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Wataru Kobiayashi, Enwei Liu, Hajime Ishii, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Peter Schlögelhofer, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
In eukaryotes, homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in both genome maintenance and generation of genetic diversity. Eukaryotic RecA homologues, RAD51 and DMC1, are key proteins in homologous recombination that promote pairing between homologous DNA sequences. Arabidopsis thaliana is a prominent model plant for studying eukaryotic homologous recombination. However, A. thaliana RAD51 and DMC1 have not been biochemically characterized. In the present study, we purified A. thaliana RAD51 (AtRAD51) and DMC1 (AtDMC1)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Dipali Srivastava, Giti Verma, Abhishek Singh Chauhan, Veena Pande, Debasis Chakrabarty
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are well-known enzymes due to their role in detoxification of xenobiotic compounds. However, their biochemical action is still not so clear in imparting tolerance to several abiotic stresses in crop plants. In our previous study, we observed that rice tau class OsGSTU30 plays a significant role in the detoxification of Cr(vi). Interestingly, q-RT PCR analysis also revealed higher expression of OsGSTU30 under drought conditions. In this study, we characterize OsGSTU30 in response to drought as well as heavy metal [Cr(vi)] stresses through overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 5, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Inacio A Pestana, Marcelo G Almeida, Wanderley R Bastos, Cristina M M Souza
Total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) circulation in a connected river-floodplain system composed of two black water (a small forest river, igarapé, and Cuniã Lake) and a white water body (Madeira River), located in the Madeira River Basin were evaluated during the rising-water, early and late falling-water periods. We assessed organic matter (C and N composition, (C:N)a; and δ13 C isotopic signature), and physical and chemical influences (pH, dissolved O2 , electric conductivity) in relationship to Hg and MeHg concentrations...
November 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rui Yang, Jing Li, Hui Zhang, Fei Yang, Zhigang Wu, Xiaoxuan Zhuo, Xingyu An, Zaiquan Cheng, Qianchun Zeng, Qiong Luo
Nees & Arn. ex Watt, a perennial wild rice species with a GG genome, preserves many important genes for cultivated rice ( L.) improvement. At present, however, no genetic resource is available for studying . Here, we report 91,562 high-quality transcripts of assembled de novo. Moreover, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that 1311 single-copy orthologous pairs shared by and (Zoll. & Moritzi) Baill. that may have undergone adaptive evolution. We performed an analysis of the genes potentially involved in plant-pathogen interactions to explore the molecular basis of disease resistance, and isolated the full-length cDNAs of () and () orthologs from ...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Tunay Karan
Medicinal and aromatic plants play a significant role in drug discovery. Lavandula stoechas L. has been used as folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the phytochemisty of Lavandula stoechas with biological activities. An aerial part of the plant was extracted with methanol. Another sample of plant was boiled in water then aqueous part was extracted with ethyl acetate. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, organic acids and flavonoids in methanol extract were carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry, HPLC-TOF/MS...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Zhijiang Fan, Jun Shi, Na Luo, Xiaoping Bao
A total of eighteen 2-((2-(4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)quinazolin-4-yl)oxy)-N-phenylacetamide derivatives were designed and synthesized, via hybrid pharmacophore approach. Among these compounds, chemical structure of compound 4a was unambiguously confirmed by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the compounds were evaluated in vitro for their inhibition activity against several important phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi in agriculture. The obtained results indicated that several compounds demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Long Chen, Lichao Huang, Liping Dai, Yihong Gao, Weiwei Zou, Xueli Lu, Changjian Wang, Guangheng Zhang, Deyong Ren, Jiang Hu, Lan Shen, Guojun Dong, Zhenyu Gao, Guang Chen, Dawei Xue, Longbiao Guo, Yongzhong Xing, Qian Qian, Li Zhu, Dali Zeng
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins regulate organellar gene expression in plants, through their involvement in organellar RNA metabolism. In rice (Oryza sativa), 477 genes are predicted to encode PPR proteins; however, the majority of their functions remain unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a rice mutant, pale-green leaf12 (pgl12); at the seedling stage, pgl12 mutants had yellow-green leaves, which gradually turned pale green as the plants grew. The pgl12 mutant had significantly reduced chlorophyll contents and increased sensitivity to changes in temperature...
November 30, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Meiling Liang, Shulin Zhang, Lihong Dong, Yanjun Kou, Chaoxiang Lin, Weijun Dai, Lian-Hui Zhang, Yi Zhen Deng
The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae poses a great threat to global food security. During its conidiation (asexual spore formation) and appressorium (infecting structure) formation, autophagy is induced, serving glycogen breakdown or programmed cell death function, both essential for M. oryzae pathogenicity. Recently, we identified an M. oryzae histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Gcn5 as a key regulator in phototropic induction of autophagy and asexual spore formation while serving a cellular function other than autophagy induction during M...
November 2018: MSystems
Hong Liu, Xiaolin Chen, Lin Song, Kecheng Li, Xiaoqian Zhang, Song Liu, Yukun Qin, Pengcheng Li
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a salt-sensitive crop which could be suppressed seriously by salt stress at germination stage. Some seaweeds polysaccharides could enhance plants resistance but there is little research about polysaccharides from Grateloupia filicina in agriculture. Therefore, G. filicina polysaccharide (GFP) and low molecular weight (MW) G. filicina polysaccharide (LGFP) were applied to rice seeds under salt stress (GFP: 2093.4 kDa, LGFP-1: 40.8 kDa, LGFP-2: 22.6 kDa, LGFP-3: 5.1 kDa, LGFP-4: 3...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Weili Li, Xiaoyu Wu, Xv Yuan, Wenhua Zhou, Tao Wu
Direct analysis in real-time ionization coupled with mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was first applied for the rapid determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in foods. Samples of germinated barley and fermented beans containing GABA at different levels were used, and the results were compared with those obtained by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS). After a series of optimization, a simple sample extraction procedure using 30% methanol aqueous solution was conducted, followed by direct determination of sample extracts without chromatographic separation or prior derivatization...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Claudia Lang, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Kim R Lo, Andrew V Kralicek, Ross N Crowhurst, Andrew P Gleave, Robin M MacDiarmid, John R Ingram
BACKGROUND: The discovery that a plant microRNA (miRNAs) from rice (Oryza sativa miR168a) can modify post-transcriptional expression of the mammalian Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Adaptor Protein 1 (LDLRAP1) gene highlights the potential for cross-kingdom miRNA-mRNA interactions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether common variants of the conserved miR168a family have the capability for similar cross-kingdom regulatory functions, we selected sequences from three dietary plant sources: rice (Oryza sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), apple (Malus domestica) and compared their ability to regulate human LDLRAP1 expression...
December 2, 2018: MicroRNA
Toluwase Oluwafemi Olukayode, Berlaine Quime, Yin-Chi Shen, Mary Jeanie Yanoria, Suobing Zhang, Jianyuan Yang, Xiaoyuan Zhu, Wei-Chiang Shen, Andreas von Tiedemann, Bo Zhou
The Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence gene AvrPib is required for the resistance mediated by its cognate resistance (R) gene Pib which has been intensively used in indica rice breeding programs in many Asian countries. However, the sequence diversity of AvrPib among geographically distinct M. oryzae populations was recently shown to be increasing. Here we selected a field population consisting of 248 rice blast isolates collected from a disease hotspot in Philippine for the analysis of AvrPib haplotypes and their pathogenicity against Pib...
December 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Xianghui Ruan, Cheng Zhang, Shichun Jiang, Tao Guo, Rongjiao Xia, Ying Chen, Xu Tang, Wei Xue
A series of myricetin derivatives containing amide, thioether, and 1,3,4-thiadiazole moieties were designed and synthesized, and their antiviral and antibacterial activities were assessed. The bioassays showed that all the title compounds exhibited potent in vitro antibacterial activities against Xanthomonas citri ( Xac ), Ralstonia solanacearum ( Rs ), and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae ( Xoo ). In particular, the compounds 5a , 5f , 5g , 5h , 5i, and 5l , with EC50 values of 11.5⁻27.3 μg/mL, showed potent antibacterial activity against Xac that was better than the commercial bactericides Bismerthiazol (34...
November 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chu Zhong, Shao-Fen Jian, Jie Huang, Qian-Yu Jin, Xiao-Chuang Cao
Nitrogen (N) allocation in leaves affects plant photosynthesis-N relationship and adaptation to environmental fluctuations. To reveal the role of leaf N allocation in water deficit stress acclimation in rice, the plants were grown in infertile soil supplying with low N (0.05 g N·kg-1 soil) and high N (0.2 g N·kg-1 soil), and then imposed to water deficit stress (∼75% relative soil water content). We found that the proportion of leaf N allocated in the photosynthetic apparatus was significantly positive correlated with photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE), and that N allocation in the carboxylation system and bioenergetics were the primary two limiting factors of PNUE under the conditions of high N and water deficit stress...
November 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yalin Li, Weidong Wang, Tao Wang, Merridee A Wouters, Yue Yin, Zhen Jiao, Lixia Ma, Fengqiu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a non-coding regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in plant growth and development, especially in the stress response. Low-energy ion radiation, a type of environmental stress, can cause multiple biological effects. To understand the roles of miRNAs in response to low-energy N+ ion radiation in Oryza sativa, high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs was carried out to detect the expression of miRNAs in the shoots of the rice after 2 × 1017 N+ /cm2 irradiation. The differentially expressed 28 known miRNAs were identified, 17 of these identified miRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR (q-PCR), including 9 up-regulated miRNAs (miR1320-3p, miR1320-5p, miR156b-3p, miR156c-5p, miR156c-3p/g-3p, miR156l-5p, miR398b and miR6250) and 8 down-regulated miRNAs (miR156a/e/i, miR156k, miR160f-5p, miR166j-5p, miR1846e and miR399d)...
November 30, 2018: Radiation Research
Shugang Hui, Yarui Shi, Jingjing Tian, Li Wang, Yueyue Li, Shiping Wang, Meng Yuan
Many plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas rely on secreting virulence transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins into plant cells to activate plant susceptibility genes to cause disease, the process is dependent on TALEs binding to specific element of host targeting gene promoters in plant nucleus. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after been injected into host cells, transferred from plant cytoplasm into plant nucleus, which is the key step for pathogen successful infection. Here, we showed that host plant cytoplasm/nuclear shuttle proteins OsImpα1a and OsImpα1b were key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterial pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Eva-H Dulf, Dan Cristian Vodnar, Francisc-V Dulf
Most chemical reactions produce unwanted by-products. In an effort to reduce environmental problems these by-products could be used to produce valuable organic chemicals. In biodiesel industry a huge amount of glycerol is generated, approximately 10% of the final product. The research group from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca developed opportunities to produce L(+) lactic acid from the glycerol. The team is using the Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 bacteria for the fermentation of the glycerol...
November 29, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Penghui Cao, Yakun Ren, Xi Liu, Tianyu Zhang, Ping Zhang, Lianjie Xiao, Fulin Zhang, Shijia Liu, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
GARS encodes an enzyme catalyzing the second step of purine nucleotide biosynthesis and plays an important role to maintain the development of chloroplasts in juvenile plants by affecting the expression of plastid-encoded genes. A series of rice white striped mutants were previously described. In this research, we characterized a novel gars mutant with white striped leaves at the seedling stage. By positional cloning, we identified the mutated gene, which encodes a glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase (GARS) that catalyzes the second step of purine nucleotide biosynthesis...
November 29, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ahmed M Hamam, Devrim Coskun, Dev T Britto, Darren Plett, Herbert J Kronzucker
A systematic analysis of NaCl-dependent, plasma-membrane depolarization (∆∆Ψ) in rice roots calls into question the current leading model of rapid membrane cycling of Na+ under salt stress. To investigate the character and mechanisms of Na+ influx into roots, Na+ -dependent changes in plasma-membrane electrical potentials (∆∆Ψ) were measured in root cells of intact rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Pokkali) seedlings. As external sodium concentrations ([Na+ ]ext ) were increased in a step gradient from 0 to 100 mM, membrane potentials depolarized in a saturable manner, fitting a Michaelis-Menten model and contradicting the linear (non-saturating) models developed from radiotracer studies...
November 29, 2018: Planta
Tao Wang, Hui Song, Baohong Zhang, Quanwei Lu, Zhen Liu, Shulin Zhang, Ruilin Guo, Cong Wang, Zilin Zhao, Jinrong Liu, Renhai Peng
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stresses. Despite SOD gene families have been identified in various plant species, little is known in foxtail millet ( Setaria italica L.). In this study, a systematic analysis of SOD gene family was performed in foxtail millet and the expression pattern of SOD genes in response to abiotic stressors was analyzed at the whole-genomic level. Eight SOD genes were identified in foxtail millet, including 4 Cu / ZnSODs , 3 FeSODs , and 1 MnSOD ...
December 2018: 3 Biotech
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