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Thermal physiology

Feifan Du, Max A Kruziki, Elizabeth J Zudock, Yi Zhang, Patrick S Lown, Benjamin J Hackel
The Gp2 domain is a 45 amino-acid scaffold that has been evolved for specific, high-affinity binding towards multiple targets, and was proven useful in molecular imaging and biological antagonism. It was hypothesized that Gp2 may benefit from increased hydrophilicity for improved physiological distribution as well as for physicochemical robustness. We identified seven exposed hydrophobic sites for hydrophilic mutations and experimentally evaluated single mutants, which yielded six mutations that do not substantially hinder expression, binding affinity or specificity (to epidermal growth factor receptor), and thermal stability...
December 8, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Long Yang, Lucas Caire da Silva, Héloïse Thérien-Aubin, Markus B Bannwarth, Katharina Landfester
A reversible polymer photoacid with a thermal on/off switch at physiological temperature able to trigger a large pH modulation of its environment is prepared. Light is used to control the acidity of the solution. Additionally, the temperature could be used to modulate the photoacid efficiency, practically turning on and off the ability of the polymer to produce protons. The behavior of this thermoresponsive photoacid copolymer is the result of the combined action of the temperature-responsive N-isopropylacrylamide and of a reversible photoacid monomer based on a spiropyran derivative...
December 7, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Carly D Kenkel, Line K Bay
The coral symbiosis is the linchpin of the reef ecosystem, yet the mechanisms that promote and maintain cooperation between hosts and symbionts have not been fully resolved. We used a phylogenetically controlled design to investigate the role of vertical symbiont transmission, an evolutionary mechanism in which symbionts are inherited directly from parents, predicted to enhance cooperation and holobiont fitness. Six species of coral, three vertical transmitters and their closest horizontally transmitting relatives, which exhibit environmental acquisition of symbionts, were fragmented and subjected to a 2-week thermal stress experiment...
2018: PeerJ
Nicole Adam, Mirjam Perner
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents may provide one of the largest reservoirs on Earth for hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms. Depending on the type of geological setting, hydrothermal environments can be considerably enriched in hydrogen (up to millimolar concentrations). As hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids ascend to the seafloor they mix with entrained cold, oxygenated seawater, forming thermal and chemical gradients along their fluid pathways. Consequently, in these thermally and chemically dynamic habitats biochemically distinct hydrogenases (adapted to various temperature regimes, oxygen and hydrogen concentrations) from physiologically and phylogenetically diverse Bacteria and Archaea can be expected...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yifan Zhang, Ralf Moeller, Sophia Tran, Barbora Dubovcova, Georgios Akepsimaidis, Nicolas Meneses, David Drissner, Alexander Mathys
Low energy electron beam (LEEB) treatment is an emerging non-thermal technology that performs surface decontamination with a minimal influence on food quality. Bacterial spore resistance toward LEEB treatment and its influencing factors were investigated in this study. Spores from Geobacillus and Bacillus species were treated with a lab-scale LEEB at energy levels of 80 and 200 keV. The spore resistances were expressed as D -values (the radiation dose required for one log10 reduction at a given energy level) calculated from the linear regression of log10 reduction against absorbed dose of the sample...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thaylise de Cassia Santos Przepiura, Tatiana Herrerias, Priscila Krebsbach Kandalski, Tania Zaleski, Cintia Machado, Mariana Forgati, Maria Rosa Dmengeon Pedreiro de Souza, Lucélia Donatti
Antarctic Nototheniidae is an attractive group for studying metabolic and physiological responses at high temperatures. The present work investigated the metabolic responses of the carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant system to thermal stress at 8°C (for 2-144 h) in the brains of Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps. In N. coriiceps, glycogenolysis was essential in the first hours of exposure (2 h) at 8°C and, in addition to inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase activity, was important for activating the pentose phosphate pathway...
December 5, 2018: Brain Research
Yimin Qiu, Erik Poppleton, Arya Mekkat, Hongtao Yu, Sourav Banerjee, Sandra E Wiley, Jack E Dixon, David L Kaplan, Yu-Shan Lin, Barbara Brodsky
Phosphoproteomics studies have reported phosphorylation at multiple sites within collagen, raising the possibility that these post-translational modifications regulate the physical or biological properties of collagen. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations and experimental studies were carried out on model peptides to establish foundational principles of phosphorylation of Ser residues in collagen. A (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)11 peptide was designed to include a Ser-containing sequence from type I collagen that was reported to be phosphorylated...
November 16, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Zece Zhu, Di Tian, Pengli Gao, Ke Wang, Yuce Li, Xuewen Shu, Jintao Zhu, Qiang Zhao
Luminescent probes and nanoparticles (NPs) with long excited state lifetimes are essential for time-resolved biological imaging. Generally, cell membranes are physiological barriers that could prevent the uptake of many unnatural compounds. It is still a big challenge to prepare biocompatible imaging agents with high cytomembrane permeability, especially for nonmetallic NPs with long-lived luminescence. Herein, an amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptide, F6 G6 (rR)3 R2 , was designed to transport hydrophobic fluorophores across cellular barriers...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kunihiko Kobayashi, ChangKyu Yoon, Seung Hyun Oh, Jayson Pagaduan, David H Gracias
Soft-robotic devices such as polymeric microgrippers offer the possibility for pick-and-place of fragile biological cargo in hard to reach conduits with potential applications in drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery and biomedical engineering. Previously, millimeter-sized self-folding thermomagnetically responsive soft-grippers have been designed, fabricated, and utilized for pick-and-place applications but there is the concern that such devices could get lost or left behind after their utilization in practical clinical applications in the human body...
December 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Min-Chen Wang, Hui-Chen Lin
Two major strategies are used by most fish to maintain energy homeostasis under hypoxia. One is to utilize alternative metabolic pathways to increase energy production, and the other is to limit energy expenditure by suppressing energy-consuming processes, especially ionoregulation. Some anabantoid fishes live in tropical rivers, where hypoxic environments occur frequently. We previously found that under ambient hypoxia, anabantoid fishes do not downregulate Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) activity to conserve energy in gills but instead increase the frequency of air-breathing respiration (ABR)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Amin Derakhshan, Mohammad Mikaeili, Ali Motie Nasrabadi, Tom Gedeon
We introduced a novel framework to identify the dynamic pattern of blood flow changes in the cutaneous superficial blood vessels of the face for "fight or flight" responses through facial thermal imaging. For this purpose, a thermal data set was collected from 32 subjects in a mock crime scenario. Five facial areas including periorbital, forehead, perinasal, cheek and chin were selected on the face. Due to the cause and effect movement of blood in the facial cutaneous vasculature, the effective connectivity approach and graph analysis were used to extract causality features...
November 13, 2018: Physiological Measurement
R Abdullaiev, G Oleynik, V Kremen, A Gryazin, E Timchenko
The problem of treating patients with loss of the skin and with a complicated course of the wound process remains topical. The problem is that, despite the relative technical simplicity of the dermatension method, the most significant complication is the decubitus of the stretchable flap, which is associated with a relatively high incidence of acute blood circulatory disturbances in the stretch tissues due to vascular compression with an excessive amount of injected fluid. The aim of the work is to improve the method of dermatension in reconstructive and recovery surgery of soft tissue defects of various genesis by planning and implementing dermatension at all its steps with instrumental control of the process using ultrasound and ICT in a complex...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Yesenia Becerra-Contreras, Alma Vázquez-Luna, Rafaél Díaz-Sobac, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa
Acrylamide is a vinyl monomer that is widely used for the synthesis of polyacrylamides, the treatment of drinking water, and as an additive in cosmetics. Acrylamide is also produced during the thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods. Although the potential toxic effects of acrylamide have been reported, few studies have evaluated biochemical parameters in blood. The present study investigated alterations of blood chemistry, hepatic function, and blood cytometry in acrylamide-treated rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were assigned to four experimental groups ( n  = 8/group): one control group received 0...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Tiffany J Nay, Connor R Gervais, Andrew S Hoey, Jacob L Johansen, John F Steffensen, Jodie L Rummer
Temperature has a profound effect on all life and a particularly influential effect on ectotherms, such as fishes. Amphibious fishes have a variety of strategies, both physiological and/or behavioural, to cope with a broad range of thermal conditions. This study examined the relationship between prolonged (5 weeks) exposure to a range of temperatures (22, 25, 28, or 32 °C) on oxygen uptake rate and movement behaviours (i.e., thermoregulation and emergence) in a common amphibious fish, the barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilneatuis)...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
John Elson, Steve Eckels
Quantifying the impact of clothing thermal and evaporation resistance is essential to providing representative boundary conditions for physiological modeling. In many models, sweat is assumed to drip off the skin surface to the environment and is not captured in clothing. In high metabolic rate and high temperature and humidity conditions the sweat produced by the body has the potential to saturate semipermeable clothing ensembles, changing the assumptions of the model. Workers, athletes and soldiers commonly wear encapsulating versions of such clothing to protect against environmental hazards...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Kate E Lynch, Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a generalist pest that poses a significant threat to the Australian horticultural industry. This species has become broadly established across latitudes that encompass tropical to temperate climates, and hence populations occupy diverse thermal niches. Successful expansion across this range may have been brokered by evolutionarily labile features of breeding phenology, physiology and/or behaviour. We explored the potential role of behavioural flexibility by characterizing variation in adult thermal preference using a novel gradient apparatus...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Kaitlin Baudier, Sean O'Donnell
In social insects, group members can differ in thermal physiology, and these differences may affect colony function. Upper thermal tolerance limits (CTmax) generally increase with body size among and within ant species, but size effects on lower thermal tolerances (CTmin) are poorly known. To test whether CTmin co-variation with body size matched patterns for CTmax, we measured CTmax and CTmin in workers of four size-based worker subcastes in the army ant Eciton burchellii parvispinum. CTmax increased with worker body size as expected...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Martin C F Cheng, Gianluca Sarà, Gray A Williams
Organisms can mitigate the effects of long term variation in environmental conditions through acclimation, which involves changes in various physiological responses. To elucidate the possible effects of temperature and food concentrations on acclimation capacity, physiological responses of the mussel, Perna viridis, were measured after individuals were held for six weeks under varying temperatures and food availability. Warm-acclimated mussels experiencing higher food levels had significantly greater upper thermal limits than those maintained on lower food levels...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Heather E M Liwanag, Daniel Haro, Breanna Callejas, Gloria Labib, Gregory B Pauly
Temperature has a substantial effect on both the physiology and behavior of ectothermic animals such as lizards. Physiology and behavior can also be influenced by ontogenetic and sex differences, but these effects are largely understudied in lizards. We examined ontogenetic and sex-based differences in thermal tolerances, preferred temperature, and temperature-dependent evaporative water loss rates in Italian Wall Lizards, Podarcis siculus, collected from an introduced population near Los Angeles, California, USA that were acclimated to laboratory conditions...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Michael W Schleh, Brent C Ruby, Charles L Dumke
Heat acclimation lowers physiological strain when exercising in the heat, and may be enhanced by promoting dehydration during acclimation. The purpose was to compare fluid intake during heat acclimation by promoting dehydration (DEH=0.5 mL kg-1 15 min-1 , ~2.4% dehydration per acclimation session) compared to euhydration (EUH=2.0 mL kg-1 15 min-1 , ~1.4% dehydration per acclimation session) following four heat acclimation bouts on thermal strain, and exercise performance. Thirteen males completed 90 min heat stress tests (HST) at 50% VO2max (40 °C, 30%RH) before and after three 90 min heat acclimation trials, involving consecutive bouts with 4-fold less fluid (DEH) or EUH...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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