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Motor skill learning

Jamie K Capal, Christopher Carosella, Elora Corbin, Paul S Horn, Rebecca Caine, Patricia Manning-Courtney
OBJECTIVES: The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy is well-known. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) results have been reported in patients with ASD without a history of seizures. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormalities on EEG results and the core features of ASD. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the presence of epilepsy and/or abnormalities on EEG results and disease-associated impairments in young children with ASD...
October 16, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Kazunobu Fukuhara, Tomoko Maruyama, Hirofumi Ida, Takahiro Ogata, Bumpei Sato, Motonobu Ishii, Takahiro Higuchi
Slow-motion footage of sports actions is widely used as a visual learning tool in observing the dynamic motor behaviors of athletes. Recent studies on action observation have reported that extending the observation time in slow-motion footage provides benefits of understanding the intention of an opponent's action, at least when observing rapid movements. As such, the use of slow-motion footage may have the potential to improve the anticipatory judgments of an opponent's action outcome without training (or feedback)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Abhishek Gajendra Singh
Surgery is traditionally taught by using Halsteadian principle, which includes "see one, do one, teach one". This principle relies on sheer volume of surgical exposure rather than a specific course structure. Simulation in minimally invasive surgery allows the learner to practice new motor skills in a safe and stress free environment outside the operating room, thereby decreasing the learning curve. A non-structured exhaustive MEDLINE search was done using MeSH words: "Simulation, Urological Training, Training Models, Laparoscopy Urology, Laparoscopic Skill, Endotrainer, Surgical Simulators, Simulator Validation"...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Arun Nemani, Uwe Kruger, Clairice A Cooper, Steven D Schwaitzberg, Xavier Intes, Suvranu De
BACKGROUND: Physical and virtual surgical simulators are increasingly being used in training technical surgical skills. However, metrics such as completion time or subjective performance checklists often show poor correlation to transfer of skills into clinical settings. We hypothesize that non-invasive brain imaging can objectively differentiate and classify surgical skill transfer, with higher accuracy than established metrics, for subjects based on motor skill levels. STUDY DESIGN: 18 medical students at University at Buffalo were randomly assigned into control, physical surgical trainer, or virtual trainer groups...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Laura A Prosser, Samuel R Pierce, Timothy R Dillingham, Judy C Bernbaum, Abbas F Jawad
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in children. The best opportunity to maximize lifelong independence is early in motor development when there is the most potential for neuroplastic change, but how best to optimize motor ability during this narrow window remains unknown. We have systematically developed and pilot-tested a novel intervention that incorporates overlapping principles of neurorehabilitation and infant motor learning in a context that promotes upright mobility skill and postural control development...
October 16, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Zhenxiang Zang, Lena S Geiger, Urs Braun, Hengyi Cao, Maria Zangl, Axel Schäfer, Carolin Moessnang, Matthias Ruf, Janine Reis, Janina I Schweiger, Luanna Dixson, Alexander Moscicki, Emanuel Schwarz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
Graph theoretical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that brain networks reorganize significantly during motor skill acquisition, yet the associations between motor learning ability, brain network features, and the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we applied a visually guided sequential pinch force learning task and graph theoretical analyses to investigate the associations between short-term motor learning ability and resting-state brain network metrics in 60 healthy subjects...
2018: Network neuroscience
Jamie S North, Neil E Bezodis, Colm P Murphy, Oliver R Runswick, Chris Pocock, André Roca
In table tennis the follow-through action after a shot is an important part of skill execution. In this experiment, we aimed to extend literature around the contextual interference effect by investigating whether the way the follow-through is organised in practice affects learning of the backhand shot in table tennis. Thirty unskilled participants were allocated to blocked-variable practice, random-variable practice or a control-constant group and aimed backhand shots towards a target following ball projection from a machine...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Juan A Gallego, Matthew G Perich, Stephanie N Naufel, Christian Ethier, Sara A Solla, Lee E Miller
Populations of cortical neurons flexibly perform different functions; for the primary motor cortex (M1) this means a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. We investigate the flexibility of M1 movement control by analyzing neural population activity during a variety of skilled wrist and reach-to-grasp tasks. We compare across tasks the neural modes that capture dominant neural covariance patterns during each task. While each task requires different patterns of muscle and single unit activity, we find unexpected similarities at the neural population level: the structure and activity of the neural modes is largely preserved across tasks...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Andrew R Brown, Marina Martinez
After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) spontaneous motor recovery can occur in mammals, but the underlying neural substrates remain poorly understood. The motor cortex is crucial for skilled motor learning and the voluntary control of movement and is known to reorganize after cortical injury to promote recovery. Motor cortex plasticity has also been shown to parallel the recovery of forelimb function after cervical SCI, but whether cortical plasticity participates in hindlimb recovery after SCI remains unresolved...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
James Kolasinski, Emily L Hinson, Amir P Divanbeighi Zand, Assen Rizov, Uzay E Emir, Charlotte J Stagg
The ability to learn new motor skills is supported by plasticity in the structural and functional organisation of the primary motor cortex in the human brain. Changes inhibitory signalling by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are thought to be crucial in inducing motor cortex plasticity. This study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify the concentration of GABA in human motor cortex during a period of motor learning, as well as during a period of movement, and a period at rest. We report evidence for a reduction in the MRS-measured concentration of GABA specific to learning...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jie Zeng, Wenxuan Yu, Xiaoli Dong, Shanting Zhao, Zhe Wang, Yajie Liu, Man-Sau Wong, Yi Wang
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one ω-3 fatty acid that is essential for the development and function of the brain. However, a large number of clinical trials found that the DHA supplementation showed no advantage on mental and motor skill development in term infants. A strategy based on DHA nanoencapsulation (nano FO) using an edible plant protein, zein, mimicking the milk structure is applied for enhanced maternal and fetal absorptions of DHA to improve early brain development. The nano FO achieved increased absorption in GI tract, enhanced delivery to the maternal, fetal, and offspring brains, and reduced fatty acid accumulation in the fetal liver...
October 5, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dace Apšvalka, Emily S Cross, Richard Ramsey
Learning new skills by watching others is important for social and motor development throughout the lifespan. Prior research has suggested that observational learning shares common substrates with physical practice at both cognitive and brain levels. In addition, neuroimaging studies have used multivariate analysis techniques to understand neural representations in a variety of domains including vision, audition, memory and action, but few studies have investigated neural plasticity in representational space...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kathryn P Workman, Brianna Healey, Alyssa Carlotto, Agnès Lacreuse
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is uniquely suited for longitudinal studies of cognitive aging, due to a relatively short lifespan, sophisticated cognitive abilities, and patterns of brain aging that resemble those of humans. We examined cognitive function and fine motor skills in male and female marmosets (mean age ∼5 at study entry) followed longitudinally for 2 years. Each year, monkeys were tested on a reversal learning task with three pairs of stimuli (n = 18, 9 females) and a fine motor task requiring them to grasp small rewards from two staircases (Hill and Valley test, n = 12, 6 females)...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jessica Bradshaw, Cheryl Klaiman, Scott Gillespie, Natalie Brane, Moira Lewis, Celine Saulnier
Achievement of early motor milestones in infancy affords new opportunities for social interaction and communication. Research has shown that both motor and social deficits are observed in infants who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined associations between motor and social-communication skills in 12-month-old infant siblings of children with ASD who are at heightened risk for developmental delays (N=86) and low-risk, typically developing infants (N=113). Infants were classified into one of three groups based on their walking ability: walkers (walks independently), standers (stands independently), or pre-walkers (does not yet stand or walk independently)...
September 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Kyle J Jaquess, Li-Chuan Lo, Hyuk Oh, Calvin Lu, Andrew Ginsberg, Ying Ying Tan, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller, Bradley D Hatfield, Rodolphe J Gentili
The allocation of mental workload is critical to maintain cognitive-motor performance under various demands. While mental workload has been investigated during performance, limited efforts have examined it during cognitive-motor learning, while none have concurrently manipulated task difficulty. It is reasonable to surmise that the difficulty level at which a skill is practiced would impact the rate of skill acquisition and also the rate at which mental workload is reduced during learning (relatively slowed for challenging compared to easier tasks)...
September 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Pei-Jung Wang, Li-Chiou Chen, Hua-Fang Liao, Yu-Kang Tu, Lu Lu, George A Morgan
AIMS: Mastery motivation refers to a child's persistent attempts to solve problems and learn skills. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's mastery motivation-mediated relationships between early maternal teaching behavior and later developmental abilities in children with global developmental delay (GDD). METHODS: Fifty-six dyads of mothers and their children with GDD (aged 24-42 months) were assessed two times, at study entry and 6-months later...
September 28, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Stefan Fuertinger, Kristina Simonyan
OBJECTIVES: Task-specific focal dystonia selectively affects the motor control during skilled and highly learned behaviors. Recent data suggest the role of neural network abnormalities in the development of the pathophysiological dystonic cascade. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI and analytic techniques rooted in network science and graph theory to examine the formation of abnormal subnetwork of highly influential brain regions, the functional network kernel, and its influence on aberrant dystonic connectivity specific to affected body region and skilled motor behavior...
September 27, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
D J Harris, S J Vine, M R Wilson, J S McGrath, M-E LeBel, G Buckingham
BACKGROUND: Acquiring new motor skills to learn complex movements and master the use of a diverse range of instruments is fundamental for developing expertise in surgery. Although aspects of skill development occur through trial and error, watching the performance of another individual (action observation) is an increasingly important adjunct for the acquisition of these complex skills before performing a procedure. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence in support of the use of action observation in surgery...
September 27, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Karen E Adolph, Justine E Hoch
Motor development and psychological development are fundamentally related, but researchers typically consider them separately. In this review, we present four key features of infant motor development and show that motor skill acquisition both requires and reflects basic psychological functions. (a) Motor development is embodied: Opportunities for action depend on the current status of the body. (b) Motor development is embedded: Variations in the environment create and constrain possibilities for action. (c) Motor development is enculturated: Social and cultural influences shape motor behaviors...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Hannah R Sheahan, James N Ingram, Goda M Žalalytė, Daniel M Wolpert
Motor imagery, that is the mental rehearsal of a motor skill, can lead to improvements when performing the same skill. Here we show a powerful and complementary role, in which motor imagery of different movements after actually performing a skill allows learning that is not possible without imagery. We leverage a well-studied motor learning task in which subjects reach in the presence of a dynamic (force-field) perturbation. When two opposing perturbations are presented alternately for the same physical movement, there is substantial interference, preventing any learning...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
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