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Anxiety AND medication

Liping Chen, Chunliu Luo, Shuai Liu, Weiju Chen, Yaping Liu, Yunjia Li, Yun Du, Haihua Zou, Jiyang Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in a population of hospital nurses in South China as well as the influence of EDS on the occurrence of adverse events. METHODS: A total of 1102 nurses working in a large medical center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (96.9% females, mean age 29.6 years). They all completed a self-reported questionnaire consisting of items on demographic variables, lifestyle factors, insomnia, anxiety, depression, and both work-related and sleep-related characteristics...
August 16, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Gabrielle King, Kathryn D Baker, Madelyne A Bisby, Diana Chan, Caitlin S M Cowan, Anthea A Stylianakis, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Rick Richardson
There is a pressing need to improve treatments for anxiety. Although exposure-based therapy is currently the gold-standard treatment, many people either do not respond to this therapy or experience a relapse of symptoms after treatment has ceased. In recent years, there have been many novel pharmacological agents identified in preclinical research that have potential as adjuncts for exposure therapy, yet very few of these are regularly integrated into clinical practice. Unfortunately, the robust effects observed in the laboratory animal often do not translate to a clinical population...
August 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Muriela Silva, Eduarda Pereira, Afonso Rocha, Dulce Sousa, Bruno Peixoto
Introduction: Prospective studies have shown the relation between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and neurocognitive dysfunction with prevalence ranging between 10.51% and 66.8%. The present study aims to determine the prevalence level of neurocognitive dysfunction; the relations between sociodemographic, clinical and emotional variables and neurocognitive functioning in a sample of ACS patients. Methods: The sample comprised of 53 patients engaged in cardiac rehabilitation within 3 months after an ACS. Patients with any medical history of neuropsychiatric problems prior to the ACS and illiterate subjects were not included in the study...
2018: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Julie Lynch, Jason Last, Philip Dodd, Daniela Stancila, Christine Linehan
BACKGROUND: Health disparities and disparities in the provision of healthcare to people with disabilities remains a topic of concern. Research demonstrates that attitudes of healthcare providers contribute to this disparity. The approach to disability education and training in medical school warrants evaluation. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the efficacy of an educational intervention in cultivating positive attitudes towards disability in medical students, and determine the specific impact of an interaction-based hospital visit to patients undergoing neurological rehabilitation...
July 25, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
S M Walker, H O'Reilly, J Beckmann, N Marlow
BACKGROUND: Conditioned pain modulation is a potential biomarker for risk of persistent pain. As early-life experience can alter subsequent somatosensory processing and pain response, we evaluated conditioned pain modulation after extremely preterm birth. METHODS: This observational study recruited extremely preterm (<26 weeks gestation; n=98) and term-born control (n=48) young adults (19-20 yr) from the longitudinal EPICure cohort. Pressure pain threshold (PPT; variable test stimulus lower leg) was measured before, during, and after a conditioning stimulus (contralateral hand immersion; 5°C water; 30 s)...
September 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
J O'Flynn, T G Dinan, J R Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Stress is an event that threatens homoeostasis and thus causes physiological and behavioural responses to reinstate equilibrium. Excessive and/or chronic stress can be psychologically and physiologically detrimental. Examinations can represent a significant source of stress for students. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the core endocrine stress system. Investigations into the HPA response to examinations have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to further explore the relationship between examination stress, HPA axis activity, mood, sleep and exercise in students undergoing a naturalistic examination period stressor...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Kirsten C Morley, Henry R Kranzler, Natasha Luquin, Andrew Baillie, Marian Shanahan, Ronald Trent, Maree Teesson, Paul S Haber
BACKGROUND: Current treatments for alcohol use disorders have limited efficacy and there is a high degree of variability in treatment response. In a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial, there was a large effect size for topiramate in people homozygous for the GRIK1 rs2832407*C allele. The primary aim of the TOP study is to examine prospectively the therapeutic and cost-effectiveness of topiramate versus an active control (naltrexone) in improving treatment outcomes for alcohol dependence...
August 16, 2018: Trials
Marit Knapstad, Tine Nordgreen, Otto R F Smith
BACKGROUND: Prompt mental health care (PMHC) is a Norwegian initiative, inspired by the English 'Improving Access to Psychological Therapy' (IAPT), aimed to provide low-threshold access to primary care treatment for persons with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The objectives of the present study are to describe the PMHC service, to examine changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression following treatment and to identify predictors of change, using data from the 12 first pilot sites...
August 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Scott Nathan Loewenstein, Stephen P Duquette, Joshua M Adkinson
BACKGROUND: Hand surgery dogma suggests that simultaneous surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and Dupuytren's contracture (DC) results in an increased incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). As a result, many surgeons do not perform surgery for the two conditions concurrently. Our goal was to determine the extent of this association. METHODS: We identified all patients undergoing surgical treatment for CTS, DC, or both between April 1982 and March 2017 using the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC), a large, multi-institutional, statewide information exchange...
August 11, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Max M Feinstein, Anthony E Pannunzio, Samuel Lobell, Eric Kodish
Informed consent for pediatric anesthesia challenges practitioners to navigate complex ethical, medical, and legal ambiguities. A patient's status as a minor does not negate the importance of his or her participation in the decision-making process but, rather, necessitates a nuanced evaluation of age and development to involve the patient to an appropriate extent. Given the complexities involved with pediatric informed consent in anesthesia practice and research, it is important to understand the experience of key stakeholders involved...
August 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
S Gholizadeh, D R Azizoddin, S D Mills, G Zamora-Racaza, H M K Potemra, D J Wallace, M H Weisman, P M Nicassio
Objective Helplessness is a relevant construct in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an unpredictable chronic illness with no known cure characterized by relapsing and remitting features. However, no measure of helplessness has been validated in this population. The present study examined the structural validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the Arthritis Helplessness Index, a measure initially developed for rheumatoid arthritis populations, in a sample of patients with SLE. Methods Patients with SLE ( N = 136) receiving medical care at a private hospital completed the Arthritis Helplessness Index and other self-report measures...
August 15, 2018: Lupus
K Laios, M-I Kontaxaki, K Markatos, E Lagiou, M Karamanou, G Androutsos
The concept of psychosomatic disorders, as defined by modern medicine, was difficult to be perceived by the ancient Greek physicians. Two main reasons contributed to this. One was that physicians in Greek antiquity had formed the idea that the mental illnesses that were recognized at that time, namely mania, melancholy, frenzy, caros, lethargy, apoplexy, but even epilepsy, was the result of a disturbance of the essential elements of the body, the balance of them contributed to the preservation of health. Thus, depending on the school of medical thought of each physician in antiquity, mental and corporal illnesses were the result of various disorders such as the dyscrasia of humors for the physicians of the Dogmatic school that followed the Hippocratic principles or the disorder of the qualitative characteristics of the humor and the pneuma (air), as the physicians of the Pneumatic School considered, but also of the stenosis or the expansion of the pores as the physicians of the Methodic school thought...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Amritha Gourisankar, Sarah A Eisenstein, Nicholas T Trapp, Jonathan M Koller, Meghan C Campbell, Mwiza Ushe, Joel S Perlmutter, Tamara Hershey, Kevin J Black
The anatomical connections of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) have driven hypotheses about its functional anatomy, including the hypothesis that the precise anatomical location of STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) contributes to the variability of motor and non-motor responses across patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously tested the hypothesis using a three-dimensional (3D) statistical method to interpret the acute effects of unilateral DBS at each patient's clinically optimized DBS settings and active contact...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Minal S Kale, Deborah Korenstein
Overdiagnosis, is defined as the diagnosis of a condition that, if unrecognized, would not cause symptoms or harm a patient during his or her lifetime, and it is increasingly acknowledged as a consequence of screening for cancer and other conditions. Because preventive care is a crucial component of primary care, which is delivered to the broad population, overdiagnosis in primary care is an important problem from a public health perspective and has far reaching implications. The scope of overdiagnosis as a result of services delivered in primary care is unclear, though overdiagnosis of indolent breast, prostate, thyroid, and lung cancers is well described and overdiagnosis of chronic kidney disease, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also recognized...
August 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Alicia Curtin, Diane C Martins, Donna Schwartz-Barcott
Access to mental health services for older Hispanic adults is limited and often older Hispanic adults must rely on their own resources in dealing with mental health issues. The aim of this study was to understand how older Hispanic immigrants cope mental health issues (e.g. stress, anxiety, and/or depression). A qualitative, descriptive approach was used to interview 17 older Hispanic immigrants from Guatemala, Dominican Republic and Colombia. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and translated verbatim by bilingual research assistants...
August 11, 2018: Geriatric Nursing
Karolina Piotrowicz, Krzysztof Rewiuk, Stanisław Górski, Weronika Kałwak, Barbara Wizner, Agnieszka Pac, Michał Nowakowski, Tomasz Grodzicki
BACKGROUND: In hospital settings, delirium affects as many as 50% of older patients, aggravating their symptoms and worsening their condition, and therefore increasing the risk of in-hospital complications and death. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of structured, non-pharmacological care, delivered to older hospitalised patients by trained volunteers (students of medical fields), on the reduction of incidence of adverse health-related outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will be a randomised, investigator-blind, controlled trial conducted in an internal medicine and geriatric ward in Poland...
August 14, 2018: Trials
Anja Siegle, Matthias Villalobos, Jasmin Bossert, Katja Krug, Laura Hagelskamp, Johannes Krisam, Violet Handtke, Nicole Deis, Jana Jünger, Michel Wensing, Michael Thomas
BACKGROUND: The care needs of patients with a limited prognosis (<12 months median) are complex and dynamic. Patients and caregivers must cope with many challenges, including physical symptoms and disabilities, uncertainty. and compromised self-efficacy. Healthcare is often characterized by disruptions in the transition between healthcare providers. The Milestones Communication Approach (MCA) is a structured, proactive, interprofessional concept that involves physicians and nurses and is aimed at providing coherent care across the disease trajectory...
August 14, 2018: Trials
Andrea Wilkinson, Tiffany Tong, Atefeh Zare, Marc Kanik, Mark Chignell
New technologies, such as serious games and ambient activities, are being developed to address problems of under-stimulation, anxiety, and agitation in millions of people living with dementia in long term care homes. Frequent interactions with instrumented versions of these technologies may not only be beneficial for long term care residents, but may also provide a valuable new set of multifaceted data relating to health status of residents over time. In this paper, we develop a model of health monitoring in healthcare environments and we report on two studies that show how medically relevant data can be collected from elderly residents and emergency department patients in an unobtrusive way...
August 9, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Yangchang Zhang, Yang Xiong, Jia Dong, Tingting Guo, Xiaoman Tang, Yong Zhao
Background : This paper investigates the problems regarding caffeinated drinks intake, late chronotype, and increased body mass index (BMI) among medical students at a Chinese university. Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 with 616 medical students from Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing, China, whose information were collected by a self-reported questionnaire that included four sections: Demographic characteristics; Caffeinated drinks intake and physical state; Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Aditi Sharma
For children and adolescents with uncomplicated psychiatric disorders, pediatricians are often the first prescriber of psychiatric medications. Mental health disorders commonly treated by pediatricians include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety. There are several safe and effective first-line medications for these disorders. For ADHD, stimulants and nonstimulants can be used as first-line interventions. For anxiety and depression, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are well-established treatments and often well-tolerated...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
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