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Ketone body

Eugenio Cersosimo, John M Miles
BACKGROUND & INTRODUCTION: The advent of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors [SGLT-2i] provides an additional tool to combat diabetes and complications. The use of SGLT-2i leads to effective and durable glycemic control with important reductions in body weight/fat and blood pressure. These agents may delay beta-cell deterioration and improve tissue insulin sensitivity, which might slow the progression of the disease. METHODS & RESULTS: In response to glycosuria, a compensatory rise in endogenous glucose production, sustained by a decrease in plasma insulin with an increase in glucagon has been described...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Min Tao, Yi Zhou, Shengnan Li, Huan Zhong, Hong Hu, Liujiao Yuan, Mi Luo, Jie Chen, Li Ren, Jing Luo, Chun Zhang, Shaojun Liu
The knowledge of understanding the molecular traits of the sterile triploid fish is sparse. Herein, we analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) alternations in the testes of the sterile triploid fish produced by crossing the tetraploid fish with the diploid fish, compared with those of tetraploids and diploids used as the controls. A total of 136, 134, and 142 conserved miRNAs and 105, 112, and 119 novel miRNAs were identified in the diploid, triploid, and tetraploid fish, respectively. The genes targeted by the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and were enriched in the GO term cell surface receptor signaling pathway, cellular process, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, and metabolic process...
August 6, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Rekha Narasimhan, Roxana Coras, Sara B Rosenthal, Shannon R Sweeney, Alessia Lodi, Stefano Tiziani, David Boyle, Arthur Kavanaugh, Monica Guma
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is an emerging field of biomedical research that may offer a better understanding of the mechanisms of underlying conditions including inflammatory arthritis. Perturbations caused by inflamed synovial tissue can lead to correlated changes in concentrations of certain metabolites in the synovium and thereby function as potential biomarkers in blood. Here, we explore the hypothesis of whether characterization of patients' metabolomic profiles in blood, utilizing 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), predicts synovial marker profiling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
August 3, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Francesco Prattichizzo, Valeria De Nigris, Stefano Micheloni, Lucia La Sala, Antonio Ceriello
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a strong cardiovascular (CV) protective effect of sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors, a recently introduced class of hypoglycaemic agents. The improvement of glycated haemoglobin and other conventional risk factors explains only a portion of the observed CV risk reduction. A relevant feature of SGLT2-inhibitor-treated diabetic patients is the increase in circulating levels of ketone bodies, which has been proposed to mediate part of the beneficial effects of this class of drugs, mainly through their bioenergetic properties...
August 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jakob Heimer, Dominic Gascho, Barbara Fliss, Rosa Maria Martinez, Niklaus Zoelch
We report a fetal loss following maternal ketoacidosis in a case of cryptic pregnancy. Biochemical analysis of peripheral blood revealed highly elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the mother (9.2 mmol/l) and the fetus (4.2 mmol/l). Fetal ketoacidosis with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage was determined to be the cause of death. 1 H-MRS of the right cerebral hemisphere presented with distinctive resonances of BHB and acetone. Acetoacetate and glucose were not detected. Due to reported chronic abuse of ethanol and a period of fasting, alcoholic ketoacidosis was concluded to be the cause of the metabolic disorder...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Nagisa Sada, Tsuyoshi Inoue
The ketogenic diet is used as a diet treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy, but there are no antiepileptic drugs based on the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet changes energy metabolites (ketone bodies, glucose and lactate) in the brain, which consequently changes electrical activities in neurons and ultimately suppresses seizures in epileptic patients. In order to elucidate the antiseizure effects of the ketogenic diet, it is important to clarify the mechanism by which these metabolic changes are converted to electrical changes in neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Malcolm Watford, Guoyao Wu
Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked via α-peptide bonds. They can be represented as primary, secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary structures, but from a nutritional viewpoint only the primary (amino acid) sequence is of interest. Similarly, although there are many compounds in the body that can be chemically defined as amino acids, we are only concerned with the 20 canonical amino acids encoded in DNA, plus 5 others-ornithine, citrulline, γ-aminobutyrate, β-alanine, and taurine-that play quantitatively important roles in the body...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
José Enrique de la Rubia Ortí, Mar Rsquo Ia Pilar García-Pardo, Eraci Drehmer, David Sancho Cantus, Mariano Julián Rochina, Maria Asunción Aguilar Calpe, Iván Hu Yang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder (mainly in women), and new therapies are needed. In this way, ketone bodies are a direct source of cellular energy and can be obtained from coconut oil, postulating that coconut oil could be a new non-pharmacological alternative in AD patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to detect changes in the main cognitive functions of patients with AD after following a coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet, and to determine whether there are differences in function of stage or sex...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jaeyong Lee, Takujiro Homma, Sho Kobayashi, Naoki Ishii, Junichi Fujii
Oxidative stress triggers the formation of lipid droplets in the liver by stimulating lipogenesis and simultaneously suppresses lipoprotein secretion under hypernutritional conditions. Herein we report on the observation of systemic organ failure that is associated with lipid droplet accumulation in fasting, SOD1-knockout (KO) mice. Upon a three-day fasting period, the KO mice were observed to be vulnerable, could not be rescued by refeeding and had largely died, while wild-type mice were totally recovered...
July 26, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kunal Sikder, Sanket Kumar Shukla, Neel Patel, Harpreet Singh, Khadija Rafiq
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Systemic hyperlipidemia and intracellular lipid accumulation induced by chronic high fat diet (HFD) leads to enhanced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. The present study was aimed to determine whether activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) by surplus free fatty acids (FA) in hyperlipidemic condition, has a positive feedback regulation over FAO and ketogenic enzymes controlling lipotoxicity and cardiac apoptosis. METHODS: 8 weeks old C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or PPAR-γ-/- mice were challenged with 16 weeks 60% HFD to induce obesity mediated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic cardiomyopathy...
July 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yuri L Boteon, Lorraine Wallace, Amanda P C S Boteon, Darius F Mirza, Hynek Mergental, Ricky H Bhogal, Simon Afford
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological defatting of rat hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines suggests that the same method could be used to ameliorate macrovesicular steatosis in moderate to severely fatty livers. However there is no data assessing the effects of those drugs on primary human liver cells. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pharmacological cocktail in reducing the in vitro lipid content of primary human hepatocytes (PHH). In addition we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of the cocktail towards non-parenchymal liver cells...
2018: PloS One
Laura Iaffaldano, Ilaria Granata, Chiara Pagliuca, Maria Valeria Esposito, Giorgio Casaburi, Giuliana Salerno, Roberta Colicchio, Marina Piccirillo, Carolina Ciacci, Giovanna Del Vecchio Blanco, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Paola Salvatore, Francesco Salvatore, Valeria D'Argenio, Lucia Sacchetti
We previously profiled duodenal microbiome in active (a-), gluten-free diet (GFD) celiac disease (CD) patients and controls finding higher levels of the Proteobacterium Neisseria flavescens in a-CD patients than in the other two groups. Here, we investigate the oropharyngeal microbiome in CD patients and controls to evaluate whether this niche share microbial composition with the duodenum. We characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing the oropharyngeal microbiome in 14 a-CD, 22 GFD patients and 20 controls. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes differed significantly between the three groups...
July 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam Włodarczyk, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that mostly appears in the second or third decade of life with no consistent appearance. The first-line pharmacological treatment are antipsychotic drugs, which mainly act by suppressing the activity of dopamine. Unfortunately many of schizophrenic patients suffer from persistent positive or negative symptoms that cannot be fully treated with available medication. With exploration on the possible causes of the disease there is evidence on dopaminergic transmission defects, there is a need to find more holistic way in treating the disease and a diet regimen could be one of them...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Aleksandra Bojke, Cezary Tkaczuk, Piotr Stepnowski, Marek Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi are fungal species which are used as a potential source of biopesticides. These fungi produce secondary metabolites which in insects can cause disruption in the normal functioning of their bodies, disease or even death. In order to fully characterize the physiology of entomopathogenic fungi we should identify the volatile organic compounds which are involved in this process. Therefore, we conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds produced by entomopathogenic fungi...
September 2018: Microbiological Research
Md Mahdi Hasan-Olive, Knut H Lauritzen, Mohammad Ali, Lene Juel Rasmussen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen
A ketogenic diet (KD; high-fat, low-carbohydrate) can benefit refractory epilepsy, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used mice inducibly expressing a mutated form of the mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme UNG1 (mutUNG1) to cause progressive mitochondrial dysfunction selectively in forebrain neurons. We examined the levels of mRNAs and proteins crucial for mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics. We show that hippocampal pyramidal neurons in mutUNG1 mice, as well as cultured rat hippocampal neurons and human fibroblasts with H2 O2 induced oxidative stress, improve markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and function when fed on a KD, and when exposed to the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate, respectively, by upregulating PGC1α, SIRT3 and UCP2, and (in cultured cells) increasing the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the NAD+ /NADH ratio...
July 19, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Rahim Vakili, Somayyeh Hashemian
Beta-ketothiolase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an inborn error of isoleucine catabolism and affecting ketone body metabolism. Clinical features characterized by intermittent keto acidotic episodes are associated with clinical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy such as lethargy, hypotonia, vomiting, tachypnea, and coma in some patients, with an onset during infancy or toddler-hood. A two months old girl presented to pediatric ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad City, Northwestern Iran in October 2016, with acute episode of fever and toxic encephalopathy with attack of vomiting, hypotonia, lethargy, tonic-clonic seizures and then a day in coma, few days after vaccination...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Cem Murdun, Andrew P Koutnik, Craig R Goldhagen, Christopher Rogers, David Diamond, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diet (KD) and exogenous ketone supplements can evoke sustained ketosis, which may modulate sleep and sleep-like effects. However, no studies have been published examining the effect of ketosis on the onset of general isoflurane induced anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the KD and different exogenous ketogenic supplements on the onset of akinesia induced by inhalation of isoflurane. METHODS: We used a high fat, medium protein and low carbohydrate diet (KD) chronically (10 weeks) in the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency (G1D) syndrome mice model and sub-chronically (7 days) in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats...
July 18, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Noah Budin, Erin Higgins, Anthony DiBernardo, Cassidy Raab, Chun Li, Scott Ulrich
The ketone body ester (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate and its (S,S) enantiomer were prepared in a short, operationally simple synthetic sequence from racemic β-butyrolactone. Enantioselective hydrolysis of β-butyrolactone with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase-B (CAL-B) results in (R)-β-butyrolactone and (S)-β-hydroxybutyric acid, which are easily converted to (R) or (S)-ethyl-3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced to (R) or (S)-1,3 butanediol. Either enantiomer of ethyl-3-hydroxybutyrate and 1,3 butanediol are then coupled, again using CAL-B, to produce the ketone body ester product...
July 13, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Nadia Nielsen Aalling, Maiken Nedergaard, Mauro DiNuzzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of the present paper is to review current literature supporting the occurrence of fundamental changes in brain energy metabolism during the transition from wakefulness to sleep. RECENT FINDINGS: Latest research in the field indicates that glucose utilization and the concentrations of several brain metabolites consistently change across the sleep-wake cycle. Lactate, a product of glycolysis that is involved in synaptic plasticity, has emerged as a good biomarker of brain state...
July 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Rebecca Chowdhry, Neetu Singh, Dinesh Kumar Sahu, Ratnesh Kumar Tripathi, Archana Mishra, Anjana Singh, Hari Shyam, Pratap Shankar, Nand Lal, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Ravi Kant
Smoking has been associated with increased risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the periodontal disease severity among smokers and nonsmokers which may help in better understanding of predisposition to this chronic inflammation mediated diseases. We selected deep-seated infected granulation tissue removed during periodontal flap surgery procedures for identification and differential abundance of residential bacterial species among smokers and nonsmokers through long-read sequencing technology targeting full-length 16S rRNA gene...
2018: BioMed Research International
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