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Work load assessment

Johanna Catalan-Figueroa, Constanza B Boisset, Miguel O Jara, Mario E Flores, Ignacio Moreno-Villoslada, Jenny L Fiedler, Javier O Morales
Oral bioavailability of loperamide is restricted by its limited absorption in the gastrointestinal tract due to its poor aqueous solubility and its P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate characteristic. In addition, ammonium methacrylate copolymers have shown to have mucoadhesive properties, whereas poloxamer 188, has been suggested as a Pgp inhibitor. Thus, in this work, we evaluate conditions that affect physicochemical parameters of ammonium methacrylate/poloxamer 188-based nanocarriers loaded with loperamide hydrochloride...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bruce Petrie, Luigi Lopardo, Kathryn Proctor, Jane Youdan, Ruth Barden, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The plasticizer bisphenol-A (BPA) is common to municipal wastewaters and can exert toxicity to exposed organisms in the environment. Here BPA concentration at 5 sewage treatment works (STW) and distribution throughout a river catchment in South West UK were investigated. Sampling sites included influent and effluent wastewater (n = 5), river water (n = 7) and digested sludge (n = 2) which were monitored for 7 consecutive days. Findings revealed average BPA loads in influent wastewater at two STWs were 10-37 times greater than the other wastewaters monitored...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Joseph F Welch, Bruno Archiza, Jordan A Guenette, Christopher R West, Andrew William Sheel
Women are more resistant to diaphragmatic fatigue (DF) and experience an attenuated inspiratory muscle metaboreflex relative to men. The effects of such sex-based differences on whole-body endurance exercise tolerance are yet to be examined. Healthy men (n = 9, age = 24 ± 3 years) and women (n = 9, age = 24 ± 3 years) completed a maximal incremental cycle test on day 1. On day 2, subjects performed isocapnic inspiratory pressure-threshold loading (PTL) to task failure followed by a constant load submaximal time-to-exhaustion (TTE) exercise test at 85% of the predetermined peak work rate...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cameron A Stewart, Yoav Finer
OBJECTIVES: Despite decades of development and their status as the restorative material of choice for dentists, resin composite restoratives and adhesives exhibit a number of shortcomings that limit their long-term survival in the oral cavity. Herein we review past and current work to understand these challenges and approaches to improve dental materials and extend restoration service life. METHODS: Peer-reviewed work from a number of researchers as well as our own are summarized and analyzed...
October 6, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Kanav Khosla, Li Zhan, Aditya Bhati, Aiden Carley-Clopton, Mary Hagedorn, John C Bischof
Preventing ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification has led to the successful storage and banking of numerous cellular and tissue-based biomaterials. In their breakthrough work, Peter Mazur's group achieved over 90% survival by using a laser warming technique for 100 µm mice oocytes that were cooled in 0.1 µL droplets with 2.3M CPA and extracellularly loaded India Ink (laser absorber). Laser warming can provide rapid and uniform warming rates to "outrun" damaging ice crystal growth...
October 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Richard Ballas, Nicolas Peyrot, Paul Allard, Teddy Caderby, Pascal Edouard, Georges Dalleau
Shoulder performance and sensorimotor control assessments help to identify shoulder instabilities and document the rehabilitation progress. Testing seated subjects in a position of hand prehension requires less controlled adjustments to maintain body balance in a clinically relevant situation. The objective of this work was to determine the test-retest repeatability of a novel shoulder stability test in seated subjects with the ipsi-lateral hand in prehension during four arm loading conditions. Able-bodied subjects were seated on a rigid chair fixed to a force plate...
October 4, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Ashley M St John, Melissa Kibbe, Amanda R Tarullo
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) consistently relates to poorer executive function (EF). This study used a systematic and nuanced approach to understand how SES relates to children's EF at a process level. We assessed children aged 4.5-5.5 years. This is a key developmental period because EF is no longer a unitary construct but rather EF components statistically load on separate factors and index distinct aspects of EF. Children completed a working memory task that involved a cognitive load component and a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and vigilance...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alain Giordanengo, Pinar Øzturk, Anne Helen Hansen, Eirik Årsand, Astrid Grøttland, Gunnar Hartvigsen
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes use an increasing number of self-management tools in their daily life. However, health institutions rarely use the data generated by these services mainly due to (1) the lack of data reliability, and (2) medical workers spending too much time extracting relevant information from the vast amount of data produced. This work is part of the FullFlow project, which focuses on self-collected health data sharing directly between patients' tools and EHRs. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to design and implement a prototype for extracting relevant information and documenting information gaps from self-collected health data by patients with type 1 diabetes using a context-aware approach...
July 11, 2018: JMIR diabetes
Cynthia Sharpe, Suzanne L Davis, Gail E Reiner, Lilly I Lee, Jeff J Gold, Mark Nespeca, Sonya G Wang, Priscilla Joe, Rachel Kuperman, Marissa Gardner, Jose Honold, Brian Lane, Ellen Knodel, Deborah Rowe, Malcolm R Battin, Renee Bridge, Jim Goodmar, Ben Castro, Maynard Rasmussen, Kathy Arnell, MaryJane Harbert, Richard Haas
PURPOSE: Continuous video electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring is the recommended gold standard of care for at-risk neonates but is not available in many Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). To conduct a randomized treatment trial of levetiracetam for the first-line treatment of neonatal seizures (the NEOLEV2 trial), we developed a monitoring infrastructure at five NICUs, implementing recent technological advancements to provide continuous video EEG monitoring and real-time response to seizure detection...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Wei Wang, Tao Liang, Baikai Zhang, Huiyu Bai, Piming Ma, Weifu Dong
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were carboxylated through an organic solvent free esterification method using l-malic acid (MA) to improve performance of transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. A series of CNC carboxylated with a degree-of-substitution (DS) of 0, 0.035, and 0.20 were obtained. The presence of grafted carboxyl groups was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 13 C NMR analysis, meanwhile effects of content and DS of CNC on the structure, thermal, mechanical, and optical transparency properties of the nanocomposites were assessed...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Michael Hoggard, Sharon Waldvogel-Thurlow, Melissa Zoing, Kevin Chang, Fiona J Radcliff, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Kristi Biswas, Richard G Douglas, Michael W Taylor
A complex mix of inflammatory and microbial associations underscores the chronic inflammatory condition chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the etiology remains poorly understood. Recent work has begun to delineate between variants (endotypes) of CRS on the basis of inflammatory biomarkers. This study aimed to assess inflammatory patterns in CRS phenotypes, identify putative endotypes of CRS, and to assess inflammatory associations with the sinonasal microbiota. Ten cytokines and six inflammatory cell types were assessed in mucosal biopsies from 93 CRS subjects and 17 controls via cytometric bead array and immunohistochemical techniques...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Luiz Pimenta, Luis Marchi, Leonardo Oliveira, Joes Nogueira-Neto, Etevaldo Coutinho, Rodrigo Amaral
Background: Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) devices have been designed to maintain motion, but both biomechanical and clinical data have indicated that a more controlled motion and additional load absorption in TDR would be beneficial. This work analyzed long-term results of an elastomeric disc (Physio-L) for degenerative lumbar conditions. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, noncomparative, single-center clinical and radiological study. A total of 15 patients with predominant low back pain due degenerative disc disease received anterior total disc replacement with a Physio-L disc...
January 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Jan Wilke, Stefanie Kaiser, Daniel Niederer, Kristin Kalo, Tobias Engeroff, Christian Morath, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
PURPOSE: A small share of the world's population meets current physical activity guidelines, which recommend regular engagement in endurance, strength, and neuromotor exercise. As lack of time represents a major cause of inactivity, multidimensional training methods with short durations may provide a promising alternative to classical, volume-oriented approaches focusing on one biomotor ability. This trial examined the effects of a high-intensity functional circuit training (HIFCT) on motor performance and exercise motivation in untrained adults...
October 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Paul DeVita, Jens Aaboe, Cecilie Bartholdy, Joshua M Leonardis, Henning Bliddal, Marius Henriksen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of quadriceps strengthening on quadriceps muscle force, power, and work and tibio-femoral compressive loads during walking in adults with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Study design: Two-center, randomized, controlled trial. INTERVENTION: Patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to quadriceps strengthening program (3 times weekly) or no attention control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was change from baseline in peak quadriceps force during walking at 12 weeks...
September 15, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Pedro Silva Moreira, Nadine Santos, Teresa Castanho, Liliana Amorim, Carlos Portugal-Nunes, Nuno Sousa, Patrício Costa
In this work, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a battery composed of distinct cognitive parameters. A sample of 86 individuals (53.5% females; mean age = 65.73), representative of the Portuguese older population, with respect to sex, age and level of education was assessed twice over an average of two years. By means of a confirmatory factor analysis approach, we tested whether a two-factor solution [corresponding to measures of memory performance (MEM) and executive functioning (EXEC)] was reliable over time...
2018: PloS One
M Lehnertová, L Siudová, M Janura, Z Svoboda, J Gallo, P Kamínek
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Knee joint is the most common place where osteoarthritis may occur. A specific therapy is indicated to patients depending on the degree of disability and other signs. The available methods and their clinical value are regularly assessed in systematic reviews and meta-analysis of clinical studies. The evidence of working mechanism of the specific therapeutic intervention is another important part of evaluating its therapy effect. One of the possibilities of knee osteoarthritis conservative treatment is a functional prophylactic knee brace...
2018: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
Vivian S K Nishihira, Barbara D Fontana, Francine R Ianiski, Hemilaine S de Almeida, Christopher P Posser, Juliane B Dias, Crystian B Parodi, Manoela M Piva, Anderson Gris, Ricardo E Mendes, Marta M M F Duarte, Michele R Sagrillo, Cristiane Luchese, Virginia C Rech, Rodrigo A Vaucher
Meloxicam is an anti-inflammatory drug that has a potential protective effect in many common diseases. However, this molecule is quickly eliminated from the body due to it short half-life. One way to overcome this problem is to incorporate meloxicam into lipid-core nanocapsules which may increase it anti-inflammatory effects. In view of this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the potential toxicity and safety of these novel nanomaterials both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the effects of uncoated meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules (M-NC), uncoated and not loaded with meloxicam or blank (B-NC), PEGylated meloxicam-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (M-NCPEG), blank PEGylated lipid-core nanocapsules (B-NCPEG) and free meloxicam (M-F) in vitro through the analysis of cell viability, caspase activity assays and gene expression of perforin and granzyme B...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sassan Noazin, Jessica A Lee, Edith S Malaga, Edward Valencia Ayala, Beth J Condori, Cristian Roca, Andres G Lescano, Caryn Bern, Walter Castillo, Holger Mayta, Maria Carmen Menduiña, Manuela R Verastegui, Freddy Tinajeros, Robert H Gilman
Background: Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi accounts for an estimated 22% of new cases in Latin America. However, neonatal diagnosis is challenging, as 9-month follow-up for IgG testing is poor, qPCR is not routinely performed, and micromethod misses more than 40% of congenital infections. Methods: Biorepository samples from new mothers and their infants from Piura, Peru (non-endemic area), and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (endemic) were accessed. Infant specimens were assessed using micromethod, qPCR and TESA blot for IgM SAPA bands, using qPCR as the gold standard...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sebastian Blecha, Susanne Brandstetter, Frank Dodoo-Schittko, Magdalena Brandl, Bernhard M Graf, Thomas Bein, Christian Apfelbacher
OBJECTIVES: The DACAPO study as a multicentre nationwide observational healthcare research study investigates the influence of quality of care on the quality of life in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptability to the participating research personnels by assessing attitudes, experiences and workload associated with the conduct of the DACAPO study. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective anonymous online survey was sent via email account to 169 participants in 65 study centres...
September 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Jonathan Chan, Natalie F A Edwards, Bijoy K Khandheria, Kenji Shiino, Surendran Sabapathy, Bonita Anderson, Robert Chamberlain, Gregory M Scalia
Aims: Non-invasive left ventricular (LV) pressure-strain loop (PSL) provides a novel method of quantifying myocardial work (MW) with potential advantages over conventional global longitudinal strain (GLS) by incorporating measurements of myocardial deformation and LV pressure. We investigated different patterns of LV PSL and global MW index (GWI) in patients with hypertension (HTN) and dilated cardiomyopathy (CMP). Methods and results: Seventy-four patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography and strain analysis before coronary angiography...
September 20, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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