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liver development

Martien van Wenum, Philipp Treskes, Aziza A A Adam, Vincent A van der Mark, Aldo Jongejan, Perry D Moerland, Thomas M van Gulik, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Robert A F M Chamuleau, Ruurdtje Hoekstra
BACKGROUND/AIMS: For applicability of cell-based therapies aimed at the treatment of liver failure, such as bioartificial livers (BALs) and hepatocyte transplantation, it is essential that the applied hepatocytes tolerate exposure to the patient plasma. However, plasma from both healthy donors and acute liver failure (ALF) patients is detrimental to hepatocytes and hepatic cell lines, such as HepaRG. We aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of plasma-induced toxicity against HepaRG cells in order to ultimately develop methods to reduce this toxicity and render HepaRG-BAL treatment more effective...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Connor A West, Mengjun Wang, Harmin Herrera, Hongyan Liang, Alyson Black, Peggi M Angel, Richard R Drake, Anand S Mehta
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains as the fifth most common cancer in the world and accounts for more than 700,000 deaths annually. Changes in serum glycosylation have long been associated with this cancer but the source of that material is unknown and direct glycan analysis of HCC tissues has been limited. Our laboratory previously developed a method of in situ tissue based N-linked glycan imaging that bypasses the need for microdissection and solubilization of tissue prior to analysis. We used this methodology in the analysis of 138 HCC tissue samples and compared the N-linked glycans in cancer tissue with either adjacent untransformed or tissue from patients with liver cirrhosis but no cancer...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Doaa M Anwar, Sherine Nabil Khattab, Maged W Helmy, Mohamed K Kamal, Adnan A Bekhit, Kadria A Elkhodairy, Ahmed O Elzoghby
In this study, promising approaches of dual-targeted micelles and drug-polymer conjugation were combined to enable injection of poorly soluble anti-cancer drugs together with site-specific drug release. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a hepatoprotective agent was grafted to maltodextrin (MD) via carbodiimide coupling to develop amphiphilic maltodextrin-ursodeoxycholic acid (MDCA)-based micelles. Sulfasalazine (SSZ), as a novel anti-cancer agent, was conjugated via a tumor-cleavable ester bond to MD backbone to obtain tumor-specific release whereas resveratrol (RSV) was physically entrapped within the hydrophobic micellar core...
August 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Cetewayo S Rashid, Amita Bansal, Rebecca A Simmons
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to reduced birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress are commonly found in key tissues (pancreatic islets, liver, and skeletal muscle) of IUGR individuals. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in IUGR-associated diabetes etiology.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
Christine L Cain, Stephen D Cole, Charles W Bradley Ii, Michael S Canfield, Elizabeth A Mauldin
BACKGROUND: The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an emerging cause of opportunistic infections. Deep pyoderma associated with Bcc infection has been reported previously in dogs receiving ciclosporin. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and histopathological features of four additional cases of Bcc dermatitis in dogs, one of which progressed to septicaemia. ANIMALS: Four dogs with a skin culture yielding growth of Bcc and skin biopsies for histopathological investigation...
August 14, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Katalin Kiss, Eszter Regős, Kristóf Rada, Gábor Firneisz, Kornélia Baghy, Ilona Kovalszky
The deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on the biology of the liver is supported by clinical evidence. It can promote the development of fatty liver, liver fibrosis, even liver cancer as complication of diabetes mellitus. As liver fibrosis is the consequence of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, the questions were addressed whether alterations induced by high glucose concentration are directly related to TGFB1 effect, or other mechanisms are activated. In order to obtain information on the response of HSC for high glucose, LX-2 cells (an immortalized human HSC cell lineage) were cultured in 15...
August 14, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
M Schmelzle, F Krenzien, W Schöning, J Pratschke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes surgical, interventional and systemic approaches. This review highlights the importance of surgical treatment approaches in the multimodal treatment of HCC, based on the currently available literature, corresponding German guidelines as well as current developments in organ donation in Germany. RESULTS: Curative treatment options for HCC include liver transplantation, partial liver resection, and local ablative procedures depending on the lesion size...
August 14, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Amber M D'Souza, Yanjun Jiang, Ashley Cast, Leila Valanejad, Mary Wright, Kyle Lewis, Meenasri Kumbaji, Sheeniza Shah, David Smithrud, Rebekah Karns, Soona Shin, Nikolai Timchenko
Background & Aims: Uncontrolled liver proliferation is a key characteristic of liver cancer; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. Elucidation of these mechanisms is necessary for the development of better therapy. The oncogene Gankyrin (Gank) is overexpressed in both hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. The aim of this work was to determine the role of Gank in liver proliferation and elucidate the mechanism by which Gank promotes liver proliferation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ying Guo, Xiuqing Han, Hongxia Che, Zhaojie Li, Ping Dong, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, Yuming Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming an increasingly prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The present study was undertaken to explore the synergistic effects of sea cucumber saponins (SCS) and eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-PL) at ratios of 0.5 : 0.5 and 1 : 1 on NAFLD and demonstrate possible protective mechanisms. It was found that the combination of EPA-PL and SCS at half dose exhibited better effects than EPA-PL or SCS alone and the combination of EPA-PL and SCS at full dose in alleviating orotic acid (OA)-induced symptoms including growth parameters, serum parameters and liver function...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
Though morbidity and mortality due to malaria have declined in the last 15 years, emerging resistance to first-line artemisinin-based antimalarials, absence of efficacious vaccines and limited chemotherapeutic alternatives imperil the consolidation of these gains. As a blueprint to steer future designs of new medicines, malaria drug discovery recently adopted a descriptive proposal for the ideal candidate molecules and drugs likely to successfully progress into the final stages of clinical development. As an audit of recent developments in the chemotherapy of malaria in the last five years, this review captures a landscape of diverse molecules at various stages of drug development and discusses their progress...
March 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Venkanna Muripiti, Brijesh Lohchania, Srujan Kumar Marepally, Srilakshmi V Patri
Receptor mediated gene delivery to the liver offers advantages in treating genetic disorders such as hemophilia and hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HTI). Prior findings demonstrated that tethering the d-galactose head group to cationic lipids directs genes to the liver via asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs). In our continued efforts to develop safer and efficient lipofectins, we demonstrated that cationic lipids bearing α-tocopherol, an antioxidant, as a hydrophobic domain could deliver genes efficiently with high safety profiles in multiple cell lines...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Idowu Jonas Sagbo, Maryna van de Venter, Trevor Koekemoer, Graeme Bradley
In South Africa, the number of people suffering from diabetes is believed to be rising steadily and the current antidiabetic therapies are frequently reported to have adverse side effects. Ethnomedicinal plant use has shown promise for the development of cheaper, cost-effective antidiabetic agents with fewer side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity and mechanism of action of aqueous leaf extract prepared from Brachylaena elliptica . The potential of the extract for cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay in HepG2 cells...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kaiping Wang, Jun Wu, Jingya Xu, Saisai Gu, Qiang Li, Peng Cao, Mingming Li, Yu Zhang, Fang Zeng
Given the limited efficacy and potential disadvantages of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the development of better alternative therapies has become a priority. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) and its underlying mechanism in the treatment of renal anemia. In the present study, we found that ASP could enhance hypoxic induction of EPO in Hep3B cells, with a mechanism that involved the stabilization of HIF-2α protein...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Qing-Hong Ke, Hai-Tao Huang, Qi Ling, Ji-Min Liu, Si-Yi Dong, Xiang-Xiang He, Wen-Jin Zhang, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: New-onset hyperglycemia (NOH) is a common phenomenon after liver transplantation (LT), but its impact on clinical outcomes has not yet been fully assessed. We aimed to evaluate the etiology and prognosis of NOH within 1 month after LT. METHODS: The data of 3339 adult patients who underwent primary LT from donation after citizen death between January 2010 and June 2016 were extracted from China Liver Transplant Registry database and analyzed. NOH was defined as fasting blood glucose ≥7...
August 3, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Yizhou Zhao, Mathieu Castonguay, Derek Wilke, Zhaolin Xu, Madelaine Plourde, Liam Mulroy, Mary MacNeil, David Bowes
INTRODUCTION: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare type of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. The study objective is to investigate its survival outcomes, incidence of brain metastases, and patterns of recurrence. METHODS: This is a single center study of patients with pathologic diagnosis of pulmonary LCNEC. Patient data were collected retrospectively and analyzed, including survival, incidence of brain metastases, and patterns of recurrence...
May 24, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Y F Yu, Y Bai, T Chen
Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) is a kind of new brominated flame retardants, which is widely used as a replace of decabromodiphenyl ether in electronic appliances, textiles and other goods. This review summarizes environmental levels and body burden of human beings of DBDPE in recent years. The data shows that the concentration of DBDPE in the environment and human tissues shows an upward trend. According to limited experiments about its toxicity, DBDPE shows similar toxicity to decabromodiphenyl ether. DBDPE can interfere thyroid hormones balance, and cause damage to liver, reproductive development, kidney, et al, which implies that DBDPE might be another new persistent organic pollutant...
August 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
S M Hosseini-Moghaddam, M Shokoohi, G Singh, S F Dufresne, A Boucher, A Jevnikar, G V R Prasad, A Shoker, D Kabbani, M Hebert, H Cardinal, I Houde, A Humar, D Kumar
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this case-control study, we determined the association between post-transplant PCP and 3 variables: cytomegalovirus infection, allograft rejection and prophylaxis. Methods: Eight transplantation centers participated. For each case (SOT recipient with PCP), 3-5 controls (SOT recipients without PCP) were included. Controls were matched to the cases based on transplant center, type of allograft and date of transplantation (± 6 months)...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lydia Giannitrapani, Walter Granà, Anna Licata, Cosima Schiavone, Giuseppe Montalto, Maurizio Soresi
OBJECTIVE: Non-selective β-blockers (NSBBs) are used in liver cirrhosis (LC) to prevent variceal bleeding because they decrease portal pressure. A main risk factor for the development of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in LC is decreased portal vein inflow velocity. The aim of our study was to examine retrospectively the incidence of PVT and its correlation with the use of β-blockers in a cohort of LC patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from 230 LC patients (90% Child-Pugh class A), who had been followed up for at least 5 years, were reviewed...
August 14, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Anna Mróz, Izabela Ryska, Hanna Sominko, Anna Bejrowska, Zofia Mazerska
BACKGROUND: The compound 9-(2'-hydroxyethylamino)-4-methyl-1-nitroacridine (C-1748), the promising antitumor agent developed in our laboratory was determined to undergo phase I metabolic pathways. The present studies aimed to know its biotransformation with phase II enzymes - UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and its potential to be engaged in drug-drug interactions arising from the modulation of UGT activity. METHODS: UGT-mediated transformations with rat liver (RLM), human liver (HLM), and human intestine (HIM) microsomes and with 10 recombinant human isoenzymes were investigated...
March 22, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Bernhard Scheiner, Lisa Steininger, Georg Semmler, Lukas Walter Unger, Philipp Schwabl, Theresa Bucsics, Rafael Paternostro, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Michael Trauner, Thomas Reiberger, Mattias Mandorfer
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Assessment of hepatic steatosis by transient elastography (TE)-based controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) might predict hepatic decompensation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CAP in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) and decompensated cirrhosis (DC). METHODS: 430 patients who underwent TE (liver stiffness ≥10kPa) and CAP measurements were included in this retrospective analysis. The majority of patients (n=224) underwent simultaneous HVPG measurement...
August 14, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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