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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898089/polarisation-independent-silicon-on-insulator-slot-waveguides
#1
Valerian Hongjie Chen, Jun Rong Ong, Ching Eng Png
The minimisation of birefringence, or polarisation mode dispersion, is vital for simplifying and miniaturising photonic components. In this work, we present a systematic study of the slot waveguide geometries required for having zero birefringence (ZB). We show that the rail widths required for ZB are more strongly dependent on the height of the waveguide than on the slot separation. After which, we demonstrate that the ZB geometry is significantly affected by the slanting of the waveguide walls. This paper proceeds to show that within the range studied, one can fix the height, slot, slant angle, and bend radius, and still achieve ZB by varying the widths of both of the rails...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850378/740-inhibition-of-ferroptosis-as-a-neuroprotective-strategy-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Elizabeth Kenny, Qin Yang, Emin Fidan, Lee Ann New, Tamil Selvan Anthonymuthu, Patrick Kochanek, Valerian Kagan, Hulya Bayir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794421/a-topical-mitochondria-targeted-redox-cycling-nitroxide-mitigates-oxidative-stress-induced-skin-damage
#3
Rhonda M Brand, Michael W Epperly, J Mark Stottlemyer, Erin M Skoda, Xiang Gao, Song Li, Saiful Huq, Peter Wipf, Valerian E Kagan, Joel S Greenberger, Louis D Falo
Skin is the largest human organ and provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis from UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation induced oxidative stress...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780544/isolation-of-human-trophoblastic-extracellular-vesicles-and-characterization-of-their-cargo-and-antiviral-activity
#4
Yingshi Ouyang, Avraham Bayer, Tianjiao Chu, Vladimir A Tyurin, Valerian E Kagan, Adrian E Morelli, Carolyn B Coyne, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: Primary human trophoblasts release a repertoire of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among them are nano-sized exosomes, which we found to suppress the replication of a wide range of diverse viruses. These exosomes contain trophoblastic microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and exhibit antiviral properties. Here, we report our investigation of the cargo of placental EVs, focusing on the composition and the antiviral properties of exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic blebs...
November 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776039/has-the-phasing-out-of-stavudine-in-accordance-with-changes-in-who-guidelines-led-to-a-decrease-in-single-drug-substitutions-in-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Alana T Brennan, Mary-Ann Davies, Jacob Bor, Gilles Wandeler, Kathryn Stinson, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Frank Tanser, Geoffrey Fatti, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kara Wool-Kaloustian, Constantin Yuannoutsos, Valériane Leroy, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in accordance with WHO 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS) (substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Multiregional) including ART-naive, HIV-infected patients aged at least 16 years, initiating ART between January 2005 and December 2012...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771032/complications-and-surgical-outcomes-after-interhospital-transfer-vs-direct-admission-in-colorectal-surgery-a-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-analysis
#6
Stephen P Sharp, Ashar Ata, Brian T Valerian, Jonathan J Canete, A David Chismark, Edward C Lee
BACKGROUND: Interhospital transfer is common among patients undergoing colorectal surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine surgical outcomes after transfer vs direct admission in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2010 to 2012 was used. Colorectal operations were selected, including both emergency and nonemergency cases. Transfers were compared with direct admissions using a complex comorbidity analysis model...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758862/phosphorylation-of-cytochrome-c-threonine-28-regulates-electron-transport-chain-activity-in-kidney-implications-for-amp-kinase
#7
Gargi Mahapatra, Ashwathy Varughese, Qinqin Ji, Icksoo Lee, Jenney Liu, Asmita Vaishnav, Christopher Sinkler, Alexandr A Kapralov, Carlos T Moraes, Thomas H Sanderson, Timothy L Stemmler, Lawrence I Grossman, Valerian E Kagan, Joseph S Brunzelle, Arthur R Salomon, Brian F P Edwards, Maik Hüttemann
Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain (ETC) and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated Thr28Glu phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared to wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751669/review-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-sleep-medicines-in-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
November 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736105/individual-differences-in-the-impact-of-vicarious-racism-african-american-students-react-to-the-george-zimmerman-trial
#9
Tyler B Mason, Ralitsa S Maduro, Valerian J Derlega, Desi S Hacker, Barbara A Winstead, Jacqueline E Haywood
Objective: This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students' reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. Method: In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr...
October 13, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716731/health-and-survival-of-hiv-perinatally-exposed-but-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-mothers
#10
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693574/hybrid-transvaginal-notes-nephrectomy-post-operative-sexual-outcomes-a-three-center-matched-study
#11
Salvatore Butticè, Tarik Emre Sener, Valerian Ciprian Lucan, Luca Lunelli, Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Christopher Netsch, Yiloren Tanidir, Rosa Pappalardo, Carlo Magno
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our experience in patients undergoing hybrid transvaginal NOTES nephrectomy and evaluate the sexual functions in the post-operative period. METHODS: Prospective data of 71 patients with renal tumors who underwent hybrid NOTES radical nephrectomy in three different centers were collected from March 2010 to October 2015. Patient and surgical characteristics are recorded. Sexual function was evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, the day prior to the operation and three months after...
September 27, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689202/gastrointestinal-side-effects-of-post-transplant-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Valerian Ciprian Lucan, Luisa Berardinelli
Modern immunosuppressive therapy has produced a real revolution in renal and organ transplantation but it comes with the price of multiple side effects. There are many gastrointestinal (GI) complications that are the consequence of transplant immunosuppressant medication. In fact, for any immunosuppressant therapy, certain standardized precepts and attitudes that aim to reduce the incidence and the impact of the medication side effects must be applied. Many patients undergo renal transplantation and the physicians have to be aware of the advantages and the risks associated...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683817/cd36-provides-host-protection-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-intrapulmonary-infection-by-enhancing-lps-responsiveness-and-macrophage-phagocytosis
#13
Tolani F Olonisakin, Huihua Li, Zeyu Xiong, Elizabeth J K Kochman, Minting Yu, Yanyan Qu, Mei Hulver, Jay K Kolls, Claudette St Croix, Yohei Doi, Minh-Hong Nguyen, Robert M Q Shanks, Rama K Mallampalli, Valerian E Kagan, Anuradha Ray, Roy L Silverstein, Prabir Ray, Janet S Lee
Klebsiella pneumoniae remains an important cause of intrapulmonary infection and invasive disease worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae can evade serum killing and phagocytosis primarily through the expression of a polysaccharide capsule, but its pathogenicity is also influenced by host factors. We examined whether CD36, a scavenger receptor that recognizes pathogen and modified-self ligands, is a host determinant of Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogenicity. Despite differences in serum sensitivity and virulence of three distinct Klebsiella pneumoniae (hypermucoviscous K1, research K2, carbapenemase-producing ST258) strains utilized, the absence of CD36 significantly increased host susceptibility to acute intrapulmonary infection by K...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681079/acute-severe-hyponatraemia-secondary-to-polydipsia-and-associated-herbal-remedy-use
#14
Oliver T R Toovey, Ian R Edmond, Nikolaos Makris
A 47-year-old woman presented with seizures secondary to euvolaemic hyponatraemia. A collateral history revealed recent increased oral fluid intake and increased use of herbal remedies including valerian root over the New Year period. There was no history of psychiatric disease to support psychogenic polydipsia. She responded to careful sodium replacement in the intensive care unit and was discharged with no neurological sequelae.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677719/botanicals-and-their-bioactive-phytochemicals-for-women-s-health
#15
Birgit M Dietz, Atieh Hajirahimkhan, Tareisha L Dunlap, Judy L Bolton
Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger)...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670262/novel-mononuclear-pt-2-and-pd-2-complexes-containing-2-3-f-pyrazino-1-10-phenanthroline-2-3-dicarboxylic-acid-as-a-multi-donor-ligand-synthesis-structure-interaction-with-dna-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis
#16
Ya-Guang Sun, Yi-Ning Sun, Li-Xin You, Yi-Nan Liu, Fu Ding, Bao-Yi Ren, Gang Xiong, Valerian Dragutan, Ileana Dragutan
New cytotoxic, mononuclear Pt and Pd coordination complexes featuring the planar, multi-donor ligand (2,3-f)pyrazino(1,10)phenanthroline-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2PPDA) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions (in water, at high temperature and pressure) and fully characterized. The complexes were proven to be isostructural by applying the single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy investigations on their interaction with fish sperm DNA revealed a considerable binding capacity while gel electrophoresis provided evidence in favor of cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633703/-not-available
#17
Valériane Dujardin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540110/clinical-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-diagnosing-hiv-infection-during-early-infancy-in-south-africa-test-timing-and-frequency
#18
Jordan A Francke, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Elaine J Abrams, Rachel L MacLean, Landon Myer, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Milton C Weinstein, Robert A Parker, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND:  Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during early infancy (commonly known as "early infant HIV diagnosis" [EID]) followed by prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduces mortality. EID testing is recommended at 6 weeks of age, but many infant infections are missed. DESIGN/METHODS:  We simulated 4 EID testing strategies for HIV-exposed infants in South Africa: no EID (diagnosis only after illness; hereafter, "no EID"), testing once (at birth alone or at 6 weeks of age alone; hereafter, "birth alone" and "6 weeks alone," respectively), and testing twice (at birth and 6 weeks of age; hereafter "birth and 6 weeks")...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527503/pregnancy-incidence-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-female-adolescents-in-hiv-care-in-urban-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-2009-2013
#19
Shino Arikawa, Tanoh Eboua, Kouadio Kouakou, Marie-Sylvie N'Gbeche, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Corinne Moh, Ursula Belinda Amoussou-Bouah, Patrick Ahuatchi Coffie, Renaud Becquet, Valériane Leroy
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. DESIGN: We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498292/known-unknowns-of-cardiolipin-signaling-the-best-is-yet-to-come
#20
John J Maguire, Yulia Y Tyurina, Dariush Mohammadyani, Aleksandr A Kapralov, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Feng Qu, Andrew A Amoscato, Louis J Sparvero, Vladimir A Tyurin, Joan Planas-Iglesias, Rong-Rong He, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Hülya Bayır, Valerian E Kagan
Since its discovery 75years ago, a wealth of knowledge has accumulated on the role of cardiolipin, the hallmark phospholipid of mitochondria, in bioenergetics and particularly on the structural organization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. A surge of interest in this anionic doubly-charged tetra-acylated lipid found in both prokaryotes and mitochondria has emerged based on its newly discovered signaling functions. Cardiolipin displays organ, tissue, cellular and transmembrane distribution asymmetries. A collapse of the membrane asymmetry represents a pro-mitophageal mechanism whereby externalized cardiolipin acts as an "eat-me" signal...
August 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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