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Jens Gaab
Placebos are usually employed deceptively in clinical trials in order to control for non-specific effects. However, since placebos themselves have been found to cause clinically relevant changes and in some cases are indistinguishable from the verum they are tested against, this theoretically inert, but practically effective intervention has become a scientific discipline in its own right. In this review, it is argued that placebos are generic and genuine biopsychosocial interventions and as such are highly interesting candidates for a psychoneuroendocrinological perspective...
August 3, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Carlo Dal Lin, Francesco Tona, Elena Osto
The heart can be viewed not just as muscle pump but also as an important checkpoint for a complex network of nervous, endocrine, and immune signals. The heart is able to process neurological signals independently from the brain and to crosstalk with the endocrine and immune systems. The heart communicates with the psyche through the neuro-endocrine-immune system in a highly integrated way, in order to maintain the homeostasis of the whole body with peculiarities specific to males and females.
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
H Vallet, T Fali, D Sauce
Major progress in preventing, delaying or curing various pathologies normally encountered in old age results in a continuous improvement in life expectancy. However, understanding the underlying cause of the disparate comorbidities occurrence with aging remains a priority in order to propose adapted care for the older population. In one hand, aging profoundly impairs the immune system; it is characterized by many changes in haematopoiesis, adaptive and innate systems, and is associated with pro-inflammatory environment...
July 21, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
QiLiang Chen, Haley E Calcagno, Mujeeb Shad
Background: Treatment-resistant aggressive behavior is a complex psychoneurological phenomenon with high health care and societal costs commonly observed in mental illnesses involving psychosis. Here, we report a preliminary evaluation of treatment with dextromethorphan/quinidine in 4 adult patients with significant history of psychosis-related aggression and impulsive behaviors. Methods: The files of 4 inpatients with DSM-5-defined psychotic disorder and treatment-resistant aggression treated at the Oregon State Hospital (Salem, Oregon) between June and November of 2017 were retrospectively analyzed...
June 28, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Maira Giannelou, Dimitrios Tseronis, Eleni Antypa, Clio P Mavragani
Objectives: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are characterized by increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as well as heightened rates of psychological distress. Since a link between psychological issues and CV morbidity has been previously suggested, the influence of psychological burden on subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients was investigated. Methods: 71 SLE patients were assessed for the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis-defined either as carotid and/or femoral plaque formation or arterial wall thickening [Intima Media Thickness (IMT) levels > 0...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mária Resch
Among the various etiological theories (e.g., psychosomatic stress) the addictive model of obesity has also been described. Those suffering from eating disorders triggered by emotional causes (in consequence of the reward system) tend to grab a snack mostly out of happiness. The aim of the present study was to examine the addictive model of obesity so that the relationships identified here could help provide more accurate treatments to those suffering from being overweight. This study identifies the anatomical, neurobiological and psychic relationships between the etiological factors from the aspect of the addictive model of obesity so that further logical relationships could be confirmed based on the conclusions drawn here...
July 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Kawther Ismail Hamash, Wendy Umberger, Aynur Aktas, Declan Walsh, Vinay K Cheruvu
BACKGROUND: Pain, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and constipation were reported in different symptom clusters at different stages of breast cancer. Managing symptom clusters rather than individual symptoms can improve performance status. AIM: The study examined the effect of pain symptom cluster (pain and constipation) on performance when mediated by the psychoneurological symptom cluster (depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances) using age as a moderator...
June 21, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Carey S Clark
With the knowledge of psychoneuroimmunological responses and the known high stress levels of nursing students, as caring nurse educators, we have become ethically obligated to revise and re-vision our current nursing educational practices. Nurse educators should be motivated to create innovative and radical caring science curricular approaches, so that our nurses of the future are in turn supported in creating caring- healing sustainable bedside practices. This paper details the outcomes from an upper level yoga elective in an RN- BSN program...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Nivedhitha Selvakumar, Vikas Menon
We describe a case of 45-year-old female suffering from chronic hepatitis B and bronchial asthma who presented with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder and sickness behavior. The case report illustrates syndromal and sub syndromal presentations of depression such as sickness behavior in support of "malaise theory of depression" from psychoneuroimmunological perspective. The current case depicts the complex interplay of inflammatory physical illness, medication and manifestations of depression in an individual case...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
N A Ermolenko, V P Zykov, E I Zakharova
AIM: To determine the comorbidity of epilepsy and chronic tic disorders (HTR) in children and adolescents based on the results of video-EEG monitoring and treatment efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and sixteen patients diagnosed with HTR, 83 boys and 33 girls, aged from 3 to 15 years, were studied. Clinical psychoneurological examination, psychological testing and video-EEG monitoring were performed at the first stage of the study. An effect of treatment was assessed at the second stage...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Thomas Plieger, Andrea Felten, Hanna Splittgerber, Éilish Duke, Martin Reuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mark R Hutchinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Marie Bendix, Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Maria Petersson, Viktor Kaldo, Marie Åsberg, Jussi Jokinen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Berna Özata Yıldızhan, Şahika Yüksel, Mirella Avayu, Handan Noyan, Eren Yıldızhan
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the life style, family and social relationships (social adaptation) and the quality of life in people with gender dysphoria with and without history of sex reassignment surgery. METHOD: Twenty  individuals (SR group) who were earlier followed   in Istanbul University Psychiatry Department Psychoneurosis and Psychotherapy Unit with gender dysphoria diagnosis in  order  to  have confirmative reports for the sex reassignment (SR) surgery were interviewed at least one year after the surgery...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Martin G Frasch, Carlos J Baier, Marta C Antonelli, Gerlinde A S Metz
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early behavioral, neuroimmune, and cognitive development. Pregnant rat models have been very valuable in examining the mechanisms of such fetal programming. A newer pregnant sheep model of maternal stress offers the unique advantages of chronic in utero monitoring and manipulation. This chapter presents the techniques used to model single and multigenerational stress exposures and their pleiotropic effects on the offspring.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Martin G Frasch, Patrick Burns, Javier Benito, Marina Cortes, Mingju Cao, Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers
The non-neuronal, immunological effects of the cholinergic signaling are exerted on the system's scale of observation via the vagus nerve and on the cellular scale via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling in myeloid cells of the periphery or brain's microglia and astrocytes. The developmental effects of such multi-scale signaling can be conceived of as an example of psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) homeokinesis and, while reported in the literature, are not yet systematically well studied. To be better understood, the intricacy of the multi-scale interactions requires relevant preclinical animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kieran Ayling, Kavita Vedhara, Lucy Fairclough
Vaccine studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) provide an insight into biopsychosocial interactions and their role in infectious diseases. How to measure vaccine responses is therefore of critical importance for PNI researchers. In this chapter, traditional and modern immunoassays for the assessment of vaccine responses are discussed, highlighting how modern multiplex techniques provide researchers with greater capacity and opportunity for novel research relating to vaccine outcomes.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anna C Whittaker
This chapter explores the reasoning behind using the vaccination model to examine the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity. It then briefly discusses the mechanics of the vaccination response and the protocols used in psychoneuroimmunology vaccine research, before giving examples from the research literature of the studies examining relationships such as the association between stress and vaccination response. It also explores the ways the vaccination model can be used to answer key questions in psychoneuroimmunology, such as the following: "Does it matter when stressful life events occur relative to when the vaccine is received?" "What are the effects of prior exposure to the antigen?" "Do other psychosocial factors influence vaccine response besides stress?" Finally, it briefly considers the mechanisms underlying psychosocial factors and vaccination response associations and the future research needed to understand these better, and indeed to use current and future knowledge to improve and enhance vaccine responses in key at-risk populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonas Hannestad
Positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging is a valuable research tool that enables in vivo quantification of molecular targets in the brain or of a physiologic process. PET imaging can be combined with various experimental and clinical model systems that are commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research. As PET imaging can be used in animals and humans, promising results can therefore often be translated from an animal model to human disease.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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