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Closed kinetic chain

Robert Prill, Sven Michel, Robert Schulz, Hans-Joachim Appell Coriolano
The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are still deficits in muscle mass or strength capabilities in elite judo athletes with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) after their return to the sport. Therefore, bioimpedance analysis, 3D-laser thigh circumference measurement and isokinetic dynamometry in a closed kinetic chain were used. The side-to-side differences were investigated in a group of judo athletes 5 years after ACLR (n=17) and compared with a group of healthy judo athletes (n=27)...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ali Çağdaş Yörükoğlu, Raziye Şavkın, Nihal Büker, Khaled Yahya Abdullah Alsayani
BACKGROUND: Strong core stabilization not only minimizes the load on the vertebral column, but also improves strength and endurance of peripheral joints, and enables the energy transfer to distal segments. Despite the current interest surrounding core stability, none of the studies investigated the effect of core stability on the formation of rotator cuff tear or healing after repair. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between core stability and upper extremity functional performance in patients who underwent rotator cuff repair surgery and to compare those with healthy subjects of similar age...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Archie C Reyes, David C Plache, Astrid P Koudelka, Tina L Amyes, John A Gerlt, John P Richard
We report the results of a study of the catalytic role of a network of four interacting amino acid side chains at yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC), by the stepwise replacement of all four side chains. The H-bond, which links the -CH2 OH side chain of S154 from the pyrimidine umbrella loop of ScOMPDC to the amide side chain of Q215 in the phosphodianion gripper loop, creates a protein cage for the substrate OMP. The role of this interaction in optimizing transition state stabilization from the dianion gripper side chains Q215, Y217 and R235 was probed by determining the kinetic parameter kcat /Km for 16 enzyme variants, which include all combinations of single, double, triple and quadruple mutations of S154A Q215A, Y217F and R235A...
November 26, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jordy Bouwman, Andras Bodi, Patrick Hemberger
A solid understanding of and a reliable model for the formation pathways of polycyclic aromatic (nitrogen containing) hydrocarbons (PA(N)Hs) is needed to account for their abundance in the interstellar medium and in Titan's atmosphere as well as to mitigate the emission of these carcinogens in our terrestrial environment. We have investigated the phenyl + acrylonitrile reaction mechanism between 600 and 1200 K in a hot microreactor. Radical intermediates (C9H8N˙), formed by addition, and closed-shell C9H7N products, formed by subsequent hydrogen elimination, are isomer-selectively identified using photoion mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with Franck-Condon simulations...
November 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jagna Witek, Shuzhe Wang, Benjamin Schroeder, Robin Lingwood, Andreas Dounas, Hans Joerg Roth, Marianne Fouché, Markus Blatter, Oliver Lemke, Bettina G Keller, Sereina Riniker
Cyclization and selected backbone N-methylations are found to be often necessary but not sufficient conditions for peptidic drugs to have a good bioavailability. Thus, the design of cyclic peptides with good passive membrane permeability and good solubility remains a challenge. The backbone scaffold of a recently published series of cyclic decapeptides with six selected backbone N-methylations was designed to favor the adoption of a closed conformation with β-turns and four transannular hydrogen bonds. Although this conformation was indeed adopted by the peptides as determined by NMR measurements, substantial differences in the membrane permeability were observed...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von Stengel, Daniel Schoene, Matthias Kohl
Age-related loss of muscle mass and function, also called sarcopenia, was recently added to the ICD-10 as an independent condition. However, declines in muscle mass and function are inevitable during the adulthood aging process. Concerning muscle strength as a crucial aspect of muscle function, maximum knee extension strength might be the most important physical parameter for independent living in the community. In this study, we aimed to determine the age-related decline in maximum isokinetic knee extension (MIES) and flexion strength (MIFS) in adult men...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Victor A van de Graaf, Julia C A Noorduyn, Nienke W Willigenburg, Ise K Butter, Arthur de Gast, Ben W Mol, Daniel B F Saris, Jos W R Twisk, Rudolf W Poolman
Importance: Despite recent studies suggesting arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) is not more effective than physical therapy (PT), the procedure is still frequently performed in patients with meniscal tears. Objective: To assess whether PT is noninferior to APM for improving patient-reported knee function in patients with meniscal tears. Design, Setting, and Participants: Noninferiority, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 hospitals in the Netherlands...
October 2, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ahlan Benezar Lima, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Ericles de Paiva Vieira, Luhan Ammy Andrade Picanço, João Otacilio Libardoni Dos Santos
Functional resistance training can increase strength, knee torque ratio, and functional performance in elderly women. The aim of the present study was to understand the effects of closed kinetic chain exercises with constant load on muscular strength, the knee torque conventional ratio (hamstring:quadriceps - H:Q), and functional capacity in the elderly. Nine untrained healthy elderly women participated in experimental resistance training. Ten-repetition maximum (10RM) for the deadlift, isokinetic maximum voluntary concentric contraction, and functional capacity were assessed before and after the 7-week resistance-training program...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Inseong Cho, Mizuho Koshika, Pawel Wagner, Nagatoshi Koumura, Peter C Innis, Shogo Mori, Attila J Mozer
The strategies to enhance electron transfer rates between redox-active, light-harvesting molecules attached to semiconductor surfaces and redox mediators in solution by modifying molecular structure are not fully investigated yet. Therefore, the design of molecules with controlled electron transfer rates remains a challenge. The aims of this work are to quantify the effect of long alkyl chain substitution on the electron transfer from cobalt(II/III) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) to organic molecules containing carbazole and thiophene and to demonstrate that alkyl chains can be used to enhance electron transfer between donor-acceptor pairs...
October 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yukun Bian, Xiuli Cao, Peng Li, Nanrong Zhao
A theoretical framework based on a generalized Langevin equation with fractional Gaussian noise is presented to describe the looping kinetics of chains in polymer solutions. Particular attention is paid to quantitatively revealing crowding effects on the loop formation rate in terms of microviscosity and collapse. By the aid of empirical relations for these two crowding associated physical quantities, we explicitly investigate the relationship between the looping rate and polymer concentration, the degree of polymerization, and system parameters...
October 10, 2018: Soft Matter
Andrea Soranno, Francesca Cabassi, Maria Elena Orselli, Troy Cellmer, Alessandro Gori, Renato Longhi, Marco Buscaglia
Quenching of the triplet state of tryptophan by close contact with cysteine provides a tool for measuring the rate of intramolecular contact formation, one of the most elementary events in the folding process, in peptides and proteins using only natural probes. Here we present a study performed on a stabilized mutant of the second β-hairpin of the GB1 domain, where we combine steady-state fluorescence, laser-induced temperature-jump, and contact formation measurements to unveil the role of elementary structural components on hairpin dynamics and overall stability...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Martina Chrudinová, Lenka Žáková, Aleš Marek, Ondřej Socha, Miloš Buděšínský, Martin Hubálek, Jan Pícha, Kateřina Macháčková, Jiří Jiráček, Irena Selicharová
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are closely related hormones involved in the regulation of metabolism and growth. They elicit their functions through activation of tyrosine kinase-type receptors: insulin receptors (IR-A and IR-B) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Despite similarity in primary and three-dimensional structures, insulin and IGF-1 bind the noncognate receptor with substantially reduced affinity. We prepared [d-HisB24 , GlyB31 , TyrB32 ]-insulin, which binds all three receptors with high affinity (251 or 338% binding affinity to IR-A respectively to IR-B relative to insulin and 12...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jingxian Yu, John R Horsley, Andrew D Abell
Molecular electronics is at the forefront of interdisciplinary research, offering a significant extension of the capabilities of conventional silicon-based technology as well as providing a possible stand-alone alternative. Bio-inspired molecular electronics is a particularly intriguing paradigm, as charge transfer in proteins/peptides, for example, plays a critical role in the energy storage and conversion processes for all living organisms. However, the structure and conformation of even the simplest protein is extremely complex, and therefore, synthetic model peptides comprising well-defined geometry and predetermined functionality are ideal platforms to mimic nature for the elucidation of fundamental biological processes while also enhancing the design and development of single-peptide electronic components...
September 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xuejiao Liu, Dengguo Lai, Yin Wang
Activated carbon supported nanoscale zero-valent iron composite (NZVI/AC) at ultralow iron content was synthesized and used to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The technical characterization revealed that the loaded amorphous NZVI nanoparticles had a chain-like shape in or close to pores and were found as individual nanospheres with size of approximately 10 nm on the outer surface. The NZVI/AC with the iron content of only 1.57% showed a highly efficient Pb(II) removal performance with 95% of Pb(II) eliminated within 5 min...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yin Zhang, Xiaojin He, Rebecca Zhuo, Ruojie Sha, Jasna Brujic, Nadrian C Seeman, Paul M Chaikin
Nature self-assembles functional materials by programming flexible linear arrangements of molecules and then folding them to make 2D and 3D objects. To understand and emulate this process, we have made emulsion droplets with specific recognition and controlled valence. Uniquely monovalent droplets form dimers: divalent lead to polymer-like chains, trivalent allow for branching, and programmed mixtures of different valences enable a variety of designed architectures and the ability to subsequently close and open structures...
September 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aspen C Terry, Mark D Thelen, Michael Crowell, Donald L Goss
Background: The Musculoskeletal Readiness Screening Tool (MRST) was developed in an effort to consistently predict injury among military personnel. Current injury prediction tools have not consistently predicted injury in this population. The MRST is comprised of the weight bearing forward lunge, modified deep squat, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test (CKCUEST), forward step down with eyes closed, stationary tuck jump, unilateral wall sit hold, and subjective, individual perceived level of risk for injury...
August 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Hinda Ezzaier, Jéssica Alves Marins, Cyrille Claudet, Gauvin Hemery, Olivier Sandre, Pavel Kuzhir
In this work, we have studied field-induced aggregation and magnetic separation-realized in a microfluidic channel equipped with a single magnetizable micropillar-of multicore iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) also called "nanoflowers" of an average size of 27 ± 4 nm and covered by either a citrate or polyethylene (PEG) monolayer having a thickness of 0.2⁻1 nm and 3.4⁻7.8 nm, respectively. The thickness of the adsorbed molecular layer is shown to strongly affect the magnetic dipolar coupling parameter because thicker molecular layers result in larger separation distances between nanoparticle metal oxide multicores thus decreasing dipolar magnetic forces between them...
August 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
Rafaela Maria da Silva, Mariana Alves Bezerra, Aldair Darlan Santos-de-Araújo, Cid André Fidelis de Paula Gomes, Cesário da Silva Souza, Priscila Helena Vanin Alves de Souza Matias, Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho
OBJECTIVE: To correlate the range of movement and functional performance of the shoulder with pain measures in inactive individuals with and without neck pain. In addition, comparisons were made between the groups. METHODS: The sample comprised two groups of inactive adults, aged 18-45 years: chronic neck pain (n = 30) and healthy subjects (n = 30). All participants had no clinical dysfunction in the shoulder joint. Aspects related to neck pain were evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, and the Catastrophic Thoughts about Pain Scale...
October 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Marzieh Najafi, Neda Kordalivand, Mohammad-Amin Moradi, Joep van den Dikkenberg, Remco Fokkink, Heiner Friedrich, Nico A J M Sommerdijk, Mathew Hembury, Tina Vermonden
In this study, native chemical ligation (NCL) was used as a selective cross-linking method to form core-cross-linked thermosensitive polymeric micelles for drug delivery applications. To this end, two complementary ABA triblock copolymers having polyethylene glycol (PEG) as midblock were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The thermosensitive poly isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) outer blocks of the polymers were copolymerized with either N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-cysteine (HPMA-Cys), P(NIPAM- co-HPMA-Cys)-PEG-P(NIPAM- co-HPMA-Cys) (PNC) or N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-ethylthioglycolate succinic acid (HPMA-ETSA), P(NIPAM- co-HPMA-ETSA)-PEG-P(NIPAM- co-HPMA-ETSA) (PNE)...
September 10, 2018: Biomacromolecules
David A Krause, Joshua J Elliott, Domenic F Fraboni, Taylor J McWilliams, Rachel L Rebhan, John H Hollman
Background: The lunge is a closed kinetic chain exercise that athletes frequently use as part of training and rehabilitative programs. While typically performed on a stable surface, modifications include the use of balance platforms to create an unstable surface and suspension equipment. Suspension training exercises are theorized to be higher demand exercises and may be considered a progression from exercises on stable surfaces. Comparison of muscle recruitment between the suspended lunge and the standard lunge has not been reported...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
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