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Ketone body

Ahmad Mohamad Wazeh, Mohamed I El-Anwar, Rami M Galal Atia, Rana Mohammed Mahjari, Sara Abdulelah Linga, Linah Mujeeb Alhaq Al-Pakistani, Salah Abdulazim Yousief
AIM: This study deeply investigates the effect of dental implant threading and material selection on the mandibular bone under two different crown materials (Translucent Zirconia and Porcelain fused to metal). METHODS: Two different designs of single piece dental implants were supporting dummy crown above simplified bone geometry in two finite element models. Models components were created by general-purpose CAD/CAM engineering package and then assembled inside ANSYS before meshing and assigning materials...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Fengming Chen, Denise M Coslo, Tao Chen, Limin Zhang, Yuan Tian, Philip B Smith, Andrew D Patterson, Curtis J Omiecinski
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) contributes important regulatory roles in biotransformation, xenobiotic transport function, energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis. In this investigation, global serum and liver tissue metabolomes were assessed analytically in wild type and CAR-null transgenic mice using NMR, GC/MS and UPLC/MS-MS-based metabolomics. Significantly, CAR activation increased serum levels of fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and tricarboxylic acid cycle products, whereas levels of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, amino acids and liver glucose were decreased following short-term activation of CAR...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Saroj Chakraborty, Sarah Galla, Xi Cheng, Ji-Youn Yeo, Blair Mell, Vishal Singh, BengSan Yeoh, Piu Saha, Anna V Mathew, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Dietary salt reduction and exercise are lifestyle modifications for salt-sensitive hypertensives. While exercise has prominent metabolic effects, salt has an adverse effect on metabolic syndrome, of which hypertension is a hallmark. We hypothesized that dietary salt impacts metabolism in a salt-sensitive model of hypertension. An untargeted metabolomic approach demonstrates lower circulating levels of the ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), in high salt-fed hypertensive rats. Despite the high salt intake, specific rescue of βOHB levels by nutritional supplementation of its precursor, 1,3-butanediol, attenuates hypertension and protects kidney function...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Rosy Wang, R M Damian Holsinger
Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF expression...
October 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Sergei V Fedorovich, Polina P Voronina, Tatyana V Waseem
Glucose is the main energy substrate for neurons, however, at certain conditions, e.g. in starvation, these cells could also use ketone bodies. This approach is used in clinical conditions as the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet is actually a biochemical model of fasting. It includes replacing carbohydrates by fats in daily meal. Synthesis of ketone bodies β-hydroxubutirate, acetoacetate and acetone begins once glycogen stores have depleted in the liver. The ketogenic diet can be used to treat clinical conditions, primarily epilepsy...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
David Jebb, Michael Hiller
Apart from glucose, fatty acid-derived ketone bodies provide metabolic energy for the brain during fasting and neonatal development. We investigated the evolution of HMGCS2 , the key enzyme required for ketone body biosynthesis (ketogenesis). Unexpectedly, we found that three mammalian lineages, comprising cetaceans (dolphins and whales), elephants and mastodons, and Old World fruit bats have lost this gene. Remarkably, many of these species have exceptionally large brains and signs of intelligent behavior...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Alessandra Misto, Gustavo Provensi, Valentina Vozella, Maria Beatrice Passani, Daniele Piomelli
The conversion of lipolysis-derived fatty acids into ketone bodies (ketogenesis) is a crucial metabolic adaptation to prolonged periods of food scarcity. The process occurs primarily in liver mitochondria and is initiated by fatty-acid-mediated stimulation of the ligand-operated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). Here, we present evidence that mast cells contribute to the control of fasting-induced ketogenesis via a paracrine mechanism that involves secretion of histamine into the hepatic portal circulation, stimulation of liver H1 receptors, and local biosynthesis of the high-affinity PPAR-α agonist, oleoylethanolamide (OEA)...
October 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Ika Fidianingsih, Nur Aisyah Jamil, Russy Novita Andriani, Wira Muhammad Rindra
Background A high prevalence of anxiety in the elderly often leads to decreased quality of life (QOL). A restrictive diet can increase the production of ketone bodies that encourage mood enhancement, neural protection and pain reduction. This study aimed to identify whether Dawood fasting could increase the QOL of the elderly by reducing anxiety. Methods This research was a quasi-experimental study involving a pretest-post-test control group design. The subjects were pre-elderly and elderly or healthy people aged more than 50, and a consecutive sampling method was employed...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Sebastian Hörber, Sarah Hudak, Martin Kächele, Dietrich Overkamp, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Heni
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. It usually occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes where it is typically associated with only moderately increased blood glucose. Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old female patient who was admitted to the emergency unit with severely altered mental status but stable vital signs. Laboratory results on admission revealed very high blood glucose (1687 mg/dL/93.6 mmol/L) and severe acidosis (pH <7) with proof of ketone bodies in serum and urine...
September 25, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Rachel A H Davis, Sarah E Deemer, Jonathan M Bergeron, Jason T Little, Jonathan L Warren, Gordon Fisher, Daniel L Smith, Kevin R Fontaine, Stephanie L Dickinson, David B Allison, Eric P Plaisance
The dietary R-3-hydroxybutyrate- R-1,3-butanediol monoester increases resting energy expenditure (REE) and markers of brown and white adipose thermogenesis in lean mice. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the ketone ester, R, S-1,3-butanediol diacetoacetate (BD-AcAc2 ), increases energy expenditure and markers of adipose tissue thermogenesis in the context of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Thirty-five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an ad libitum HFD (45% kcal) for 10 wk...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Eiji Kutoh, Jyunka Hayashi
This report describes the effect of administration (n=3) or withdrawal (n=2) of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, on cardiac function in relation to ketone bodies. Three cases received and two cases discontinued canagliflozin. Changes of heart function with ultrasonography (EF: ejection fraction and %FS: functional shortening) and cardiometabolic parameters including ketone bodies (acetoacetate/beta-hydroxybutylate) were compared at 3 months. 69, 68 and 60 years old male patients A, B and C, respectively with moderately decreased heart function received canagliflozin 100 mg/day...
October 8, 2018: Drug Research
Katarzyna Kuter, Łukasz Olech, Urszula Głowacka, Martyna Paleczna
Glial pathology precedes symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple other neurodegenerative diseases. Prolonged impairment of astrocytic functions could increase the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), accelerate their degeneration and affect ability to compensate for partial degeneration at the presymptomatic stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the astrocyte depletion in the SN, its impact on the dopaminergic system functioning and multiple markers of energy metabolism during the early stages of neurodegeneration and compensation...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Julia Hartwiger, Melanie Schären, Ursula Gerhards, Liane Hüther, Jana Frahm, Dirk von Soosten, Jeanette Klüß, Martin Bachmann, Annette Zeyner, Ulrich Meyer, Johannes Isselstein, Gerhard Breves, Sven Dänicke
In spring, the transition from a total mixed ration (TMR) to pasture requires metabolic adaptions for the cow. It had been shown that supply of low amounts of concentrate after transition to full-time grazing caused energy deficits, resulting in a lower milking performance and changes in a variety of variables indicative for energy metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate how a moderate concentrate supply (4.5 kg dry matter cow/day) after transition to pasture influences health and production indicators...
October 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Yi-Sub Kwak, Sun Young Lim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is highly enriched in the membrane phospholipids of the brain, neuronal tissue and retina. Accumulating evidence suggests that brain DHA is necessary for maintaining for optimal function of the cognition and the visual system, particularly the photoreceptor, the retina. Loss of brain DHA, especially during crucial brain development period, was highly associated with visual and cognitive defects. Here it would be addressed the effect of DHA on brain functions as assessed by spatial task performance using a first generation model which is similar to human nutrition case...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
F Bonnet, A J Scheen
Chronic low-grade inflammation is a recognized key feature associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In prospective randomized trials, sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have demonstrated benefits related to several cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including HbA1c , blood pressure, body weight, renal hyperfiltration, and improvement of cardiorenal outcomes. SGLT2 inhibitors may improve adipose tissue function and induce decreases in serum leptin, TNF-α and IL-6 while increasing adiponectin...
September 26, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Masako Fujiwara, Itiro Ando, Keisuke Satoh, You Shishido, Kazuhito Totsune, Hiroshi Sato, Yutaka Imai
Recently, the ratio of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) among hemodialysis (HD) patients has increased to become the largest sub-population. Their prognoses are significantly worse than those of patients without diabetes (non-DM). In the present study, 10 DM patients who did not take meals and 10 non-DM patients who took meals during HD sessions were investigated. The time courses of the change in plasma levels of metabolites during HD were determined. DM patients exhibited decreased plasma levels of lactate, pyruvate and alanine and dramatically increased levels of ketone bodies...
2018: PloS One
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
Prevention of cell senescence is a potential means to extend healthspan and perhaps lifespan. Agents that increase NAD+ levels, which are diminished with age, may be senopreventive through restoration of SIRT1 and normal mitochondrial activity. The ketone body [Formula: see text]-hydroxybutyrate ([Formula: see text]-HB) prevents senescence by inducing quiescence in endothelial cells. [Formula: see text]-HB activates hnRNP A1, which then binds and stabilizes Oct4 mRNA. In turn, expression of Oct4 in endothelial cells induces quiescence, which protects cells from DNA-damage-induced and replicative senescence, but not p53-mediated senescence...
October 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Ryoichi Izuchi, Tomoko Ishijima, Shinji Okada, Keiko Abe, Yuji Nakai
Scope: Previously, we showed that the intake of a persimmon peel (PP) extract altered hepatic gene expression associated with the insulin signaling pathway and enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors in nonobese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of fat-soluble PP extract on obese type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice with insulin resistance. Methods and results: KK-Ay mice were fed a diet mixed with 0.1% of the extract for 8 weeks...
September 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Hoda E Mohamed, Dina M Abo-ELmatty, Noha M Mesbah, Samy M Saleh, Abdel-Moniem A Ali, Amr T Sakr
Obesity is a proven risk factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidences suggested that nutritional interventions provide potential for prevention and treatment of AD. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary treatment of obese rats with natural Raspberry ketone (RK) and their relationship with neurodegeneration. Obesity was first induced in 40 male Wistar rats (140-160 g) by feeding high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Obese rats were then assigned into 4 groups (n = 10 each)...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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