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Motor skill learning

Dóra Juhász, Dezsö Németh
INTRODUCTION: Extracting and acquiring sequential regularities from the environment is a fundamental human ability that underlies the acquisition of various motor, social and cognitive skills. As psychiatric rehabilitation often depends on the integrity of these skills, it is crucial to understand individual differences in sequence learning. Here we aimed to test age- and gender-related differences in sequence learning as well as in the consolidation of the acquired knowledge. METHODS: In the present study we aimed to characterize age-related and gender differences in the consolidation of implicitly acquired sequential memories between 7 and 29 years of age (N = 261)...
2018: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
Andrea De Giorgio, Maha Sellami, Goran Kuvacic, Gavin Lawrence, Johnny Padulo, Marco Mingardi, Luigi Mainolfi
The purpose of this research was to assess how the motor learning skills in 7-years old soccer players can be improved by preventing an internal focus of attention via the use coloured shoes. We painted the classic black soccer shoes in six areas corresponding to six regions of the foot with which it is possible to interact with the ball. Thirty-four 7-years-old soccer players were randomized to two groups (Coloured n = 17 and Black, n = 17) to perform four basic football manoeuvres/tasks: reception (RECP), passing (PASS), ball management (MAGT), and shooting (SHOT)...
2018: PloS One
Anne B Arnett, Candace L Rhoads, Kendra Hoekzema, Tychele N Turner, Jennifer Gerdts, Arianne S Wallace, Sandra Bedrosian-Sermone, Evan E Eichler, Raphael A Bernier
Pathogenic disruptions to the activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox (ADNP) gene are among the most common heterozygous genetic mutations associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Individuals with ADNP disruptions share a constellation of medical and psychiatric features, including ASD, intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. However, the profile of ASD symptoms associated with ADNP may differ from that of individuals with another ASD-associated single gene disruption or with ASD without a known genetic cause...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Eadric Bressel, Michael N Vakula, Youngwook Kim, David A E Bolton, Christopher J Dakin
Immersion in chest-deep water may augment explicit memory in healthy adults however, there is limited information on how this environment might affect implicit memory or motor learning. The purpose of this study was to compare the speed and accuracy for learning a motor skill on land and in chest-deep water. Verbal word recall and grip strength were included to gain a more complete understanding of the intervention. Sixty-two younger adults (age = 23.3 ± 3.59 yrs.) were randomly assigned to either a water group immersed to the xiphoid or a land group...
2018: PloS One
Juliana Beneduzzi, Fernando A M Herbella, Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
INTRODUCTION: Surgeon's performance may be influenced by several factors that may affect skills and judgement, which ultimately represents surgeon´s cognition. Cognition refers to all forms of knowing and awareness, such as perceiving, conceiving, remembering, reasoning, judging, imagining, and problem solving. This report aims to evaluate the effect of operative time and operative complications on surgeon´s cognition. METHODS: Forty-six surgeons (mean age 31 years, 78% males) assigned to an operation expected to last for at least 2 h, volunteered for the study...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Melissa K Licari, Jess E Reynolds, Stephen Tidman, Silman Ndiaye, Sathiskumar Niana Sekaran, Siobhan L Reid, Brendan S Lay
BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a motor learning disability that affects coordination resulting in an inability to perform movement skills at an age appropriate level. One area suspected to contribute to the movement difficulties experienced are deficits in visuomotor control. AIMS: This study investigated visual tracking behaviour during catching in children with DCD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Twenty-four boys completed the study: 11 with DCD (9...
August 7, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Silvia Baldi, Barbara Caravale, Fabio Presaghi
An association between learning disorders and coordination problems has been reported in several studies over the last few decades. In this study, we have investigated daily motor characteristics in children with a diagnosis of specific learning disorder (SLD) and compared them with those of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of typically developing controls. Ninety-six children aged 5 to 12 years were included: 29 with a diagnosis of SLD, 33 of DCD, and 34 controls. The Italian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ-Italian) was used to measure children's coordination in everyday functional activities...
August 9, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Alessio Facchin, Silvio Maffioletti
The developmental eye movement (DEM) test is a practical and simple method for assessing and quantifying ocular motor skills in children. Different studies have previously assessed the reliability of the DEM test and they have generally found high values for vertical and horizontal time, whereas those for Ratio and Errors were medium and low, respectively. In the second application of test were found an improvement in performance in all subtests. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability of the DEM test using seconds and percentile scoring and looking in depth at the improvement in performance when the test is repeated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Aiko K Thompson, Hannah Carruth, Rachel Haywood, N Jeremy Hill, William A Sarnacki, Lynn M McCane, Jonathan R Wolpaw, Dennis J McFarland
People can learn over training sessions to increase or decrease sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Activity-dependent brain plasticity is thought to guide spinal plasticity during motor skill learning; thus, SMR training may affect spinal reflexes and thereby influence motor control. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of learned mu (8-13 Hz) SMR modulation on the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflex in 6 subjects with no known neurological conditions and 2 subjects with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rebecca Armstrong, Martyn Symons, James G Scott, Wendy L Arnott, David A Copland, Katie L McMahon, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Purpose: The current study aimed to compare traditional logistic regression models with machine learning algorithms to investigate the predictive ability of (a) communication performance at 3 years old on language outcomes at 10 years old and (b) broader developmental skills (motor, social, and adaptive) at 3 years old on language outcomes at 10 years old. Method: Participants (N = 1,322) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (Straker et al...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Belinda McLean, Misty Blakeman, Leeanne Carey, Roslyn Ward, Iona Novak, Jane Valentine, Eve Blair, Susan Taylor, Natasha Bear, Michael Bynevelt, Emma Basc, Stephen Rose, Lee Reid, Kerstin Pannek, Jennifer Angeli, Karen Harpster, Catherine Elliott
BACKGROUND: Of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, 75% have impaired somatosensory function, which contributes to learned non-use of the affected upper limb. Currently, motor learning approaches are used to improve upper-limb motor skills in these children, but few studies have examined the effect of any intervention to ameliorate somatosensory impairments. Recently, Sense© training was piloted with a paediatric sample, seven children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, demonstrating statistically and clinically significant change in limb position sense, goal performance and bimanual hand-use...
July 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Eran Dayan, Jasmine Herszage, Rony Laor-Maayany, Haggai Sharon, Nitzan Censor
Accumulating evidence has suggested functional interactions between prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dissociable large-scale networks. However, how these networks interact in the human brain to enable complex behaviors is not well-understood. Here, using a combination of behavioral, brain stimulation and neuroimaging paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that human PFC is required for successful reinforced skill formation. We additionally tested the extent to which PFC-dependent skill formation is related to intrinsic functional communication with this region...
July 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Nadia C Valentini, Mary E Rudisill, Paulo Felipe R Bandeira, Peter A Hastie
BACKGROUND: Assessing children's motor skills is important for identifying children with delays, measuring learning, and determining teaching effectiveness. One popular assessment for measuring fundamental motor skills in children is the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2). Although the TGMD-2 long form is widely known, a short form of the TGMD-2 has not been yet proposed and investigated. The aim of this study was to develop a short form of the TGMD-2 and to examine its validity, interrater reliability and test-retest reliability...
July 25, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Dagmar Sternad
Mastering a motor skill is typified by a decrease in variability. However, variability is much more than the undesired signature of discoordination: structure in both its distributional properties and temporal sequence can reveal control priorities. Extending from the notion that signal-dependent noise corrupts information transmission in the neuromotor system, this review tracks more recent recognitions that the complex dynamic motor system in its interaction with task constraints creates high-dimensional spaces with multiple equivalent solutions...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Sherry L Farr, Karrie F Downing, Tiffany Riehle-Colarusso, Ginnie Abarbanell
OBJECTIVE: To examine how cognitive and motor limitations in children with heart disease are associated with education and participation in extracurricular activities. DESIGN: Using 2009-2010 parent-reported data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), we examined prevalence of five functional limitations (learning/concentration, communication, self-care, gross motor skills, and fine motor skills) by diagnosed heart disease status using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression...
July 22, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Elna de Waal, Anita E Pienaar, Dané Coetzee
Visual perception plays an important and integrating role in the development of cognitive abilities and perceptual-motor skills. Visual perception comprises different independent constructs that may function in an integrative manner. This study aimed to determine whether (and the extent to which) various visual-perceptual constructs influence the academic achievement of 12-year-old school children. In a cross-sectional analysis, we extracted only 2016 data from 581 learners (mean age = 12.92 years, SD = 0...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Heather R McGregor, Michael Vesia, Cricia Rinchon, Robert Chen, Paul L Gribble
While many of our motor skills are acquired through physical practice, we can also learn how to make movements by observing others. For example, individuals can learn how to reach in novel dynamical environments ('force fields', FF) by observing the movements of a tutor. Previous neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest a role for the motor system in motor learning by observing. Here, we tested the role of primary motor cortex (M1) in motor learning by observing. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in hand muscles at rest...
July 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Daniela Corbetta, Abigail DiMercurio, Rebecca F Wiener, John P Connell, Matthew Clark
In this chapter, we discuss how perception and action are intimately linked to the processes of exploration and selection. Exploration, which we define as trying several variations of the behavior, and selection, which involves attempting to reproduce the behaviors that work, are essential for learning about the environment, discovering the properties of objects, and for acquiring skills in relation to goals. Exploration and selection happen in the moment and over time as behaviors are repeated, hence leading to their fine-tuning to the goal...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Velicia Bachtiar, Ainslie Johnstone, Adam Berrington, Clarke Lemke, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Uzay Emir, Charlotte Stagg
Learning a novel motor skill is dependent both on regional changes within the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the active hand, and also on modulation between and within anatomically-distant but functionally-connected brain regions. Inter-regional changes are particularly important in functional recovery after stroke, where critical plastic changes underpinning behavioural improvements are observed in both ipsilesional and contralesional M1s. It is increasingly understood that reduction in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the contralateral M1 is necessary to allow learning of a motor task...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ken Cheng, Richard W Byrne
Formal training programs, which can be called education, enhance cognition in human and nonhuman animals alike. However, even informal exposure to human contact in human environments can enhance cognition. We review selected literature to compare animals' behavior with objects among keas and great apes, the taxa that best allow systematic comparison of the behavior of wild animals with that of those in human environments such as homes, zoos, and rehabilitation centers. In all cases, we find that animals in human environments do much more with objects...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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