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Biological psychiatry managment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242782/factors-affecting-the-management-of-somatic-comorbidity-in-tunisian-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Jihene Ben Thabet, Nada Charfi, Wafa Dalhoum, Sourour Yaich, Manel Maâlej Bouali, Sana Omri, Nasreddine Zouari, Lobna Zouari, Jamel Damak, Mohamed Maâlej
Schizophrenia is often accompanied by somatic comorbidities, which make the management challenge of such patients more difficult. In this study, we proposed to identify the sociodemographic and clinical factors correlating with somatic comorbidities in patients with schizophrenia to facilitate screening and prevention. It was a retrospective descriptive study of 78 schizophrenia patients in clinical remission and followed in outpatient psychiatry. In addition to the acquired records, other data were provided by the clinical and biological examinations performed for each patient...
September 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124184/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-clinical-review-of-the-concept-diagnosis-and-management
#2
B D Kelly
The history of psychiatry is the history of therapeutic enthusiasm with all of the triumph and tragedy, hubris and humility that this brings. As a result, the emergence of any new diagnosis, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), needs to be greeted with caution, rigour and scientific objectivity, as well as compassion, therapeutic engagement and optimism. Although there is now little doubt that ADHD is a valid, useful diagnostic concept, and progress has been made, there is still considerable work to be done to establish its incidence, prevalence and biological underpinnings, as well as optimal therapeutic strategies...
September 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122296/-supervised-off-label-prescribing-of-methylphenidate-in-adult-adhd
#3
L Carton, T Dondaine, S Deheul, C Marquié, F Brigadeau, A Amad, D Devos, T Danel, R Bordet, O Cottencin, S Gautier, O Ménard
OBJECTIVE: Off-label prescription is a common practice in psychiatry, raising health and economic concerns. Collegial consultation could allow a framed prescription of treatments that are not authorized in specific indications. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity in adult populations (ADHD) is a striking example of a pathology where off-label prescription is frequent. First considered to be a childhood disorder, the awareness of this condition in adults is increasing, leading to the development of new clinical practices and treatments...
August 16, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963833/addiction-disorders-a-need-for-change-proposal-for-a-new-management-position-paper-of-italian-society-on-alcohol-societ%C3%A3-italiana-di-alcologia
#4
Gianni Testino, Luigi C Bottaro, Valentino Patussi, Emanuele Scafato, Giovanni Addolorato, Silvia Leone, Doda Renzetti, Patrizia Balbinot, Giovanni Greco, Tiziana Fanucchi, Giorgio Schiappacasse, Paola Cardinale, Pierluigi Allosio, Rinaldo Pellicano, Fabio Caputo
Various epidemiological and biological evaluations and the recent publication of the DSMV (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders) has imposed on the scientific community a period of reflection on the diagnosis and treatment of what in the DSMIV was defined as "addiction". To date, the term "addiction" has been replaced by the DSM5, because there is no global scientific consensus that has unequivocally characterized its clinical characteristics. This, we will talk about substance/alcohol use disorders (SUDs/AUDs) and disorders related to behavioral alterations (DBA) that can generate organic diseases, mental disorders, and social problems...
July 2, 2018: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687938/trait-and-state-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-importance-of-infrastructure-to-bridge-the-gap-between-basic-and-clinical-research-and-industry
#5
REVIEW
Yukiko Y Lema, Nao J Gamo, Kun Yang, Koko Ishizuka
To further improve clinical activities in psychiatry by early diagnosis and early intervention with novel mechanism-guided treatments, there is a great need for biomarkers that reflect 'trait' and 'state' in major mental disorders. Stable trait biomarkers would allow early diagnosis, prognosis, and hopefully early intervention in these disorders, while dynamic state markers that reflect symptomatic changes would help to develop treatments that target these molecular mechanisms. However, in the search for such biomarkers, and eventually translating them to the clinic and industry, challenges currently exist at multiple levels, from basic scientific understanding, patient sample collection, and sample and data management, to bridging the gap between basic and clinical research and industry...
July 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521406/-personalised-medicine-in-forensic-psychiatry-an-example-for-other-domains-of-psychiatry
#6
REVIEW
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#7
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822460/-french-society-for-biological-psychiatry-and-neuropsychopharmacology-and-fondation-fondamental-task-force-formal-consensus-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-depression
#8
T Charpeaud, J-B Genty, S Destouches, A Yrondi, S Lancrenon, N Alaïli, F Bellivier, D Bennabi, T Bougerol, V Camus, T D'amato, O Doumy, F Haesebaert, J Holtzmann, C Lançon, M Lefebvre, F Moliere, I Nieto, R Richieri, L Schmitt, F Stephan, G Vaiva, M Walter, M Leboyer, W El-Hage, E Haffen, P-M Llorca, P Courtet, B Aouizerate
Major depression represents among the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the general population with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 16-17%. It is characterized by high levels of comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions or somatic diseases as well as a recurrent or chronic course in 50 to 80% of the cases leading to negative repercussions on the daily functioning, with an impaired quality of life, and to severe direct/indirect costs. Large cohort studies have supported that failure of a first-line antidepressant treatment is observed in more than 60% of patients...
September 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498090/world-federation-of-societies-of-biological-psychiatry-wfsbp-guidelines-for-biological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-short-version-for-primary-care
#9
Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai, Thomas Wobrock, Jeffrey Lieberman, Birte Glenthøj, Wagner F Gattaz, Florence Thibaut, Hans-Jürgen Möller
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder and many patients are treated in primary care settings. Apart from the pharmacological management of disease-associated symptoms, the detection and treatment of side effects is of the utmost importance in clinical practice. The purpose of this publication is to offer relevant evidence-based recommendations for the biological treatment of schizophrenia in primary care. METHODS: This publication is a short and practice-oriented summary of Parts I-III of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia...
June 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492213/psychiatry-outside-the-framework-of-empiricism
#10
Celestine Okorome Mume
Science is interested in whatever that is empirical and objective. Any claim that cannot be objectively demonstrated has no place in science, because the subject does not deviate from the role, which it has set out to play in the life of mankind. Psychiatry, as a scientific discipline, plays along these basic principles. In the etiology, symptomatology, and management of psychiatric disorders, the biopsychosocial model recognizes the role of biological, psychological, and social factors. This essay views psychiatry from the biopsychosocial perspective and asserts that certain elements, which may not be readily and empirically verifiable, are important in the practice of psychiatry...
January 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426908/clinically-useful-brain-imaging-for-neuropsychiatry-how-can-we-get-there
#11
REVIEW
Michael P Milham, R Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based "growth charts" or "lab tests" have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward...
July 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407461/the-biological-basis-to-personality-disorders
#12
Malathi L Perugula, Puneet D Narang, Steven B Lippmann
Objective: To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. Data Sources: PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. Study Selection/Data Extraction: We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138115/mania-in-wolfram-s-disease-from-bedside-to-bench
#13
Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Sayantanava Mitra, Salil Kumar Pal
Wolfram syndrome is a relatively unexplored entity in clinical psychiatry. Historically, the discovery of a specific WFS1 gene had generated huge fanfare regarding specific genetic causations of psychiatric disorders. While the initial enthusiasm has faded now, association of Wolfram syndrome with psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia, psychosis and suicidal behavior still remain important for understanding biological underpinnings of such disorders. We report a case of Wolfram syndrome presenting with multiple manic episodes, discuss possible genetic underpinnings for the affective symptoms and then discuss certain issues regarding management...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990322/recent-advances-and-controversies-in-peripartum-depression
#14
Jennifer L Payne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update readers on recent controversies and findings on the underlying biology and clinical management of peripartum depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Topics discussed include the discovery and replication of two epigenetic biomarkers of peripartum depression, two well controlled studies that do NOT find associations between in utero antidepressant exposure and cardiac defects and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and ongoing controversy on whether antidepressant use during pregnancy prevents peripartum depression and whether or not hormonal treatments have a place in the management of postpartum depression...
September 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400856/genome-wide-common-and-rare-variant-analysis-provides-novel-insights-into-clozapine-associated-neutropenia
#15
S E Legge, M L Hamshere, S Ripke, A F Pardinas, J I Goldstein, E Rees, A L Richards, G Leonenko, L F Jorskog, K D Chambert, D A Collier, G Genovese, I Giegling, P Holmans, A Jonasdottir, G Kirov, S A McCarroll, J H MacCabe, K Mantripragada, J L Moran, B M Neale, H Stefansson, D Rujescu, M J Daly, P F Sullivan, M J Owen, M C O'Donovan, J T R Walters
The antipsychotic clozapine is uniquely effective in the management of schizophrenia; however, its use is limited by its potential to induce agranulocytosis. The causes of this, and of its precursor neutropenia, are largely unknown, although genetic factors have an important role. We sought risk alleles for clozapine-associated neutropenia in a sample of 66 cases and 5583 clozapine-treated controls, through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, exome array and copy-number variation (CNV) analyses...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212577/-pathophysiology-of-aggressive-behavior-evaluation-and-management-of-pathological-aggression
#16
E Pompili, C Carlone, C Silvestrini, G Nicolò
This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk...
March 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985103/resilience-a-psychobiological-construct-for-psychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Amresh Shrivastava, Avinash Desousa
Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984333/clinical-models-of-stress
#18
Mjajm Hoes
BACKGROUND: Here we propose a stress model with disease-specific aspects and aspecific factors. The latter are subdivided into load (perception, psychic defence mechanisms), strain (psychophysiological responses) and stress sensu strictu (biological and behavioural compensation). Insufficiently compensated strain will result in being sick and precipitation of a specific disease according to one's predisposition. In the clinical practice, multiconditionality requires a multidimensional analysis, the the five-axial DSM-system being designed especially for this purpose...
August 2002: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844651/cyclical-swings-the-b%C3%A3%C2%AAte-noire-of-psychiatry
#19
Hannah S Decker
Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry...
February 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26751384/a-course-on-terror-medicine-content-and-evaluations
#20
Leonard A Cole, Brenda Natal, Adam Fox, Arthur Cooper, Cheryl A Kennedy, Nancy D Connell, Gregory Sugalski, Miriam Kulkarni, Michael Feravolo, Sangeeta Lamba
INTRODUCTION: The development of medical school courses on medical responses for disaster victims has been deemed largely inadequate. To address this gap, a 2-week elective course on Terror Medicine (a field related to Disaster and Emergency Medicine) has been designed for fourth year students at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School in Newark, New Jersey (USA). This elective is part of an overall curricular plan to broaden exposure to topics related to Terror Medicine throughout the undergraduate medical education...
February 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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