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Nahide Ekici Günay, Sabahattin Muhtaroğlu, Abdulkadir Bedirli
BACKGROUND: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. AIMS: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Wei Fu, Xingyuan He, Sheng Xu, Wei Chen, Yan Li, Bo Li, Lili Su, Qin Ping
Ground-level ozone (O3 ) pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer...
2018: PeerJ
Lixiang Aa, Fei Fei, Zhaoyi Tan, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang, Changxiao Liu
Ginkgolides are the primarily active components in Ginkgo products that are popular worldwide. However, few studies have evaluated the bioavailability of ginkgolides and the effects of food on it after oral administration of ginkgolides. In this article, pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of the primary components in ginkgolide extracts were evaluated in beagle dogs. For the first time, we showed that the fed dogs had significantly increased area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration relative to the fasted dogs based on the data from both the prototype form and total lactones of ginkgolide A (GA) and ginkgolide B (GB)...
March 8, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Yaoyao Huang, Yang Hu, Lvcun Chen, Tao Yang, Hanfang Huang, Runping Shi, Peng Lu, Chenghua Zhong
Low-cost biosorbents (ginkgo leaf, osmanthus leaf, banyan leaf, magnolia leaf, holly leaf, walnut shell, and grapefruit peel) were evaluated in the simultaneous removal of La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Yb3+, Lu3+, UO22+, Th4+, Y3+, Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and Sr2+ from aqueous solutions. In single metal systems, all adsorbents exhibited good to excellent adsorption capacities toward lanthanides and actinides. In a simulated multicomponent mixed solution study, higher selectivity and efficiency were observed for Th4+ over other metal cations, with ginkgo leaves providing the highest adsorptivity (81...
2018: PloS One
Shanshan Li, Xinjiang Zhang, Qi Fang, Junshan Zhou, Meijuan Zhang, Hui Wang, Yan Chen, Biyun Xu, Yanfeng Wu, Lai Qian, Yun Xu
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in acute ischaemic stroke and its impact on the recurrence of vascular events. Methods: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, blinded, controlled clinical trial enrollingpatients with an onset of acute stroke within 7 days from five hospitals in China Jiangsu Province. Participants were assigned to the GBE group (450 mg GBE with 100 mg aspirin daily) or the control group (100 mg aspirin daily) for 6 months...
December 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Biao Jin
Ginkgo biloba is grown worldwide as an ornamental plant for its golden leaf color. However, the regulatory mechanism of leaf coloration in G. biloba remains unclear. Here, we compared G. biloba gold-colored mutant leaves and normal green leaves in cytological, physiological and transcriptomic terms. We found that chloroplasts of the mutant were fewer and smaller, and exhibited ruptured thylakoid membranes, indistinct stromal lamellae and irregularly arranged vesicles. Physiological experiments also showed that the mutant had a lower chlorophyll, lower flavonoid and higher carotenoid contents (especially lutein)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Shaosong Kuang, Lin Yang, Ziliang Rao, Zhiyong Zhong, Jinfeng Li, Haichao Zhong, Lulu Dai, Xiaojiang Tang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. Presently, there is no effective and safe drug to treat patients with PD. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), obtained from leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, is a complex mixture of ingredients primarily containing two active components: flavonoids and terpenoids. In this study, we investigated the effects of GBE on A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice, a PD model that has better simulated the progression of PD patients than other models such as the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine-induced PD model...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Szilvia Czigle, Jaroslav Tóth, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Erzsébet Háznagy-Radnai, Dezső Csupor, Daniela Tekeľová
The aim of this study was to prove whether Ginkgo biloba food supplements on the European market comply with pharmaceutical quality, and whether their composition satisfies the European Pharmacopoeia criteria. Medicinal products containing a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract are used for the improvement of cognitive impairment and quality of life in mild dementia. Further, Ginkgonis folium is used for the treatment of peripheral circulation disorders. Pharmacopoeial Ginkgo dry extract contains 22.0 - 27...
March 5, 2018: Planta Medica
Carola Stockburger, Schamim Eckert, Gunter P Eckert, Kristina Friedland-Leuner, Walter E Müller
Because of the failure of all amyloid-β directed treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the concept of mitochondrial dysfunction as a major pathomechanism of the cognitive decline in aging and AD has received substantial support. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function as an alternative strategy for new drug development became of increasing interest and many different compounds have been identified which improve mitochondrial function in preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, very few if any have been investigated in clinical trials, representing a major drawback of the mitochondria directed drug development...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jun Ni, Lixiang Dong, Zhifang Jiang, Xiuli Yang, Ziying Chen, Yuhuan Wu, Maojun Xu
Ginkgo leaves are raw materials for flavonoid extraction. Thus, the timing of their harvest is important to optimize the extraction efficiency, which benefits the pharmaceutical industry. In this research, we compared the transcriptomes of Ginkgo leaves harvested at midday and midnight. The differentially expressed genes with the highest probabilities in each step of flavonoid biosynthesis were down-regulated at midnight. Furthermore, real-time PCR corroborated the transcriptome results, indicating the decrease in flavonoid biosynthesis at midnight...
2018: PloS One
Bo-Lin Wang, Ling Xuan, Shi-Jie Dai, Li-Ting Ji, Chang-Yu Li, Yuan-Xiao Yang
This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of β-asarone on the animal model of Alzheimer's disease(AD) which was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ₁₋₄₂ combined cerebral ischemia. One hundred and five rats were randomly divided into seven groups including sham-operated group, AD model group, β-asarone 10 mg•kg⁻¹ group, β-asarone 20 mg•kg⁻¹ group, β-asarone 30 mg•kg⁻¹ group, donepezil group(0.75 mg•kg⁻¹) and Ginkgo biloba extract group(24 mg•kg⁻¹)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Li Zhou, Ying Gao, Xin-Xing Lai, Tian-Shu Xu, Ming Yu, Yan Wang, Jian-Jun Zhao, Zi-Hu Tan
To further evaluate the safety of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection in the clinical use in ischemic stroke patients. Clinical safety study was conducted in 82 clinical units and 6 300 cases were completed and included from June 2013 to December 2014 by using multicenter, prospective, open and uncontrolled design methods for clinical research. A total of 29 cases of adverse reactions were observed in the experiment. Adverse reaction ratio (ADR) was 0.46%, and about 86.21% (25 cases) of them was mild with transient response which could be alleviated or disappeared without intervention; about 13...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhuo-Qiong Li, Ze-Yu Cao, Liang Cao, Zhi-Peng Ke, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
The left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was made by inserting the nylon thread plug into the internal carotid artery. The behavioral score, cerebral infarction area, brain water content, ethidium bromide (EB) spillover, coagulation four indices, occludin and MMP-9 expression in brain tissues were detected after 14 days of administration, to investigate whether the protective effect of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDLMI) which had obvious protective effect on cerebral ischemic injury in the previous experiment was related to reducing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reducing the risk of bleeding, and to explore its possible mechanism of action...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yan-Ping Luo, Hong Zhang, Han-Fei Hu, Ze-Yu Cao, Xin-Zhuang Zhang, Liang Cao, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
To investigate the protective effects of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDLMI) on cerebral focal ischemia reperfusion injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats, and explore its possible mechanism. One hundred and forty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, ginkgo biloba extract injection (Ginaton, 1.0 mL•kg⁻¹) group, nimodipine (0.4 mg•kg⁻¹) group, and GDLMI (5.2, 2.6, 1.3 mg•kg⁻¹) groups; All of rats received corresponding drugs by tail vein injection 4 days before operation (normal saline in model group and sham operation group)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sufei He, Miao Wang, Jinhua Si, Tianyi Zhang, Hong Cui, Xiumei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated childhood psychiatric disorders. The analogous diagnosis adopted in Europe is hyperkinetic disorder, which is defined in the WHO's International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10). Hyperkinetic disorder includes more severe conditions. Ginkgo preparations are used in the treatment of ADHD. The present study will assess the efficacy and safety of ginkgo preparations in the treatment of ADHD in the currently published literature...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
X J Ren, Z B Yang, X Ding, C W Yang
An experiment using 112 21-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers that were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design was conducted to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba leaves (Ginkgo biloba, GL) and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) on utilization of nutrients of broiler chickens. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets: 1) T1, control diet; 2) T2, T1 + 20 g/kg GL; 3) T3, T1 + 40 g/kg GL; 4) T4, T1 + 60 g/kg GL; 5) T5, T1 + 0.4 g/kg EGB; 6) T6, T1 + 0.8 g/kg EGB; and 7) T7, T1 + 1...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
R G Esin, I Kh Khairullin, O R Esin
The review presents current concepts about the problem of cerebral insulin resistance (IR). It has now been established that cerebral IR plays a key role in the pathogenesis of degenerative and metabolic diseases of the brain. Based on literature data and own clinical experience, the authors recommend to use the standardized extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 as a cellular protector, which increases insulin sensitivity of cells and reduces atherogenesis, in order to improve cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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