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liver development

Fernando Bessone, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Tsai-Chung Li, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Sing-Yu Yang, Cheng-Chieh Lin
This study aims to develop a risk score system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with type 2 diabetes using the Taiwan National Diabetes Care Management Program database. This retrospective cohort study included 31,723 Chinese patients who had type 2 diabetes, aged 30-84 years. Participants were randomly grouped into derivation and validation sets in 2:1 ratio. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify the risk factors of HCC in the derivation set. Discrimination ability of the model was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve and performance was expressed as the c statistic, assessed internally on validation data sets...
October 17, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Sergio Béjar-Serrano, Pablo Del Pozoe, Margarita Fernández-de la Varga, Salvador Benlloch
INTRODUCTION: Infections in cirrhotic patients caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently increasing and are associated with greater morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the epidemiology, risk factors and prognoses of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study on patients with liver cirrhosis who developed an infection during hospitalisations between July 2014 and August 2016 at our centre (Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain)...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Stephanie B Oliveira, Conrad R Cole
Medical management of children with Intestinal failure continues to evolve. The development of specialized teams focused on the management of these children has made the most significant impact in improving outcomes. Medical management strategies are centered on the provision of adequate fluid electrolytes and calories to allow for appropriate growth and neurological development. Enteral therapy and drugs are required to enhance bowel adaptation while parenteral nutrition is the main source of nutrients, electrolytes and fluid...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Kathleen M Gura, McGreggor Crowley
Intravenous lipid emulsions are an integral part of nutrition therapy in the intestinal failure patient. In addition to being a concentrated source of non-protein calories, they provide the essential fatty acids necessary for growth and development. Depending upon the oil source used in these products, complications such as intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) can occur. This review will discuss the risks and benefits associated with these products, especially as they relate to the pediatric intestinal failure patient...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Hans-Soenke Jans, Xiao-Hong Yang, Dion R Brocks, Piyush Kumar, Melinda Wuest, Leonard I Wiebe
PURPOSE: Pharmacokinetic (PK) data are generally derived from blood samples withdrawn serially over a defined period after dosing. In small animals, blood sampling after dosing presents technical difficulties, particularly when short time intervals and frequent sampling are required. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive functional imaging technique that can provide semi-quantitative temporal data for defined volume regions of interest (vROI), to support kinetic analyses in blood and other tissues...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tobias Lammel, Georgia Tsoukatou, Johanna Jellinek, Joachim Sturve
In vitro experimental systems based on continuous piscine cell lines can be used as an alternative to animal tests for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the possible fate and effect of chemicals in fish. However, their capability to reproduce complex metabolic processes and toxic responses as they occur in vivo is limited due to the lack of organ-specific tissue architecture and functions. Here we introduce a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro experimental system based on spheroidal aggregate cultures (spheroids) of the continuous rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 and provide a first description of their structural and functional properties including growth, viability/longevity, metabolic activity, ultrastructure and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) expression determined by bright-field, multi-photon fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy as well as RT-qPCR analysis...
October 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Pagona Panagiota Sfyri, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anastasia Tzimou, Natasa Giallourou, Vassili Crispi, Ahmed Aburima, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez, Ketan Patel, Vassilis Mougios, Jonathan R Swann, Mark T Kearney, Antonios Matsakas
Obesity leading to hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis is recognised to induce morphological and metabolic changes in many tissues. However, hyperlipidaemia can occur in the absence of obesity. The impact of the latter scenario on skeletal muscle and liver is not understood sufficiently. In this regard, we used the Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- ) mouse model, an established model of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, that does not become obese when subjected to a high-fat diet, to determine the impact of Western-type diet (WD) and ApoE deficiency on skeletal muscle morphological, metabolic and biochemical properties...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chuanju Dong, Shengnan Kong, Xianhu Zheng, Jiangfan Zhang, Guoxing Nie, Xuejun Li, Peng Xu
Interleukin-17 (IL17) family cytokines are well known for having pro-inflammatory actions as important mediators of mucosal immune responses and are tightly regulated by various kinds of signals. However, most studies of IL17 genes have focused on mammals, and much less is known about IL17 genes in fish species. To better understand the scope and actions of the IL17 gene family in common carp, we characterized seven IL17 gene homologs from genomic and transcriptomic databases that could be classified into three subclasses according to different comparative genomic analyses...
October 17, 2018: Gene
Yun Zhang, M Z H Khan, Tingting Yuan, Yuwei Zhang, Xiuhua Liu, Zuliang Du, Yingyong Zhao
In the present work, Dioscorea opposita Thunb polysaccharide-zinc (DPS-zinc) inclusion complex was synthesized for the first time and its anti-diabetes activities against Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were assayed. The detail structural and morphological analysis of as-prepared DPS-zinc complex was done by using different spectroscopic and microscopic methods. The pharmacological study revealed that DPS-zinc presented a potent hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats, decreased the glucose and insulin levels, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and increased SOD and T-AOC activities significantly in liver...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mengmeng Duan, Xiaona Sun, Na Ma, Yili Liu, Tengrui Luo, Shuang Song, Chunqing Ai
Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs) are reported to have various functional properties, but the effects and mechanisms of LJPs on obesity and its related diseases are unclear. This study demonstrated that LJPs prevented diet-induced obesity in a mice model, and improved obesity-related parameters, e.g. fat accumulation in the liver and adipose tissues, body composition, lipids profile, and the morphology of the intestine. Such effects were associated with the modulation of the gut microbiota, involving some members of the Bacteroidetes phylum...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thomas F Baumert, Thomas Berg, Joseph K Lim, David R Nelson
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Following the discovery of HCV 3 decades ago, the identification of the structure of the viral proteins, combined with high-throughput replicon models, enabled the discovery and development of direct-acting antivirals. These agents have revolutionized care of patients, with cure rates of more than 90%. We review the status of direct-acting antiviral therapies for HCV infection and discuss remaining challenges...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Joseph M G V Gassner, Maximilian Nösser, Simon Moosburner, Rosa Horner, Peter Tang, Lara Wegener, David Wyrwal, Felix Claussen, Ruza Arsenic, Johann Pratschke, Igor M Sauer, Nathanael Raschzok
Normothermic ex vivo liver machine perfusion might be a superior preservation strategy for liver grafts from extended criteria donors. However, standardized small animal models are not available for basic research on machine perfusion of liver grafts. A laboratory-scaled perfusion system was developed consisting of a custom-made perfusion chamber, a pressure-controlled roller pump, and an oxygenator. Male Wistar rat livers were perfused via the portal vein for 6 hours using oxygenated culture medium supplemented with rat erythrocytes...
October 20, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Shaik Afsar Pasha, Shaik Arif Pasha, T Suhasini, D Ankamma Rao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging infectious disease in the developed countries. The unique characteristics of HEV is that it displays different epidemiological and clinical characteristics between developing and developed countries. Neurological disorders are emerging extra hepatic manifestations of both acute and chronic Hepatitis E virus infection. We report a 17 year old sportsman presenting with acute encephalitic Parkinsonism concurrent with acute hepatitis. Serology was positive for Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and HEV RNA was confirmed...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Soichi Narumoto, Seisuke Sakamoto, Kengo Sasaki, Yoshihiro Hirata, Akinari Fukuda, Toru Uchiyama, Rie Irie, Takako Yoshioka, Mureo Kasahara
Desensitization with RTX has been broadly introduced in adult LT across the ABO blood type barrier. For pediatric LT, the prophylactic use of RTX has not been standardized, especially for children under 2 years of age. A 20-month-old girl with BA underwent living donor LT from her ABO-I mother. On POD 6, she developed combined T cell-mediated and AMRs. Steroid bolus injection was immediately introduced, followed by antibody-depleting therapy with PE and IVIG. Based on a peripheral blood lymphocyte analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, ATG and RTX were introduced for refractory rejection...
October 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Yu Lu, Makoto Harada, Yuji Kamijo, Takero Nakajima, Naoki Tanaka, Eiko Sugiyama, Mamoru Kyogashima, Frank J Gonzalez, Toshifumi Aoyama
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is involved in the regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. A high-cholesterol (HC) diet increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD); however, it is unclear whether the toxic effects of cholesterol involve changes in thrombotic factor expression, and whether PPARα is necessary for such effects. To investigate this possibility, we fed a HC diet to wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null mice and measured cholesterol and triglyceride contents, liver histology, serum/plasma levels of coagulation factors, hepatic expression of the coagulation factors, liver/serum sulfatide levels, hepatic sulfatide metabolism, hepatic expression of lipid transporters, and hepatic oxidative stress and its relating enzymes...
October 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Bijay Dhungel, Charmaine A Ramlogan-Steel, Jason C Steel
In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which usually develops in a cirrhotic liver, treatments preserving normal liver function and viability are vitally important. Here, we utilise the differential expression of miRNAs 122a and 199a between normal hepatocytes and HCC to generate vectors harbouring their binding sites for hepatocyte detargeting. Using a reporter gene, we observed a synergistic detargeting of cells expressing both miRNAs as well as cells expressing either of the miRNAs; while expression was retained in HCC cells negative for both miRNA122a and miRNA199a...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qinhao Lin, Li Dong, Yaqian Xu, Guoqing Di
With the development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current transmission, the intensity of static electric field (SEF) under transmission lines increased, which has aroused public attention on its potential health effects. In order to examine effects of SEF exposure on liver, institute of cancer research mice were exposed to SEF with intensities of 27.5 kV/m, 34.7 kV/m and 56.3 kV/m, respectively. In each intensity of SEF exposure, a corresponding sham exposure group was used. Several indices relating to liver function (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were tested after exposure of 7, 14, 21 and 35 days...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Grzegorz Chlebus, Andrea Schenk, Jan Hendrik Moltz, Bram van Ginneken, Horst Karl Hahn, Hans Meine
Automatic liver tumor segmentation would have a big impact on liver therapy planning procedures and follow-up assessment, thanks to standardization and incorporation of full volumetric information. In this work, we develop a fully automatic method for liver tumor segmentation in CT images based on a 2D fully convolutional neural network with an object-based postprocessing step. We describe our experiments on the LiTS challenge training data set and evaluate segmentation and detection performance. Our proposed design cascading two models working on voxel- and object-level allowed for a significant reduction of false positive findings by 85% when compared with the raw neural network output...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antonio Anax Falcão de Oliveira, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Michelle Francini Dias, Marisa Helena Gennari Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Mariana Veras, Miriam Lemos, Tania Marcourakis, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Ana Paula Melo Loureiro
BACKGROUND: The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo has a unique composition of atmospheric pollutants, and positive correlations between exposure and the risk of diseases and mortality have been observed. Here we assessed the effects of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on genotoxic and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation changes, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of AJ mice exposed whole body to ambient air enriched in PM2.5 , which was concentrated in a chamber near an avenue of intense traffic in São Paulo City, Brazil...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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