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Thermal physiology

Muhammad Mujtaba, Rania E Morsi, Garry Kerch, Maher Z Elsabee, Murat Kaya, Jalel Labidi, Khalid Mahmood Khawar
Chitosan is obtained from chitin, which could be considered to be the most abundant polymer after cellulose. Owing to these properties, chitosan alone or chitosan-based composite film production is attaining huge attention in terms of applications from researchers and industrialists coming from divergent fields. To enhance the biological (mainly antimicrobial and antioxidant) and physiological (mainly mechanical, thermal and barrier) attributes of the chitosan-based films, a vast medley of plant extracts and supporting polymers has been blended into chitosan films...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sally M Chambers, Nancy C Emery
Species-level responses to environmental change depend on the collective responses of their constituent populations and the degree to which populations are specialized to local conditions. Manipulative experiments in common-garden settings make it possible to test for population variation in species' responses to specific climate variables, including those projected to shift as the climate changes in the future. While this approach is being applied to a variety of plant taxa to evaluate their responses to climate change, these studies are heavily biased towards seed-bearing plant species...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Arash Akbarzadeh, Oliver P Günther, Aimee Lee Houde, Shaorong Li, Tobi J Ming, Kenneth M Jeffries, Scott G Hinch, Kristina M Miller
BACKGROUND: Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) serve as good biological indicators of the breadth of climate warming effects on fish because their anadromous life cycle exposes them to environmental challenges in both marine and freshwater environments. Our study sought to mine the extensive functional genomic studies in fishes to identify robust thermally-responsive biomarkers that could monitor molecular physiological signatures of chronic thermal stress in fish using non-lethal sampling of gill tissue...
October 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Anders Eriksson, Prachi Anand, Juliette Gorson, Corina Grijuc, Elina Hadelia, James C Stewart, Mandë Holford, Adam Claridge-Chang
The number of newly discovered peptides from the transcriptomes and proteomes of animal venom arsenals is rapidly increasing, resulting in an abundance of uncharacterized peptides. There is a pressing need for a systematic, cost effective, and scalable approach to identify physiological effects of venom peptides. To address this discovery-to-function gap, we developed a sequence driven:activity-based hybrid approach for screening venom peptides that is amenable to large-venom peptide libraries with minimal amounts of peptide...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie J Gupte, W Benton Swanson, Jiang Hu, Xiaobing Jin, Haiyun Ma, Zhanpeng Zhang, Zhongning Liu, Kai Feng, Ganjun Feng, Guiyong Xiao, Nan Hatch, Yuji Mishina, Peter X Ma
In the U.S., 30% of adults suffer joint pain, most commonly in the knee, which severely limits mobility and is often attributed to injury of cartilage and underlying bone in the joint. Current treatment methods such as microfracture result in less resilient fibrocartilage with eventual failure; autografting can cause donor site morbidity and poor integration. To overcome drawbacks in treatment, tissue engineers can design cell-instructive biomimetic scaffolds using biocompatible materials as alternate therapies for osteochondral defects...
October 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Chang-Hee Whang, Hyung Kyung Lee, Santanu Kundu, S Narasimha Murthy, Seongbong Jo
Thermo-sensitive hydrogels are considered ideal for applications in the biomedical fields for their biocompatibility, flexibility, tissue-like water content, and reversible gelation property. By adjusting sufficient hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in block copolymer structure, thermogel's critical gelation temperature can be modified to be near the physiological temperature, which makes it an appealing candidate for in situ gel depot. In this study, we report successful syntheses of novel multiple block copolymer compounds, denoted as dual-stimuli sensitive polymers (DSSPs), by copolymerizing Pluronic® P104 (7,100 Da) and 2,2-bis(aminoethoxy)propane (BAP) using diisocyanate linkers, L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (DSSP-1) and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (DSSP-2)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Chengwei Peng, Chuanqing Zhang, Zhe Su, Dongyang Lin
Neuropathic pain caused by somatosensory nervous system dysfunction is a serious public health problem. Some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can participate in physiological processes involved in neuropathic pain. However, the effects of lncRNA DGCR5 in neuropathic pain have not been explored. Therefore, in our current study, we concentrated on the biological roles of DGCR5 in neuropathic pain. Here, it was observed that DGCR5 was significantly decreased in chronic sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rat models. DGCR5 overexpression was able to alleviate neuropathic pain development including mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yu Hirano, Naoshi Kojima, Yasuo Komatsu
Interstrand cross-linking of DNA or RNA inhibits the double strands from dissociating into single strands. This article contains detailed procedures for the synthesis of a novel interstrand cross-linker that comprises a bis-aminooxy naphthalene derivative and a description of its use in the preparation of sequence-specific interstrand cross-linked oligonucleotide duplexes. The interstrand cross-linker covalently connects a pair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in DNA/RNA duplexes with bis(aminooxy) groups. The resulting oxime linkages are stable under physiological conditions and greatly improve the thermal stability of the duplex...
October 13, 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Kim Jensen, Søren Toft, Lene Sigsgaard, Jesper G Sørensen, Martin Holmstrup
1.Temperature influences biological processes of ectotherms including ecological interactions, but interaction strengths may depend on species-specific traits. Furthermore, ectotherms acclimate to prevailing thermal conditions by adjusting physiological parameters, which often implies costs to other fitness-related parameters. Both predators and prey may therefore pay thermal acclimation costs following exposure to suboptimal temperatures. However, these costs may be asymmetrical between predator and prey, and between the predator and different species of concurrent prey...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Salvador Herrando-Pérez, Francisco Ferri-Yáñez, Camila Monasterio, Wouter Beukema, Verónica Gomes, Josabel Belliure, Steven L Chown, David R Vieites, Miguel B Araújo
1.Research addressing the effects of global warming on the distribution and persistence of species generally assumes that population variation in thermal tolerance is spatially constant or overridden by interspecific variation. Typically, this rationale is implicit in sourcing one critical thermal maximum (CTmax ) population estimate per species to model spatiotemporal cross-taxa variation in heat tolerance. Theory suggests that such an approach could result in biased or imprecise estimates and forecasts of impact from climate warming, but limited empirical evidence in support of those expectations exists...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Wenshuang Li, David Carrasco Flores, Juliane Füßel, Jan Euteneuer, Hannes Dathe, Yong Zou, Wolfram Weisheit, Volker Wagner, Jan Petersen, Maria Mittag
Microalgae contribute significantly to carbon fixation on Earth. Global warming influences their physiology and growth rates. To understand algal short-term acclimation and adaptation to changes in ambient temperature, it is essential to identify and characterize the molecular components that sense small temperature changes, as well as the downstream signaling networks and physiological responses. Here, we used the green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study responses to temperature...
October 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Jordan Beasley, Stephen Kissane, Luisa Orsini
Species extinction rates are many times greater than the direst predictions made two decades ago by environmentalists, largely because of human impact. Major concerns are associated with the predicted higher recurrence and severity of extreme events, such as heat waves. Although tolerance to these extreme events is instrumental to species survival, little is known whether and how it evolves in natural populations, and to what extent it is affected by other environmental stressors. Here, we study physiological and molecular mechanisms of thermal tolerance over evolutionary times in multifarious environments...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Arnab Basu, Kate E Shields, Christopher S Eickhoff, Daniel F Hoft, Mee-Ngan F Yap
The translationally silent 100S ribosome is a poorly understood form of the dimeric 70S complex that is ubiquitously found in all bacterial phyla. Eliminating the hibernating 100S ribosome leads to translational derepression, ribosome instability, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm defects in some bacteria. In Firmicutes, such as the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus , a 190-amino acids protein called <u>h</u> ibernating- <u>p</u> romoting <u>f</u> actor (HPF) dimerizes and conjoins two 70S ribosomes through a direct interaction between the HPF homodimer, with each HPF monomer tethered on an individual 70S complex...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Oscar E Juárez, Fabiola Lafarga-De la Cruz, Ignacio Leyva-Valencia, Edgar López-Landavery, Zaúl García-Esquivel, Fernando Díaz, Denisse Re-Araujo, Brent Vadopalas, Clara E Galindo-Sánchez
The Cortes geoduck Panopea globosa is a large bivalve with a high commercial value distributed from the southern Pacific coast of the Baja California Peninsula to the northern Gulf of California, inhabiting a wide range of subtropical temperatures. A new record of this species in shallower waters suggests that it can tolerate a warmer environment than previously thought. To better understand the whole-body and molecular response mechanisms to different temperatures, we assessed the metabolic rate of juvenile individuals exposed to chronic and acute thermal conditions and analyzed the transcriptomic response in ctenidial tissues...
October 4, 2018: Marine Genomics
Gábor Pozsgai, István Zoárd Bátai, Erika Pintér
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous mediator in various physiological and pathological processes, including neuro-immune-modulation, metabolic pathways, cardiovascular system, tumour growth, inflammation and pain etc. Nowadays hydrogen polysulfides (H2 Sn ) have turned up as signalling molecules modulating ion channels, transcription factors and protein kinases. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels can be activated by mechanical, thermal or chemical triggers. Here, we review the current literature regarding biological actions of sulfide and polysulfide compounds mediated by TRP-s with special emphasis on the role of TRPA1...
October 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Youn Henry, Hervé Colinet
It is now acknowledged that bacteria from gut microbiota deeply interact with their host by altering many physiological traits. Such interplay is likely to consequently affect stress tolerance. Here, we compared cold and heat tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster flies with undisrupted (control (Co)) versus disrupted gut microbiota (dechorionated eggs (De)). The disrupting treatment strongly reduced bacterial load in flies' guts, though 16S sequencing analysis did not evidence strong diversity changes in the remaining bacterial community...
September 17, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Kyung-Eun Gil, Chung-Mo Park
Plant growth and development is widely affected by diverse temperature conditions. While studies have been focused mainly on the effects of stressful temperature extremes in recent decades, nonstressful ambient temperatures also influence an array of plant growth and morphogenic aspects, a process termed thermomorphogenesis. Notably, accumulating evidence indicate that both stressful and nonstressful temperatures modulate the functional process of the circadian clock, a molecular timer of biological rhythms in higher eukaryotes and photosynthetic prokaryotes...
October 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Vanesa Astudillo, Mariela Córdoba, Graciela Mirta Blanco, Donald Miles
Locomotion is relevant to the ecology of reptiles because of its presumed influence on an organism's Darwinian fitness. Moreover, in ectothermic species, physiological performance capacity is affected by body temperature. We analyzed two components of locomotor performance in three species of lizards, Phymaturus extrilidus, Liolaemus parvus, and Liolaemus ruibali, in the Puna environment of Argentina. First, we estimated the thermal sensitivity of locomotion by measuring sprint speed at four different body temperatures...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Sumanta Kumar Ghosh, Aatrayee Das, Aalok Basu, Asim Halder, Suvadra Das, Sreyasree Basu, Md Farooque Abdullah, Arup Mukherjee, Sonia Kundu
The present work reports the synthesis of new generation semi-interpenetrating (s-IPN) hydrogels from carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) and gelatin with enhanced gel properties for suitable drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are three dimensional polymer networks which respond to water and ion interactions. Irreversible s-IPN hydrogels were prepared by CMGG interactions in gelatin and characterized in FT-IR, SEM and thermal studies. CMGG was synthesized by Hofmeister ion guided homogeneous phase reactions. The swelling kinetics of the newer s-IPN hydrogels followed Schott's pseudo second order model...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tillmann J Benfey, Robert H Devlin
Polyploidy is an important driver of evolutionary change (generally via tetraploidy) and also serves a practical role in aquaculture and fisheries management (via triploidy). Fundamental changes in cell size and number that accompany polyploidy are predicted to affect cellular and whole-animal physiology due to constraints placed on surface-mediated processes at the cellular level, potentially altering environmental tolerances and optima. The aim of this study was to determine whether the documented reduction in thermal tolerance of aquatic polyploids is a result of their being less hypoxia tolerant...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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