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Thermal physiology

Mahtab Mohammadi, Nasrollah Mahboobi-Soofiani, Omidvar Farhadian, Pedram Malekpouri
Changes in water temperature and pH levels have substantial adverse effects on aquatic organisms, hence causing physiological constraint on their well-being. To understand the physiological responses of Chondrostoma regium to temperature or pH changes, standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), absolute and factorial aerobic scope (AS&FAS) as well as the specific rate of ammonia excretion (Jamm ) were measured at following temperatures: acute low (3.5-4.5 °C), 24 h low (5.5-6.5 °C), 7 d low (5...
August 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nazia Nawaz, Olga Troynikov
Often male and female workers wear protective garments of identical construction and style, with females typically wearing small-sized men's garments. Consequently, the air spaces under garments worn by male and female wearers can substantially differ in size and distribution affecting the physiological comfort of firefighters' protective clothing. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of varying dimensions and distributions of air spaces in the next-to-skin microclimate under firefighter's protective jackets on attributes relevant to the thermal comfort of wearer, not only in relation to garment construction and fit, but also to human body geometry using 3D body scanning...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Ekta Shukla, Leena Thorat, Ameya D Bendre, Santosh Jadhav, Jayanta K Pal, Bimalendu B Nath, Sushama M Gaikwad
Insect trehalase is a multiferous enzyme, crucial for normal physiological functions as well as under stress conditions. In this report, we present a fundamental study of the trehalase gene segment (1587 bp) from Chironomus ramosus (CrTre) encoding for 529 amino acids, using appropriate bioinformatics tools. C. ramosus , a tropical midge is an emerging animal model to investigate the consequences of environmental stresses. We observed that CrTre belongs to GH family 37 in the CAZy database and possess 57-92% identity to dipteran trehalases...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy, Carolina Sanhueza, Cristián E Hernández, Leonardo Cifuentes, Katherine Pinto, Rodrigo Álvarez, Marcia González-Teuber, León A Bravo
Drought during senescence has become more common in Mediterranean climates in recent years. Chenopodium quinoa Willd has been identified as tolerant to poor soil conditions and drought. Previous observations have found that sufficient nitrogen (N) supply mitigates yield losses under terminal drought conditions. However, there is no understanding of the mechanisms behind this effect. We hypothesized that N up-regulates both photosynthetic and photoprotective elements during drought-induced senescence, alleviating the negative impact of drought on yield...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sunghyun Yoon, Jai Kyoung Sim, Noeul Park, Young-Ho Cho
This is the first ever proposal to use skin hardness as a physiological sign by which to estimate human thermal status and to verify its effectiveness and independence in relation to the two conventional signs: skin temperature and skin conductance. We propose a novel TSV model adding skin hardness to the conventional TSV model for better estimation of human thermal status with higher accuracy and lower error. We survey individual thermal sensation from 30 subjects under four different thermal conditions (normal, warm, hot, and cold); while measuring skin hardness along with the two conventional physiological signs...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Genevieve Matthews, Celine T Goulet, Kaspar Delhey, Zak S Atkins, Geoffrey M While, Michael G Gardner, David G Chapple
1.Phenotypic variation provides the framework for natural selection to work upon, enabling adaptive evolution. One of the most discernible manifestations of phenotypic variability is colour variation. When this variation is discrete, genetically-based colour pattern morphs occur simultaneously within a population. 2.Why and how colour polymorphisms are maintained is an evolutionary puzzle. Several evolutionary drivers have been hypothesized as influencing clinal patterns of morph frequency, with spatial variation in climate and predation being considered especially important...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Olga A Kildisheva, Todd E Erickson, Matthew D Madsen, Kingsley W Dixon, David J Merritt
In degraded dryland systems, native plant community re-establishment following disturbance is almost exclusively carried out using seeds, but these efforts commonly fail. Much of this failure can be attributed to the limited understanding of seed dormancy and germination traits. We undertook a systematic classification of seed dormancy of 26 species of annual and perennial forbs and shrubs that represent key, dominant genera used in restoration of the Great Basin ecosystem in the western United States. We examined germination across a wide thermal profile to depict species-specific characteristics and assessed the potential of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) and karrikinolide (KAR1 ) to expand the thermal germination envelope of fresh seeds...
August 11, 2018: Plant Biology
B K Henry, R J Eckard, K A Beauchemin
There is growing evidence on the extent to which projected changes in climate, including increases in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, higher temperatures, changes in amount, seasonality and variability of precipitation and increases in extreme weather events, may affect future availability of ruminant animal products. Elements of climate change affect livestock systems through direct impacts on animal physiology, behaviour, production and welfare and indirectly through feed availability, composition and quality...
August 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Guo-Dong Han, Stephen R Cartwright, Monthon Ganmanee, Benny K K Chan, Kee A A Adzis, Neil Hutchinson, Jie Wang, Tommy Y Hui, Gray A Williams, Yun-Wei Dong
Populations at the edge of their species' distribution ranges are typically living at the physiological extreme of the environmental conditions they can tolerate. As a species' response to global change is likely to be largely determined by its physiological performance, subsequent changes in environmental conditions can profoundly influence populations at range edges, resulting in range extensions or retractions. To understand the differential physiological performance among populations at their distribution range edge and center, we measured levels of mRNA for heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as an indicator of temperature sensitivity in two high-shore littorinid snails, Echinolittorina malaccana and E...
August 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael Rein, Valentine Dominique Favrod, Chong Hou, Tural Khudiyev, Alexander Stolyarov, Jason Cox, Chia-Chun Chung, Chhea Chhav, Marty Ellis, John Joannopoulos, Yoel Fink
Semiconductor diodes are basic building blocks of modern computation, communications and sensing1 . As such, incorporating them into textile-grade fibres can increase fabric capabilities and functions2 ,  to encompass, for example,  fabric-based communications or physiological monitoring. However, processing challenges have so far precluded the realization of semiconducting diodes of high quality in thermally drawn fibres. Here we demonstrate a scalable thermal drawing process of electrically connected diode fibres...
August 2018: Nature
Christopher Watson, Olga Troynikov, Helen Lingard
Personal protective clothing (PPC) is mandatory in hazardous industrial workplaces, but can increase thermophysiological strain, causing fatigue, reduced productivity, illness and injury. We systematically reviewed the literature on PPC and heat stress, focusing on research relating to working conditions of high temperature and humidity. PPC must protect industrial workers from a wide variety of hazards, including sun damage, abrasion, chemical spills and electrical burns; these competing demands inevitably compromise thermal performance...
August 8, 2018: Industrial Health
Alberto Garre, Jose A Egea, Asunción Iguaz, Alfredo Palop, Pablo S Fernandez
Decisions regarding microbial risk assessment usually have to be carried out with incomplete information. This is due to the large number of possible scenarios and the lack of specific data for the problem considered. Consequently, risk assessment studies are based on the information obtained with a small number of bacterial cells which are considered the most heat resistant and/or more capable of multiplying during storage. The identification of the most resistant strains is usually based on D and z-values, normally estimated from isothermal experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lusine Gomtsian, Kirsty Bannister, Nathan Eyde, Dagoberto Robles, Anthony H Dickenson, Frank Porreca, Edita Navratilova
Modulation of pain may result from engagement of opioid receptors in multiple brain regions. Whether sensory and affective qualities of pain are differentially affected by brain opioid receptor circuits remains unclear. We previously reported that opioid actions within the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) produces selective modulation of affective qualities of neuropathic pain in rodents but whether such effects may occur in other areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is not known. Here, morphine was microinjected in three regions of the ACC or in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and pain behaviors in naïve, sham or spinal nerve ligated (SNL) rats were evaluated...
August 2, 2018: Pain
Katy Vincent, Charlotte J Stagg, Catherine E Warnaby, Jane Moore, Stephen Kennedy, Irene Tracey
Background: Pregnancy-induced analgesia is known to occur in association with the very high levels of estradiol and progesterone circulating during pregnancy. In women with natural ovulatory menstrual cycles, more modest rises in these hormones occur on a monthly basis. We therefore hypothesized that the high estradiol high progesterone state indicative of ovulation would be associated with a reduction in the pain experience. Methods: We used fMRI and a noxious thermal stimulus to explore the relationship between sex steroid hormones and the pain experience...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Christopher D Robinson, Matthew E Gifford
Physiological changes in response to environmental cues are not uncommon. Temperature has strong, predictable effects on many traits, such that many traits in ectotherms follow stereotyped thermal performance curves in response to increasing temperature. The prairie lizard-an abundant lizard throughout the central United States-has thermally sensitive, blue abdominal and throat patches. Currently, the role of these patches is not well understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether individual plasticity in patch color paralleled individual plasticity in sprint speed (do they covary), and if the plasticity in these two patches signal redundant or independent information, testing competing hypotheses suggested for the evolution of multiple signals...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Graham Ellis-Davies, Stefan Passlick, Matthew T Richers
Photoswitchable bioprobes enable bidirectional control of cell physiology with different wavelengths of light. Many current photoswitches use cytotoxic UV light and are limited by the need for constant illumination due to thermal relaxation in the dark. We have developed a photoswitchable tetrafluoroazobenzene(4FAB)-based ion channel antagonist that can be efficiently isomerized in two separate optical channels with visible light. . In neurons, the 4FAB antagonist reversibly blocks voltage-gated ion channels with violet and green light...
August 3, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Natascha Wosnick, Carlos A Navas, Yuri V Niella, Emygdio L A Monteiro-Filho, Carolina Arruda Freire, Neil Hammerschlag
Fish physiology is significantly affected by temperature variability. During fisheries interactions, fish are often exposed to air and subjected to rapid temperature changes. Fish thermal dynamics during such exposure, and the possible outcomes to their physiology, depend on how heat is distributed across their bodies, the speed at which their body temperatures change, and the size of the individual. Nevertheless, such thermal patterns remain unknown for sharks. This study employed a novel application of thermal imaging to evaluate external body temperature profiles of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) above-water exposure after capture...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Alexander Rebl, Marieke Verleih, Mareen Nipkow, Simone Altmann, Ralf Bochert, Tom Goldammer
The complex and still poorly understood nature of thermoregulation in various fish species complicates the determination of the physiological status on the basis of diagnostic marker genes and indicative molecular pathways. The present study aimed to compare the physiological impacts of both gradual and acute temperature rise from 18 to 24°C on maraena whitefish in aquaculture. Microarray-based transcriptome profiles in the liver, spleen and kidney of heat-stressed maraena whitefish revealed the modulation of a significantly higher number of genes in those groups exposed to gradually rising temperatures compared with the acutely stressed groups, which might reflect early adaptation mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Alexander J Novarro, Caitlin R Gabor, Cory B Goff, Tori D Mezebish, Lily M Thompson, Kristine L Grayson
Widespread species often possess physiological mechanisms for coping with thermal heterogeneity, and uncovering these mechanisms provides insight into species responses to climate change. The emergence of non-invasive corticosterone (CORT) assays allows us to rapidly assess physiological responses to environmental change on a large scale. We lack, however, a basic understanding of how temperature affects CORT, and whether temperature and CORT interactively affect performance. Here, we examine the effects of elevated temperature on CORT and whole-organism performance in a terrestrial salamander, Plethodon cinereus, across a latitudinal gradient...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Aura M Barria, Leonardo D Bacigalupe, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies
Populations of broadly distributed species commonly exhibit latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance and physiological plasticity. This variation can be interrupted when biogeographic breaks occur across the range of a species, which are known to affect patterns of community structure, abundance, and recruitment dynamics. Coastal biogeographic breaks often impose abrupt changes in environmental characteristics driven by oceanographic processes and can affect the physiological responses of populations inhabiting these areas...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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