine, Rafael Mesquita, Yvonne M J Goertz, Daisy J A Janssen, Nienke Nakken, Frits M E Franssen, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
Introduction A high proportion of patients with COPD experience problems during the performance of activities of daily living (ADLs). We aimed to determine the effects of a comprehensive eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program on the physiologic response to and performance of ADLs in patients with COPD. Methods Before and after pulmonary rehabilitation, 31 patients with COPD (71% men; mean age: 64.2±8.4 years; mean FEV1 : 54.6±19.9% predicted) performed physical function tests, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and an ADL-test consisting of putting on socks, shoes and vest; stair climbing; washing up four dishes, cups and saucers; doing groceries and putting away groceries in a cupboard; folding eight towels; and vacuum cleaning for four minutes...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Samir Mehta, Matthew Chin, Jennifer Sanville, Surena Namdari, Michael W Hast
Hardware-related complications can occur when plate fixation is used to stabilize osteoporotic fractures involving the olecranon. The use of an additional nonlocking screw, placed retrograde into the proximal fracture segment, may improve stability under load. The purpose of this study was to conduct a biomechanical comparison of olecranon repair constructs with and without this additional retrograde screw. Nine matched pairs of elderly fresh-frozen cadaveric upper extremities were used. Two-part olecranon fractures were modeled, and fracture stabilization was performed...
November 26, 2018: Orthopedics
Akeem Pedro, Hai Chien Pham, Jung Ui Kim, Chansik Park
Construction jobsites remain among the most dangerous workplaces, with fatalities, accidents and injuries still plaguing the industry. Safety education is critical in fostering graduates capable of ensuring safe construction work; however current learner assessment methods in pedagogy fail to ascertain the possession of safety knowledge and skills as they would be required in practice. This paper aims to address this problem by proposing context-based learner assessment in construction safety education. A novel assessment system is developed and deployed with final-year construction management students, with learner testing through visualization-enhanced: (1) Safety Theory Questions (STQ); (2) Site Inspection Scenario (SIS) questions; and (3) Job Safety Analysis Review (JSA) questions...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Malti Arya, Pooja Singh, Chandra B Tripathi, Poonam Parashar, Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Anupam Guleria, Gaurav Kaithwas, Krishna P Gupta, Shubhini A Saraf
Phytic acid (PA) has momentous chemotherapeutic potential. Due to the chelate formation and rapid elimination, it is not popular in cancer treatment. The present work was inquested to develop a surface-modified nanoformulation of PA which prevents its speedy elimination and maximizes chemotherapeutic action. Chloroauric acid was reduced with pectin to produce pectin-gold nanoparticles (PGNPs). PGNPs were incubated with PA and jacalin for drug loading and surface modifications, respectively, to form PA-loaded jacalin-pectin-gold nanoparticles (PA-J-PGNPs)...
November 27, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Tomoko Mizota, Nicholas E Anton, Dimitrios Stefanidis
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify differences in pattern recognition skill among individuals with varying surgical experience. METHODS: Participants reviewed laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos of various difficulty, and paused them when the cystic duct or artery was identified to outline each structure on the monitor. Time taken to identify each structure, accuracy and work load, which was assessed using the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX), were compared among the three groups...
October 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Alexandra Sarra, Carina Feuz
OBJECTIVE: Radiation therapists (RTs) play an important role in caring for patients undergoing radiotherapy for palliative intent. RTs are in a primary position to provide emotional support to their patients and, as a result, compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout can develop. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CF and burnout in RTs providing care to palliative cancer patients, the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence how RTs provide care to this specific patient population, and to determine if RTs feel supported through education and resources...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Alireza Salami, Douglas D Garrett, Anders Wåhlin, Anna Rieckmann, Goran Papenberg, Nina Karalija, Lars Jonasson, Micael Andersson, Jan Axelsson, Jarkko Johansson, Katrine Riklund, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg
Dopamine (DA) modulates cortico-striatal connections. Studies in which imaging of the DA system is integrated with functional imaging during cognitive performance have yielded mixed findings. Some work has shown a link between striatal DA measured by PET and fMRI activations, whereas others have failed to observe such a relation. A possible reason for the discrepant findings is differences in task demands, such that a more demanding task, with greater prefrontal activations, may yield a stronger association with DA...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Donny Merkx, Faruk Delić, Peter Wierenga, Marie Hennebelle, John van Duynhoven
Lipid oxidation is the main reason for the limited shelf-life of mayonnaise. One of the main catalysts of this process is iron, which is introduced in its ferric (Fe (III)) form via phosvitin, an egg yolk phosphoprotein rich in phosphoserines. The binding of Fe (III) to phosvitin and its ability to establish a redox couple with Fe (II) is believed to determine the oxidation rate of unsaturated lipids. In this work, a 31 P NMR based method was developed to quantify loading of phosvitin with Fe (III) and its reductive release...
November 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Raghda Hassan, Salma N Tammam, Sara El Safy, Mohammad Abdel-Halim, Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Ralf Weiskirchen, Samar Mansour
Preventing hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation represents a promising approach to resolve liver fibrosis. Several drugs have been reported to delay/prevent HSCs activation, however with limited clinical benefits. The latter may be in part attributed to the limited ability of such drugs in targeting more than one pathway of HSC activation. Added to that, is their inability of reaching their target cell in sufficient amounts to induce a therapeutic effect. In this work, chitosan NPs were loaded with JQ1 and atorvastatin, two drugs that have been reported to prevent HSCs activation, however via different mechanisms...
November 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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