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Ren-Peng Zhou, Tian-Dong Leng, Tao Yang, Fei-Hu Chen, Zhi-Gang Xiong
Tissue acidosis is a common feature of brain ischemia which causes neuronal injury. Activation of acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) plays an important role in acidosis-mediated neurotoxicity. Acute ethanol administration has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects during ischemic stroke, but the precise mechanisms have yet to be determined. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on the activity/expression of ASIC1a channels and acidosis-induced neurotoxicity. We showed that acute treatment of neuronal cells with ethanol for more than 3 h could reduce ASIC1a protein expression, ASIC currents, and acid-induced [Ca2+ ]i elevation...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Meytal Landau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Urooza C Sarma, Jock K Findlay, Karla J Hutt
Folliculogenesis describes the process of activating an oocyte-containing primordial follicle from the ovarian reserve and its development to the mature ovulatory stage. This process is highly complex and is controlled by extra- and intra-ovarian signaling events. Oocyte competence and capacity for fertilization to support a viable pregnancy are acquired during folliculogenesis. Cancer and cancer-based therapies can negatively affect this process, compromising fertility. Currently, preservation of fertility in these patients remains limited to surrogacy, oocyte freezing, oocyte donation, or in vitro maturation (IVM)...
July 27, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Tao Liu, Rui Feng, Jianjia Yi, Shah Nawaz Burokur, Chunxu Mao, Hailin Zhang, Douglas H Werner
Radio waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) may potentially increase spectrum efficiency and channel capacity based on their extra rotational degree of freedom. However, due to their divergence characteristics, vortex waves are not suitable to transmit over a long distance in the radio frequency (RF) and microwave domains. In this paper, a transformation optics (TO) based all-dielectric converging lens is proposed. The beam divergence angle of the vortex wave passing through the lens can be decreased from 25° to 9°...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Hongyu Shi, Yang Hao
In this paper, we theoretically design and analyse a wide-angle optical half-wave plate by combining the field transformation (FT) approach with the form-birefringence theory. The FT method is a general approach to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagations from pre-defined boundary conditions and artificial media by design. In theory, the approach is valid for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations. In practice, the resulting medium can be mimicked by a form-birefringent structure which has the same dispersion properties for a wide range of incident angles...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Huixing Deng, Geng Qianqian, Ji Ting, Yang Aimin
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated to play critical roles in non-small celllung cancer (NSCLC) progression and participate in the regulation of drug resistance during cancer chemotherapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of how miR-539 modulates the chemosensitivity to cisplatin (DDP) in NSCLC cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-539 was significantly downregulated in DDP-resistant cell lines (A549/DDP and H1299/DDP). Overexpression of miR-539 enhanced the sensitivity of DDP-resistant NSCLC cells to DDP by suppressing cell proliferation, causing cell cycle arrest, inducing apoptosis, repressing invasion and migration...
July 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wei Zhang, Yangyang Zhang, Keke Ding, Hengbing Zhang, Qian Zhao, Zheng Liu, Yawei Xu
JNK1/2 and NF-κB signal are essential signaling pathways that mediate a variety of cellular processes, including cell survival, apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis. JNK1/2 activation and NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation have been found in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. However, the regulation of JNK1/2-NF-κBp65 signaling pathway remains unclear. To examine the function and possible mechanism of HMGB2 in I/R-induced cell injury, human AC16 cardiomyocytes transfected with pLVX-Puro-HMGB2 were treated with SP600125 (JNK1/2 inhibitor) or PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor) and that following I/R injury were transfected with HMGB2-shRNA...
July 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eefei Chen, Raymond M Esquerra, Philipp A Meléndez, Sita S Chandrasekaran, David S Kliger
A protein's folding or function depends on its mobility through the viscous environment that is defined by the presence of macromolecules throughout the cell. The relevant parameter for this mobility is microviscosity - the viscosity on a time and distance scale that is important for protein folding/function movements. A quasi-null, ultrasensitive time-resolved linear dichroism (TRLD) spectroscopy is proving to be a useful tool for measurements of viscosity on this scale, with previous in vitro studies reporting on the microviscosities of crowded environments mimicked by high concentrations of different macromolecules...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Anja Schirbel, Dror S Shouval, Betty Hebecker, Bernhard Hube, Andreas Sturm, Lael Werner
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder. Our understanding of the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of IBD has increased substantially; however, only scarce data exist regarding the role of commensal fungi in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and triggering IBD. Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a member of the intestinal mycobiome and proposed to contribute to IBD pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the influence of the two morphologies of C. albicans, yeast and hypha, on epithelial cells and T cells from IBD patients vs...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Angel J Moreno, Federica Lo Verso
We present computer simulations of a realistic model of microgels. Unlike the regular network frameworks usually assumed in the simulation literature, we model and simulate a realistic and efficient synthesis route, mimicking cross-linking of functionalized chains inside a cavity. This model is inspired, e.g., by microfluidic fabrication of microgels from macromolecular precursors and is different from standard polymerization routes. The assembly of the chains is mediated by a low fraction of interchain crosslinks...
August 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Yasser A Kamal, Yasser S Mubarak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Petr Kuchynka, Tomas Palecek, Lukas Lambert, Martin Masek, Valerie Knotkova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Kardiologia Polska
N M Sharath Babu, S T Chacko, B R Chacko, A Irodi
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a syndrome of acute left ventricular dysfunction with a clinical presentation often mimicking acute coronary syndrome. Without a high index of suspicion, this clinical entity often goes unrecognized. Although initially categorized as a benign completely reversible condition, it is no longer considered to be so. Recurrence of this condition, though rare, has been reported in a non-Indian population. We present a case of recurrent TTC in a postmenopausal Indian lady who had a similar clinical presentation both at the index event and at recurrence...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Pierpaolo Alongi, Ignazio Gaspare Vetrano, Elisa Fiasconaro, Valerio Alaimo, Riccardo Laudicella, Marina Bellavia, Francesca Rubino, Sergio Bagnato, Giuseppe Galardi
OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most common and malignant glioma, accounting for 45%-50% of all gliomas . The median survival time for patients with glioblastoma is only 12-15 months after surgical, chemioterapic and radiotherapic treatment; a correct diagnosis is naturally fundamental to establish a rapid and correct therapy. Non-invasive imaging plays a pivotal role in each phase of the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected for diagnosis. The aim of this case report was to describe the potential clinical impact of 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT in the assessment of a cystic GBM mimicking a spontaneous hemorrhage...
August 17, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Yi Zhang, Qi An, Wangshu Tong, Haitao Li, Zequn Ma, Yan Zhou, Tao Huang, Yihe Zhang
Enhanced drug releases in a timely manner during urgent medical treatments would significantly enhance the prognosis of patients. Inspired by the facilitated molecular transports by the potentials, an enhanced drug release strategy driven by mechanical disturbances that widely exist in medical treatment processes is proposed. This strategy is enabled by a functional material comprised of multilayers of dendrimers as the drug reservoir, which are built on a piezoelectric-dielectric flexible film with reduced graphene oxide fillers...
August 16, 2018: Small
Norifumi Harimoto, Kei Hagiwara, Takahiro Yamanaka, Norihiro Ishii, Takamichi Igarashi, Akira Watanabe, Norio Kubo, Kenichirou Araki, Hayato Ikota, Masafumi Suyama, Takeshi Maki, Shinichi Aishima, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Ken Shirabe
BACKGROUND: Clear cell carcinoma commonly occurs in the ovary and kidney, and clear cell cholangiocarcinoma was rarely reported. Differential diagnosis which the origin of the tumor located on the liver surface is intrahepatic or extrahepatic was difficult. Herein, we report a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma mimicking liver cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: This was a 55-year-old female who had the tumor with cystic component in the liver. She was performed hepatectomy and diagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma...
August 16, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Antonio Scarafino, Eustachio D'Errico, Alessandro Introna, Angela Fraddosio, Eugenio Distaso, Irene Tempesta, Antonella Morea, Antonella Mastronardi, Rosaria Leante, Maddalena Ruggieri, Mariangela Mastrapasqua, Isabella Laura Simone
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that still lacks reliable diagnostic biomarkers. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of CSF total Tau (t-Tau), phospho-Tau (p-Tau) and p-Tau/t-Tau ratio in ALS patients using CSF neurofilament light (NFL) as the reference biomarker. METHODS: Eighty-five incident ALS, 30 ALS-mimicking (AM) diseases and 51 other non-neurodegenerative diseases (ONND) were included in the study...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Alexandria K Driessen, Michael J Farrell, Mathias Dutschmann, Davor Stanic, Alice E McGovern, Stuart B Mazzone
Sensory neurons of the jugular vagal ganglia innervate the respiratory tract and project to the poorly studied medullary paratrigeminal nucleus. In the present study, we used neuroanatomical tracing, pharmacology and physiology in guinea pig to investigate the paratrigeminal neural circuits mediating jugular ganglia-evoked respiratory reflexes. Retrogradely traced laryngeal jugular ganglia neurons were largely (> 60%) unmyelinated and expressed the neuropeptide substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, although a population (~ 30%) of larger diameter myelinated jugular neurons was defined by the expression of vGlut1...
August 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Mokhtar Bibi, Ahmed Sellami, Tarek Taktak, Alia Zehani Kassar, Mohamed Ali Ben Chehida, Kays Chaker, Karem Abid, Sami Ben Rhouma, Yassine Nouira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Urology Case Reports
Michela Starace, Aurora Alessandrini, Emi Dika, Bianca Maria Piraccini
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nail apparatus is a rare malignant tumor that usually originates underneath the nail plate and grows slowly with possible bone invasion. The etiology remains unknown, although a strong association with different conditions, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVs), trauma, or radiation exposure has been demonstrated. Nail SCC is called "the great mimicker nail tumor" because different clinical presentations may coexist, resembling benign or malignant nail lesions...
July 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
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