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Long-term athletic development

Grant T Baldwin, Matthew J Breiding, R Dawn Comstock
Sports and recreation-related (SRR) activities are common in the United States. Beyond the benefits to health, SRR activities can create new friendships, give people a sense of belonging, foster teamwork and other leadership skills, and develop sportsmanship and a respect for rules that govern play. Public awareness about the risk of concussion has grown as the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have become better known, and likely explains the increasing concussion incidence rates. Currently, surveillance systems capture SRR concussions among high school and college athletes participating in sanctioned sports...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Edward T Ha, Michael L Weinrauch, Jeffrey Brensilver
Currently, the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of anabolic steroids is not well documented. Recent studies have shown that its use may potentiate the development of cardiac dysfunction in the short term. This case report describes an encounter that supports a causal link between anabolic-androgenic steroid use (AAS) and cardiomyopathy later in life. We herein present a case study of a 73-year-old prior Olympic athlete who had misused AAS for 20 years and subsequently was found to have developed a systolic and diastolic cardiomyopathy, presumably due to long-standing left ventricular hypertrophy...
September 17, 2018: Curēus
Alberto Gobbi, Graeme P Whyte
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment to repair partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury without reconstruction has demonstrated inconsistent clinical success. PURPOSE: To examine the long-term clinical outcomes of primary ACL repair combined with biologic healing augmentation in patients with symptomatic partial ACL tears. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: 50 patients (mean age, 29.5 years) with a partial ACL tear and symptomatic knee instability were treated with primary ligament repair in conjunction with marrow stimulation and followed prospectively for a mean duration of 10...
December 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Nicola Keay, Gavin Francis, Karen Hind
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a sport-specific energy availability (EA) questionnaire, combined with clinical interview, for identifying male athletes at risk of developing bone health, endocrine and performance consequences of relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S). Methods: Fifty competitive male road cyclists, recruited through links of participants in a pilot study, were assessed by a newly developed sport-specific questionnaire and clinical interview (SEAQ-I) and received dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition scans and blood tests for endocrine markers...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Stacey Emmonds, Tom Sawczuk, Sean Scantlebury, Kev Till, Ben Jones
Emmonds, S, Sawczuk, T, Scantlebury, S, Till, K, and Jones, B. Seasonal changes in the physical performance of elite youth female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study investigated the seasonal change in physical performance of 113 (Under 10: U10 [n = 20], U12 [n = 30], U14 [n = 31], and U16 [n = 32]) elite youth female soccer players. Players completed testing pre-, mid-, and post-season, including speed (10- and 30-m sprint), change of direction (CoD; 505 test), power (countermovement jump [CMJ]), strength (isometric midthigh pull), and aerobic capacity (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRL1])...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Emily E Cust, Alice J Sweeting, Kevin Ball, Sam Robertson
Objective assessment of an athlete's performance is of importance in elite sports to facilitate detailed analysis. The implementation of automated detection and recognition of sport-specific movements overcomes the limitations associated with manual performance analysis methods. The object of this study was to systematically review the literature on machine and deep learning for sport-specific movement recognition using inertial measurement unit (IMU) and, or computer vision data inputs. A search of multiple databases was undertaken...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Emmanuel Androulakis, Peter P Swoboda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is frequently used in the investigation of suspected cardiac disease in athletes. In this review, we discuss how CMR can be used in athletes with suspected cardiomyopathy with particular reference to volumetric analysis and tissue characterization. We also discuss the finding of non-ischaemic fibrosis in athletes describing its prevalence, distribution and clinical importance. RECENT FINDINGS: The strengths of CMR include high spatial resolution, unrestricted imaging planes and lack of ionizing radiation...
August 31, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mohammadreza Emami, Amir Behforouz, Lida Jarahi, Ahmadreza Zarifian, Amir Rashidlamir, Masoud Mahdavi Rashed, Homa Khaleghzade, Zahra Ghaneifar, Mohammad Safarian, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Hossein Nikroo, Mohsen Nematy
Introduction: Obesity is associated with several complications like metabolic syndrome. Many professional athletes adopt a sedentary lifestyle after retirement. This study was aimed at assessing the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome among former power-sports athletes, compared with age-matched active athletes and nonathletes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Mashhad during 2012-2014. The individuals were recruited through announcements and were divided into three groups of active athletes ( n = 34), ex-athletes ( n = 30), and nonathletes ( n = 30)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bin Zhang, Chun-Song Cheng, Min-Gang Ye, Cheng-Zheng Han, Dai-Yin Peng
BACKGROUND: Wuqinxi is a traditional medicinal exercise that is widely practiced in China now. Because of its obvious medical rehabilitation, Wuqinxi has been used in the physical education for more than 1.2 million people in at least 24 Chinese Medicine university campuses in China for many years. This investigation aimed to evaluate whether Wuqinxi has the positive effect on physical improvements for female college students. METHODS: Infrared scanners were used for real-time monitoring of body calorie dynamics; the electromyography (EMG) was used to detect the iEMG on biceps, brachioradialis, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius; beside, the physical health elements, heart rate and cardiopulmonary function were also taken within the scope of our investigation and records...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Paulo N Martins, Isabel M A Brüggenwirth, James McDaid, Martin Hertl, Tatsuo Kawai, Nahel Elias, Raymond T Chung, James F Markmann
Heat stroke is a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome of poorly understood pathogenesis. Exertional heat stroke with acute liver failure is a rarely reported condition. Liver transplant has been recommended as treatment in cases of severe liver dysfunction; however, there are only 5 described cases of long-term survival after this procedure in patients with heat stroke. Here, we present 2 cases of young athletes who developed heat stroke. Both patients developed acute liver failure and were listed for liver transplant...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Sara Rönnby, Oscar Lundberg, Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Bo Tillander, Håkan Gauffin, Per-Olof Hansson, Örjan Dahlström, Toomas Timpka
BACKGROUND: International middle- and long-distance running competitions attract millions of spectators in association with city races, world championships, and Olympic Games. It is therefore a major concern that ill health and pain, as a result of sports overuse, lead to numerous hours of lost training and decreased performance in competitive runners. Despite its potential for sustenance of performance, approval of mHealth self-report monitoring (mHSM) in this group of athletes has not been investigated...
August 13, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Tommy R Lundberg, Glyn Howatson
Over-the-counter analgesics, such as anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol, are widely consumed by athletes worldwide to increase pain tolerance, or dampen pain and reduce inflammation from injuries. Given that these drugs also can modulate tissue protein turnover, it is important to scrutinize the implications of acute and chronic use of these drugs in relation to exercise performance and the development of long-term training adaptations. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the studies investigating the effects of analgesic drugs on exercise performance and training adaptations relevant for athletic development...
November 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
M Byrd, C E Dixon, B Lucke-Wold
Concussion in athletes can contribute to early neuropsychological changes that may be indicative of future neurodegenerative disease. One of the hallmark findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy is anxiety and impulsive behavior that often develops early in the course of the disease. The behavioral dysfunction can be grouped into a broader category referred to as cognitive disruption. The current gold standard for diagnosing chronic neurodegeneration is post-mortem evaluation of tauopathy to identify neurofibrillary tau tangles in neurons...
May 2018: Journal of Neurology and Psychology
Nathaniel A Bates, Nathan D Schilaty, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are catastrophic events that affect athletic careers and lead to long-term degenerative knee changes. As injuries are believed to occur within the first 50 milliseconds after initial contact during a rapid deceleration task, impact simulators that rapidly deliver impulse loads to cadaveric specimens have been developed. However, no impactor has reproducibly and reliably created ACL injures in a distribution that mimics clinical observation...
July 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Allison M Ezzat, Mariana Brussoni, Jackie L Whittaker, Carolyn A Emery
OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of the injury experience on current attitudes and beliefs about physical activity (PA) and the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in youth and young adults 3-10 years after a sport-related knee injury. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: University Sports Medical/Research Center. PARTICIPANTS: 20 young adults 3-10 years subsequent to intra-articular knee injury...
July 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Metin Polat, Selcen Korkmaz Eryılmaz, Sami Aydoğan
Introduction: In order to ensure that athletes achieve their highest performance levels during competitive seasons, monitoring their long-term performance data is crucial for understanding the impact of ongoing training programs and evaluating training strategies. The present study was thus designed to investigate the variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), and gas exchange threshold values of cross-country skiers across training phases throughout a season. Materials and methods: In total, 15 athletes who participate in international cross-country ski competitions voluntarily took part in this study...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Brian Hanley, Florentina J Hettinga
The aim of this study was to analyse qualification patterns in middle distance running and identify whether athletes adopt theoretically optimal tactics, or whether the will to win overrides these. The performances of 295 men and 258 women finalists in the Olympic and IAAF World Championship 800 m and 1500 m events from 1999 to 2017 were analysed across all three rounds of competition. Finishing position, time and ranking amongst all competitors were found for each athlete. Position in the final was correlated with finishing position in the heats and semi-finals (all P < 0...
November 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Owen Cronin, Wiley Barton, Peter Skuse, Nicholas C Penney, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Eileen F Murphy, Trevor Woods, Helena Nugent, Aine Fanning, Silvia Melgar, Eanna C Falvey, Elaine Holmes, Paul D Cotter, Orla O'Sullivan, Michael G Molloy, Fergus Shanahan
Many components of modern living exert influence on the resident intestinal microbiota of humans with resultant impact on host health. For example, exercise-associated changes in the diversity, composition, and functional profiles of microbial populations in the gut have been described in cross-sectional studies of habitual athletes. However, this relationship is also affected by changes in diet, such as changes in dietary and supplementary protein consumption, that coincide with exercise. To determine whether increasing physical activity and/or increased protein intake modulates gut microbial composition and function, we prospectively challenged healthy but sedentary adults with a short-term exercise regime, with and without concurrent daily whey protein consumption...
May 2018: MSystems
Erika Zemková, Dušan Hamar
Neuromuscular training in young athletes improves performance and decreases the risk of injuries during sports activities. These effects are primarily ascribed to the enhancement of muscle strength and power but also balance, speed and agility. However, most studies have failed to demonstrate significant improvement in these abilities. This is probably due to the fact that traditional tests do not reflect training methods (e.g., plyometric training vs. isometric or isokinetic strength testing, dynamic balance training vs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kristen I Barton, Bryan J Heard, Johnathan L Sevick, C Ryan Martin, S M Mehdi Shekarforoush, May Chung, Yamini Achari, Cyril B Frank, Nigel G Shrive, David A Hart
BACKGROUND: Partial anterior cruciate ligament (p-ACL) ruptures are a common injury of athletes. However, few preclinical models have investigated the natural history and treatment of p-ACL injuries. PURPOSE: To (1) demonstrate whether a controlled p-ACL injury model (anteromedial band transection) develops progressive gross morphological and histological posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA)-like changes at 20 and 40 weeks after the injury and (2) investigate the efficacy of repeated (0, 5, 10, and 15 weeks) intra-articular injections of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA; 80 mg/mL) in the mitigation of potential PTOA-like changes after p-ACL transection...
June 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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