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Dagang Tian, Liu Yang, Zaijie Chen, Ziqiang Chen, Feng Wang, Yuanchang Zhou, Yuming Luo, Liming Yang, Songbiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. While many blast resistance (R) genes have been identified and deployed in rice cultivars, little is known about the R gene-mediated defense mechanism. We used a rice transgenic line harboring the resistance gene Piz-t to investigate the R gene-mediated resistance response to infection. RESULTS: We conducted comparative proteome profiling of the Piz-t transgenic Nipponbare line (NPB-Piz-t) and wild-type Nipponbare (NPB) inoculated with M...
August 15, 2018: Rice
Latiffah Zakaria, Wan Nuraini Wan Aziz
Endophytic fungi are part of microbial community found in various types of plant tissues including the leave, and display a range of symbiotic interactions with the plant host. In this study, endophytic fungi isolated from banana leaves were identified using ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region) sequences of which 10 genera comprising 17 species were molecularly identified. Endophytic fungal species identified were Nigrospora oryzae , Nigrospora sphaerica , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum siamense , Fusarium equiseti , Fusarium chlamydosporum , Phoma sorghina , Pestalotiopsis oxyanthi, Pestalotiopsis theae, Pestalotiopsis eugeniae, Penicillium steckii, Penicillium purpurogenum, Bipolaris papendorfii, Bipolaris sp...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Chenguang Zhou, Yuanyuan Tan, Sophia Gossner, Youfa Li, Qingyao Shu, Karl-Heinz Engel
The low phytic acid (lpa) rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant Os-lpa-MH86-1, resulting from the mutation of the putative sulfate transporter gene OsSULTR3;3, was crossed with a commercial rice cultivar. The obtained progenies of generations F4 to F7 were subjected to a non-targeted metabolite profiling approach allowing the analyses of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents. The metabolite profiles of the homozygous lpa progenies were characterized not only by a decreased concentration of phytic acid, but also by increased contents of constituents from various classes, such as sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, phytosterols and biogenic amines...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yun-A Park, Sung Ryul Lee, Jin Woo Lee, Hyun Jung Koo, Seon-A Jang, Seung-Won Yun, Hyun Ju Kim, Jeong Suk Woo, Myung Rye Park, Se Chan Kang, Youn Kyu Kim, Eun-Hwa Sohn
Angelica tenuissima root has historically been used as a traditional medicine in Korea. Previous studies have identified the anti-melanogenic effects of the extract of A. tenuissima root fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAT). This study investigated the protective effects of FAT against ultraviolet light B exposure (UVB; 30 mJ/cm2 ) in HaCaT (human keratinocyte) or Hs68 (human foreskin fibroblast) skin cells. FAT treatment was able to stimulate wound healing rate at the basal condition. FAT also favored the maintenance and/or improvement of extracellular matrix impairment caused by UVB irradiation through: 1) upregulation of procollagen Type-1 synthesis and secretion; 2) suppression of MMP-1 and elastase expression...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yongqing Shi, S A Huang, Yiyan He, Jinjing Wu, Yupei Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of navel orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, peel essential oil (NOPEO) for inhibiting spoilage fungi in potato slices. Sixteen different components accounting for 99.79% of the headspace components of NOPEO were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. d-Limonene was the major component of NOPEO. Antifungal activity of NOPEO was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi. A MIC of NOPEO against the four fungal species was 9.40 μL/mLair ...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Yuta Tsunematsu, Naoya Maeda, Mamoru Yokoyama, Pranatchareeya Chankhamjon, Kenji Watanabe, Kirstin Scherlach, Christian Hertweck
Aspirochlorine is an unusual antifungal cyclopeptide produced by Aspergillus oryzae, an important mold used for food fermentation. Whereas its structure suggested that a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase assembles the cyclopeptide from phenylalanine and glycine building blocks, labeling studies indicated that one Phe moiety is transformed into Gly after peptide formation. By means of genetic engineering, heterologous expression, biotransformations, and in vitro assays we dissected and reconstituted four crucial steps in aspirochlorine biosynthesis that involve two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, (AclL and AclO), a methyltransferase (AclU), and a halogenase (AclH)...
August 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Francisco Valero
The production of heterologous lipases is one of the most promising strategies to increase the productivity of the bioprocesses and to reduce costs, with the final objective that more industrial lipase applications could be implemented.In this chapter, an overview of the new success in synthetic biology, with traditional molecular genetic techniques and bioprocess engineering in the last 5 years in the cell factory Pichia pastoris, the most promising host system for heterologous lipase production, is presented...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qiang Ding, Qiuling Luo, Jie Zhou, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Microbial L-malate production from renewable feedstock is a promising alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. However, high L-malate production of Aspergillus oryzae was achieved to date using organic nitrogen, with inorganic nitrogen still unable to meet industrial applications. In the current study, we constructed a screening system and nitrogen supply strategy to improve L-malate production with ammonium sulphate [(NH4 )2 SO4 ] as the sole nitrogen source. First, we generated and identified a high-producing mutant FMME218-37, which stably boosted L-malate production from 30...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J C Frisvad, V Hubka, C N Ezekiel, S-B Hong, A Nováková, A J Chen, M Arzanlou, T O Larsen, F Sklenář, W Mahakarnchanakul, R A Samson, J Houbraken
Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi , albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi . Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species...
June 2019: Studies in Mycology
Rozana Rosli, Pek-Lan Chan, Kuang-Lim Chan, Nadzirah Amiruddin, Eng-Ti Leslie Low, Rajinder Singh, John L Harwood, Denis J Murphy
The diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) (diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase, EC are a key group of enzymes that catalyse the final and usually the most important rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants and other organisms. Genes encoding four distinct functional families of DGAT enzymes have been characterised in the genome of the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The contrasting features of the various isoforms within the four families of DGAT genes, namely DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT are presented both in the oil palm itself and, for comparative purposes, in 12 other oil crop or model/related plants, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Brassica napus, Elaeis oleifera, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus, Musa acuminata, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Sorghum bicolor, and Zea mays...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yan Liu, Liqun Li, Li Zhang, Qian Lv, Yi Zhao, Xuejun Li
Drought stress is a major factor that limits the yield and quality in wheat. In this study, we identified an orthologue of the rice gene OsDIS1 (Oryza sativa drought-induced SINA protein 1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) called TaDIS1. TaDIS1 encodes a putative 301 amino acid protein with a C3HC4 RING finger conserved domain at the N-terminal and a SINA domain at the C-terminal. TaDIS1 contains three exons and two introns. qRT-PCR analysis showed that TaDIS1 expression was induced by PEG6000, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Zheng-Gang Han, Ji-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Jiang-Ke Yang
The α-galactosidases, which can catalyze the removal of α-1,6-linked terminal galactose residues from galactooligosaccharide materials, have good potential for industrial applications. The high-level and efficient secretion of the α-galactosidases into the extracellular space has greatly simplified the downstream bioengineering process, facilitating their bioapplications. In this study, the effects of gene dosage and endoplasmic reticulum secretion-associated factors (ERSAs) on the secretory expression of an α-galactosidase gene derived from a Aspergillus oryzae strain were investigated by constructing multicopy expression cassettes and coexpressing the α-galactosidase gene with ERSAs...
August 11, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
S Vasanthi, J Febin Prabhu Dass
Oryza sativa is vastly affected by microbial pathogen, causing blight-related diseases, which in turn deplete the growth and productivity of rice. In this study, we analyzed four bacterial rice pathogen genomes and reported on their codon usage that might have greater implication in mutation-related research. Differential codon usage indices, such as codon adaptation index (CAI), codon bias index (CBI), effective number of codons (ENc), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), correspondence analysis (COA), and parity plots, were applied on coding sequences of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Pseudomonas avenae speices...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sikander Ali
In the present study, fungal biotransformation of synthetic levodopa to stable dopamine in an l-ascorbate-mediated thermophilic-aerobic biochemical reaction was investigated. A mutant strain of Aspergillus oryzae EMS-6 was used for the preparation of mycelial biomass. The mutant was previously developed through EMS-induced mutagenesis and repressed against l-cysteine HCl. Growth parameters such as rate of cultivation (48 h), initial pH (6) and incubation temperature (30 °C) supported 18.84 g/l biomass with 23 g/l glucose consumption...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Zahida Wasil, Eric Kuhnert, Thomas J Simpson, Russell J Cox
Aspergillus oryzae is traditionally used in East Asia for the production of food and brewing. In addition, it has been developed into a suitable host for the heterologous expression of natural product biosynthetic genes and gene clusters, enabling the functional analysis of the encoded enzymes. A. oryzae shares a 99.5% genome homology with Aspergillus flavus , but their secondary metabolomes differ significantly and various compounds unique to A. oryzae have been reported. While using A. oryzae as a host for heterologous expression experiments we discovered two new metabolites in extracts of A...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Ting Zhang, Ping Feng, Yunfeng Li, Peng Yu, Guoling Yu, Xianchun Sang, Yinghua Ling, Xiaoqin Zeng, Yidan Li, Junyang Huang, Tianquan Zhang, Fangming Zhao, Nan Wang, Changwei Zhang, Zhenglin Yang, Renhong Wu, Guanghua He
The de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides is crucial to all living organisms, but limited information is available for plants. In this study, we isolated a virescent-albino leaf 1 (val1) mutant of rice (Oryza sativa) that produces dynamic green-revertible albino and narrow-leaf phenotypes. In albino leaves, chloroplast development was defective, pigment contents were reduced, and cell division was impaired compared with the wild-type. Map-based cloning revealed that VAL1 encodes a phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase (PurD), the second enzyme in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jun Heo, Hayoung Cho, Seung-Beom Hong, Jeong-Seon Kim, Soon-Wo Kwon, Soo-Jin Kim
A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, short-rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated KADR8-3T , isolated from Andong sikhye in Andong-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological, genetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was determined to belong to the genus Ottowia. The phylogenetic similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the strain formed a clade with Ottowia beijingensis GCS-AN-3T , Ottowia thiooxydans DSM 14619T , Ottowia pentelensis RB3-7T and 'Ottowia shaoguanensis' J5-66T , showing the highest similarity to O...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Zhaoxia Dong, Shaozhen Xing, Jin Liu, Xizhe Tang, Lifang Ruan, Ming Sun, Yigang Tong, Donghai Peng
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a serious bacterial disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. Phage therapy has been proposed as a potential measure to treat bacterial infections. In this study, a novel phage, Xoo-sp2, which infects Xoo was isolated from soil. The characteristics of Xoo-sp2, including the morphology, one-step growth curve and host range, were analysed. The genome of phage Xoo-sp2 was sequenced and annotated. The results demonstrated that Xoo-sp2 is a siphovirus and has a broad lytic spectrum, infecting 9 out of 10 representative Xoo strains...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yongyu Huang, Shuangshuang Zhao, Yongcai Fu, Hengdi Sun, Xin Ma, Lubin Tan, Fengxia Liu, Xianyou Sun, Hongying Sun, Ping Gu, Daoxin Xie, Chuanqing Sun, Zuofeng Zhu
Inflorescence branching is a key agronomical trait determining rice yield. The ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) primary branch bears few grains due to minimal secondary branching. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to produce large panicles with more secondary branches. Here we showed that the CONTROL OF SECONDARY BRANCH 1 (COS1) gene, which is identical to FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP), plays an important role in the key transition from few secondary branches of wild rice to more secondary branches in domesticated rice cultivars...
August 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Thais Fernanda Stella de Freitas, Michael Joseph Stout, Josué Sant'Ana
BACKGROUND: After herbivore attack, plants express inducible resistance-related traits activated by hormones, mainly jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) is a biologically active methyl ester of JA. Exogenous applications of JA, SA, and MeJa induce responses similar to herbivory by insects. In this study, rice, Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae), plants were treated with two concentrations of MeJa (2 and 5 mM), two concentrations of SA (8 and 16 mM) and herbivory to evaluate effects of elicitation and herbivory on resistance to the rice stink bug (RSB) Oebalus pugnax Fabricius, 1775 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an injurious insect pest of rice in the United States...
August 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
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