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Motor skill learning

Sudha M Srinivasan, Anjana N Bhat
Our study compared means-end exploration in infants at risk (AR) for autism and typically developing (TD) infants using a nested box paradigm. Sixteen AR and 16 TD infants were observed at 9, 12, and 15 months with follow-up at 18 and 24 months. We collected video data on three tasks involving retrieval of a small toy by opening (a) an opaque box, (b) a transparent box, and (c) two nested boxes. Dependent variables included hand bias, time to completion, bilateral hand use, problem-solving strategies used, and tester assistance required...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Clara M Moore, Natasha Lelievre, Diane M Ste-Marie
We compared varied model types and their potential differential effects on learning outcomes and consolidation processes when observational practice was interspersed with physical practice. Participants (N = 75) were randomly assigned to one of five groups: (1) unskilled model observation, (2) skilled model observation, (3) mixed-model observation, (4) physical practice only, and (5) no observational or physical practice (control). All were tasked with learning a waveform-matching task. With exception of the control group not involved in acquisition sessions, participants were involved in one pre-test, two acquisition sessions, four retention tests (immediate-post acquisition 1, 24hr post acquisition 1, immediate-post acquisition 2, and approximate 7-day retention), as well as an approximate 7-day transfer test...
November 30, 2018: Human Movement Science
Kartik Logishetty, Luke Western, Ruairidh Morgan, Farhad Iranpour, Justin P Cobb, Edouard Auvinet
BACKGROUND: Accurate implant orientation reduces wear and increases stability in arthroplasty but is a technically demanding skill. Augmented reality (AR) headsets overlay digital information on top of the real world. We have developed an enhanced AR headset capable of tracking bony anatomy in relation to an implant, but it has not yet been assessed for its suitability as a training tool for implant orientation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) In the setting of simulated THA performed by novices, does an AR headset improve the accuracy of acetabular component positioning compared with hands-on training by an expert surgeon? (2) What are trainees' perceptions of the AR headset in terms of realism of the task, acceptability of the technology, and its potential role for surgical training? METHODS: Twenty-four study participants (medical students in their final year of school, who were applying to surgery residency programs, and who had no prior arthroplasty experience) participated in a randomized simulation trial using an AR headset and a simulated THA...
November 29, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Steven Paul Woods, Kelli L Sullivan
HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is an independent predictor of low general health literacy, which can be associated with poor disease outcomes (e.g., viremia). Given the increasing frequency with which health behaviors occur in an online environment (e.g., health information seeking, provider interactions), there is a specific need to understand the predictors of electronic health (eHealth) literacy of persons living with HIV disease. In this study, 90 HIV+ persons completed the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), which measures one's awareness, skills and evaluation of online health resources...
December 1, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
J Xavier, H Guedjou, S M Anzalone, S Boucenna, E Guigon, M Chetouani, D Cohen
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders which core symptoms are impairments in socio-communication and repetitive symptoms and stereotypies. Although not cardinal symptoms per se, motor impairments are fundamental aspects of ASD. These impairments are associated with postural and motor control disabilities that we investigated using computational modeling and developmental robotics through human-machine interaction paradigms...
November 29, 2018: L'Encéphale
Emma C Falkland, Mark W Wiggins
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of cross-task cue utilisation in the acquisition of situational awareness during the initial stages of learning to operate an air traffic control simulation. BACKGROUND: Cue-based associations are an important component of situational awareness, a construct that is necessary for skilled process control, where the location, movement, and direction of multiple targets needs to be managed. However, the potential for high levels of situational awareness is difficult to assess in the absence of exposure...
January 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Claudia Lappe, Markus Lappe, Peter E Keller
Audio-motor coordination is a fundamental requirement in the learning and execution of sequential actions such as music performance. Predictive motor control mechanisms determine the sequential content and timing of upcoming tones and thereby facilitate accurate performance. To study the role of auditory-motor predictions at early stages of acquiring piano performance skills, we conducted an experiment in which non-musicians learned to play a musical sequence on the piano in synchrony with a metronome. Three experimental conditions compared errors and timing...
2018: PloS One
James J S Norton, Jonathan R Wolpaw
Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex (SSR) or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, is a valuable experimental paradigm for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple motor skill. The CNS substrate of this skill consists of brain and spinal cord plasticity that operates as a hierarchy-the learning experience induces plasticity in the brain that guides and maintains plasticity in the spinal cord. This is apparent in the two components of the skill acquisition: task-dependent adaptation, reflecting brain plasticity; and long-term change, reflecting gradual development of spinal plasticity...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
David A Cook, Becca L Gas, David R Farley, Matthew Lineberry, Nimesh D Naik, Francisco J Cardenas Lara, Anthony R Artino
OBJECTIVES: An incremental (growth) theory of intelligence (mindset), compared with an entity (fixed) mindset, has been associated with improved motivation and performance. Interventions to induce incremental beliefs have improved performance on non-surgical motor tasks. We sought to evaluate the impact of 2 brief interventions to induce incremental beliefs in the context of learning a surgical task. DESIGN: Two randomized experiments. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Secondary school students participating in medical simulation-based training activities at an academic medical center...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Mary Godfrey, M Meredith Gillis, Divya Khurana, Erica Poletto, Reem A Tarazi
OBJECTIVE: Medial thalamic stroke in adults commonly results in severe learning and memory impairments and executive dysfunction, particularly during the acute phase. However, there is limited research on the cognitive recovery from thalamic stroke in physically healthy adolescents. This study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by utilizing a monozygotic twin control to investigate the neuropsychological outcomes of bilateral thalamic stroke in adolescence. METHOD: We evaluated an otherwise healthy 17-year-old male with a history of premature birth, developmental delay, and learning disability 2 and 7 months after he sustained a bilateral medial/anterior thalamic stroke of unknown etiology...
November 24, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Alexandra P Key, Dorita Jones, Sarika Peters, Caitlin Dold
The combination of intellectual, communicative, and motor deficits limit the use of standardized behavioral assessments of cognition in individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS). The current study is the first to objectively evaluate learning and memory in AS using auditory event-related potentials (ERP) during passive exposure to spoken stimuli. Fifteen nonverbal individuals with the deletion subtype of AS (age 4-45 years) completed the auditory incidental memory paradigm. Auditory ERPs were recorded in response to a sequence of unfamiliar nonwords, in which one randomly selected stimulus was repeated multiple times and the rest were presented once...
December 2018: Brain and Cognition
Britt Stuge
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-related low back pain (LBP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP) have been associated with an alteration in the strategy for lumbopelvic stabilization. Different core stabilization approaches exist, the evidence is however controversial. METHODS: This paper discusses how to improve the evidence of exercises for women suffering from LBP and PGP during and after pregnancy. Exercises should be understood in a context, where the bio-psycho-social perspective directs the prescription of exercises, targeting both psychological and physical factors...
November 17, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Luana Nazaré da Silva Santana, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Priscila Cunha Nascimento, Rafael Monteiro Fernandes, Francisco Bruno Teixeira, Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes, Marcia Cristina Freitas Silva, Lygia Sega Nogueira, Lílian Lund Amado, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz Maia, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Despite the vast distribution among tissues, the central nervous system (CNS) represents the main target of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of MeHg exposure on the CNS at equivalent doses to human environmental exposure. In our study, we evaluated the motor cortex, an important area of motor control, in adult rats chronically exposed to MeHg in a concentration equivalent to those found in fish-eating populations exposed to mercury (Hg). The parameters evaluated were total Hg accumulation, oxidative stress, tissue damage, and behavioral assessment in functional actions that involved this cortical region...
January 2019: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jagna Sobierajewicz, Ryszard Naskręcki, Wojciech Jaśkowski, Rob H J Van der Lubbe
Do professional musicians learn a fine sequential hand motor skill more efficiently than non-musicians? Is this also the case when they perform motor imagery, which implies that they only mentally simulate these movements? Musicians and non-musicians performed a Go/NoGo discrete sequence production (DSP) task, which allows to separate sequence-specific from a-specific learning effects. In this task five stimuli, to be memorized during a preparation interval, signaled a response sequence. In a practice phase, different response sequences had to be either executed, imagined, or inhibited, which was indicated by different response cues...
2018: PloS One
Tatsuya Teramae, Koji Ishihara, Jan Babič, Jun Morimoto, Erhan Oztop
Pneumatically actuated muscles (PAMs) provide a low cost, lightweight, and high power-to-weight ratio solution for many robotic applications. In addition, the antagonist pair configuration for robotic arms make it open to biologically inspired control approaches. In spite of these advantages, they have not been widely adopted in human-in-the-loop control and learning applications. In this study, we propose a biologically inspired multimodal human-in-the-loop control system for driving a one degree-of-freedom robot, and realize the task of hammering a nail into a wood block under human control...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Elena Laura Georgescu, Ioana Antoaneta Georgescu, Carmen Denise Mihaela Zahiu, Alexandru Răzvan Şteopoaie, Vlad Petru Morozan, Adrian Ştefan Pană, Ana-Maria Zăgrean, Daniela Popa
The synchronization of neuronal activity in the sensorimotor cortices is crucial for motor control and learning. This synchrony can be modulated by upstream activity in the cerebello-cortical network. However, many questions remain over the details of how the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum communicate. Therefore, our aim is to study the contribution of the cerebellum to oscillatory brain activity, in particular in the case of dystonia, a severely disabling motor disease associated with altered sensorimotor coupling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mehmet Hakan Seyithanoğlu, Anas Abdallah, Tolga Turan Dündar, Serkan Kitiş, Ayşe Aralaşmak, Meliha Gündağ Papaker, Hadi Sasani
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to understand the changes of decompression illness in healthy divers by comparing diffusion-weighted (DWI) and diffusion tensor MRI findings among healthy professional divers and healthy non-divers with no history of diving. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 26 people were recruited in this prospective study: 11 experienced divers with no history of neurological decompression disease (cohort) and 15 healthy non-divers (control). In all study subjects, we evaluated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and type of diffusion tensor metric fractional anisotropy (FA) values of different brain locations (e...
November 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
K M M Berghuis, S Fagioli, N M Maurits, I Zijdewind, J B C Marsman, T Hortobágyi, G Koch, M Bozzali
It is poorly understood how healthy aging affects neural mechanisms underlying motor learning. We used blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrasts to examine age-related changes in brain activation after acquisition and consolidation (24 h) of a visuomotor tracking skill. Additionally, structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were used to examine age-related structural changes in the brain. Older adults had reduced gray matter volume (628 ± 57 ml) and mean white matter anisotropy (0...
November 12, 2018: NeuroImage
John J Buchanan
This study examined mirror and non-mirror arm selection processes in an observational learning context. Observer groups watched either a novice (instruction or discovery) or skilled model performing a bimanual task with the right arm leading the left arm. The models were viewed from a third-person perspective. Observers of the skilled model more often selected a mirror-image (left-hand) hand-lead in post-observations tests, while observers of the novice models more often selected a non-mirror image (right hand) hand-lead in post-observation tests...
November 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Sandra J M van Cappellen-van Maldegem, Femke van Abswoude, Hilde Krajenbrink, Bert Steenbergen
Effective motor learning paradigms are essential for children with motor difficulties to enhance their motor skills and facilitate performance in physical activities and in daily life. This study aimed to examine the effect of feedback with an internal or external focus of attention on motor learning of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (pDCD). In addition, the role of working memory capacity was examined. Children were recruited via physical therapists, who integrated the experimental procedures within therapy sessions...
November 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
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