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Crohns and colitis

Katarzyna Sznurkowska, Anton Żawrocki, Jacek Sznurkowski, Maciej Zieliński, Piotr Landowski, Katarzyna Plata-Nazar, Ewa Iżycka-Świeszewska, Piotr Trzonkowski, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Barbara Kamińska
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the proportion of T-regulatory cells (CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells) in peripheral blood and the number of FOXP3(+) cells in intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to verify whether these parameters correlate with the activity of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 patients newly diagnosed for IBD were included in the study: ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 13) and Crohn's disease (CD; n = 11). Seventeen healthy controls (HC) and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) served as a control group for peripheral and intestinal Tregs assessment, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Julian Panes, Vipul Jairath, Barrett G Levesque
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therapeutic requirements vary among patients. We have a limited capacity to predict disease progression for individual patients, so it is important that they are evaluated for presence of active disease when symptoms are mild or even absent, when patients are more likely to respond to new treatment interventions. It is then important to monitor responses to treatment, to quickly identify those therapies that are ineffective, modify or change therapy, and avoid disease complications...
October 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
Yang Tan, Xingxin Wu, Jing Sun, Wenjie Guo, Fangyuan Gong, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yi Cao, Bingfeng Zheng, Yanhong Gu, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in T cells plays an important role in developing T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated inflammation. Selective regulation of IFN-γ signaling is an attractive strategy for treating Th1-mediated immune diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore possible means of targeting IFN-γ signaling by using small molecule compound. A synthetic small molecule FC9 was identified as it selectively inhibited IFN-γ signaling in T cells without suppressing interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling. Furthermore, FC9 inhibited IFN-γ-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activation via competing with IFN-γ for binding to IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γ R1)...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Mohammad A Khasawneh, Nicholas P McKenna, Zaid M Abdelsattar, Angela Johnson, Eric J Dozois, John H Pemberton, Kellie L Mathis
BACKGROUND: IPAA is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis. Limited data exist on how obesity impacts the ability of the surgeon to successfully create an IPAA. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine how BMI affects the ability to successfully complete the operation. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary care center. PATIENTS: We included all of the patients undergoing an IPAA for ulcerative colitis between January 2002 and August 2013 at our institution...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Jason K Hou, Christoph Gasche, Noam Z Drazin, Sarah Alandra Weaver, Orna G Ehrlich, Ridhima Oberai, Sophie Zapala, Corey A Siegel, Gil Melmed
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a common complication among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and is associated with high rates of IBD-related complications, resource utilization, and impaired quality of life. Despite practice guidelines for anemia in patients with IBD, gaps remain in the perceptions of anemia among health care providers. The aims of this study were to identify gaps in care and to develop a care pathway for anemia in patients with IBD. METHODS: The Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America anemia care pathway was developed by a committee using principles of cognitive task analysis...
September 30, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Ning Dai
The barrier function of the intestine is essential for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the gut and mucosal immune system. Abnormalities in intestinal barrier function expressed by increased intestinal permeability have long been observed in various gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Imbalance of metabolizing junction proteins and mucosal inflammation contributes to intestinal hyperpermeability. Emerging studies exploring in vitro and in vivo model system demonstrate that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) and myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) mediated pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal permeability...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Jordan Axelrad, Anuja Kriplani, Umut Ozbek, Noam Harpaz, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Steven Itzkowitz, Randall F Holcombe, Celina Ang
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotherapy toxicity may exacerbate IBD symptoms and vice versa, but data are limited. We evaluated chemotherapy tolerance and oncologic outcomes in patients with CRC with and without IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients with CRC with and without IBD treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. Where possible, patients were matched by age, sex, stage, and diagnosis year...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Arik Alper, Lucy Zhang, Dinesh S Pashankar
We aimed to examine correlation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) with diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and with clinical, endoscopic, histological and radiographic disease activity during follow-up. We reviewed charts of 135 children with IBD and correlated their ESR and CRP values with disease activity in various encounters over 5 years. Normal ESR and CRP values were observed in up to 28% of children with Crohn's disease and 42% of children with ulcerative colitis at diagnosis respectively...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Gabriella Bröms, Fredrik Granath, Olof Stephansson, Helle Kieler
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified all 246 singleton preterm births among women with IBD between July 2006 and December 2010 as cases and an equal number of controls with IBD from the Swedish national health registers, matched by maternal age, parity and IBD diagnosis (CD/UC). From register data and medical charts, we obtained information on reproductive history, comorbidity, disease activity and drug treatment (corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates, sulfasalazine, thiopurines and anti-TNF) as risk factors for preterm birth...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Tiffany Y Loh, Philip R Cohen
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol are effective agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Some individuals undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis develop psoriasiform lesions. This is a paradoxical finding, as classical psoriasis is known to respond to these agents. PURPOSE: The clinical features of anti-TNF-α-induced psoriatic dermatitis are described...
September 9, 2016: Curēus
Grigoriy E Gurvits, Gloria Lan, Amy Tan, Arlene Weissman
BACKGROUND: Increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses significant challenges to medical community. Preventive medicine, including vaccination against opportunistic infections, is important in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with IBD. We conduct first study to evaluate general awareness and adherence to immunisation guidelines by primary care physicians in the USA. METHODS: We administered an electronic questionnaire to the research panel of the American College of Physicians (ACP) assessing current vaccination practices, barriers to vaccination and provider responsibility for administering vaccinations and compared responses with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization consensus guidelines and expert opinion from the USA...
October 12, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Marisa Iborra, Javier Pérez-Gisbert, Marta Maia Bosca-Watts, Alicia López-García, Valle García-Sánchez, Antonio López-Sanromán, Esther Hinojosa, Lucía Márquez, Santiago García-López, María Chaparro, Montserrat Aceituno, Margalida Calafat, Jordi Guardiola, Blanca Belloc, Yolanda Ber, Luis Bujanda, Belén Beltrán, Cristina Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Jesús Barrio, José Luis Cabriada, Montserrat Rivero, Raquel Camargo, Manuel van Domselaar, Albert Villoria, Hugo Salata Schuterman, David Hervás, Pilar Nos
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) treatment is focused to achieve mucosal healing, avoiding disease progression. The study aimed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of adalimumab (ADA) in UC and to identify predictors of remission to ADA. METHODS: This cohort study used data from the ENEIDA registry. Clinical response, clinical remission, endoscopic remission, adverse events (AE), colectomy, and hospitalisations were evaluated; baseline characteristics and biological parameters were compared to determine predictors of response...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Guangxi Zhou, Lin Yu, Wenjing Yang, Wei Wu, Leilei Fang, Zhanju Liu
Background. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronically remittent and progressive inflammatory disorders. Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, the exact role of PLD2 in IBD is obscure. Methods. PLD2 expression was determined in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa from patients with IBD by qRT-PCR. Colonic biopsies were also obtained from CD patients before and after infliximab (IFX) treatment to examine PLD2 expression...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Cinzia Ciccacci, Cristina Politi, Livia Biancone, Andrea Latini, Giuseppe Novelli, Emma Calabrese, Paola Borgiani
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial disorders that result from a dysregulated inflammatory response to environmental factors in genetically predisposed individuals. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the development of IBDs. AIMS: We investigated common variants in five miRNA genes in a cohort of Italian IBD patients, to evaluate their possible role in the disease's susceptibility and phenotype manifestations...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Jian-An Bai, Hua Jie, Sun Wei, Shidong Wang, Huarui Guo, Qiyun Tang
Glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GART) has been established as a pivotal enzyme in de novo purine synthesis, and mediates cellular apoptosis in many diseases. We aimed to investigate the role of GART in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In our study, we demonstrated for the first time that GART expression is up-regulated in patients with active CD and in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis model. Moreover, the inhibition of GART induced cellular apoptosis and suppressed the migration of IECs through the activation of the MEKK3-MKK3-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, following with the dys-regulation of p53 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA)...
October 7, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Francesc Casellas, Claudia Herrera-de Guise, Virginia Robles, Ester Navarro, Natalia Borruel
BACKGROUND: There is currently little evidence about what treatment objectives most interest patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS: To determine patient preferences regarding IBD treatment objectives, specially the attributes they value most and the symptoms to be controlled as a priority. METHODS: Prospective, observational, anonymous study conducted in 117 outpatients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. RESULTS: The most important treatment objectives from the patients' perspective were: improving quality of life (40...
September 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Juan Paredes Méndez, Guillermo Otoya Moreno, Ana Lucía Mestanza Rivas Plata, Luis Lazo Molina, Katia Acuña Ordoñez, José Luis Arenas Gamio, Eduardo Huamán Egoavil, Fabián Juliao Baños
OBJECTIVE: To identify sociodemographic, clinical, and endoscopic characteristics in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study period was from January 2004 to December 2014. The final diagnosis was determined by clinical gastroenterologists experienced in the diagnosis and management of IBD, based on internationally accepted diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: 105 patients with IBD were studied, 77% with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 23% with Crohn's disease (CD)...
July 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Adnan Hassan Tahir, Juan Wan, Manoj Kumar Shah, Habibullah Janyaro, Xiao-Jing Li, Ming-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a common condition in many gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in human and animals. Most studies often induce Crohn's disease/colitis to investigate VH in small experimental animals. Although farm animals commonly suffer from IBDs, their VH has not been investigated so far. Because goats can suffer from Johne's disease, a naturally occurring Crohn's-like disease, they may be suitable to be used for studying the mechanism underlying VH in common intestinal disorders of large animals...
October 6, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
A Stallmach, C Langbein, R Atreya, T Bruns, A Dignass, K Ende, J Hampe, F Hartmann, M F Neurath, J Maul, J C Preiss, R Schmelz, B Siegmund, H Schulze, N Teich, U von Arnim, D C Baumgart, C Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the α4β7-integrin, is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis according to randomised clinical trials. AIM: To determine the long-term effectiveness of vedolizumab in a real-world clinical setting. METHODS: This observational registry assessed the clinical outcome in patients treated with vedolizumab for clinically active Crohn's disease (n = 67) or ulcerative colitis (n = 60)...
October 7, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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