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Vitamin D review

Ivan D Florez, Areti-Angeliki Veroniki, Reem Al Khalifah, Juan J Yepes-Nuñez, Javier M Sierra, Robin W M Vernooij, Jorge Acosta-Reyes, Claudia M Granados, Giordano Pérez-Gaxiola, Carlos Cuello-Garcia, Adriana M Zea, Yuan Zhang, Naghmeh Foroutan, Gordon H Guyatt, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Many interventions have shown effectiveness in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis (ADG) in children. Yet, there is lack of comparative efficacy of interventions that seem to be better than placebo among which, the clinicians must choose. Our aim was to determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of the pharmacological and nutritional interventions for reducing the duration of ADG in children. METHODS: Data sources included Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, LILACS, and Global-Health up to May 2017...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer Susan Lees, Fiona A Chapman, Miles D Witham, Alan G Jardine, Patrick B Mark
OBJECTIVES: Vascular stiffness (VS) and vascular calcification (VC) are surrogate markers of vascular health associated with cardiovascular events. Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) are associated with VS and VC and require vitamin K for activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of: (1) the effect of vitamin K supplementation on VS and VC and (2) association of inactive VKDP levels with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. METHODS: Two authors searched MEDLINE and Embase databases and Cochrane and ISRCTN registries for studies of vitamin K clinical trials that measured effects on VC, VS or VKDP and longitudinal studies assessing effect of VKDP on incident CVD or mortality...
December 4, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Adla Bakri Hassan, Reham Fathi Hozayen, Raed Aqshan Alotaibi, Yasin Ibrahim Tayem
Studies carried out assessing the effect of different doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on correcting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in healthy adults are limited and review studies are lacking. Moreover, the maintenance dose and its duration offered by these few studies are inconsistent. We performed a systematic review of randomized clinical controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. PubMed database was searched from 2010 to 2018 using the following search terms: "vitamin D deficiency", "Cholecalciferol", "vitamin D3 dose", "vitamin D supplement", "vitamin D therapy"...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Hiroki Tashiro, Stephanie A Shore
Obesity is an important global health issue for both children and adults. Obesity increases the prevalence and incidence of asthma and also increases the risk for severe asthma. Here we describe the features of severe asthma phenotypes for which obesity is a defining characteristic, including steroid resistance, airway inflammation, and co-morbidities. We also review current concepts regarding the mechanistic basis for the impact of obesity in severe asthma, including possible roles for vitamin D deficiency, systemic inflammation, and the microbiome...
November 30, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Heresh Amini, Pouria Heydarpour, Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Lode Godderis
Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke...
November 30, 2018: Environment International
Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Eric R Coon, Scott M Wright, Deborah Korenstein
Importance: Overuse of medical care is a well-recognized problem in health care, associated with patient harm and costs. We sought to identify and highlight original research articles published in 2017 that are most relevant to understanding medical overuse. Observations: A structured review of English-language articles published in 2017 was performed, coupled with examination of tables of contents of high-impact journals to identify articles related to medical overuse in adult care...
December 3, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Florian Lang, Christina Leibrock, Aleksandra A Pandyra, Christos Stournaras, Carsten A Wagner, Michael Föller
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is released primarily from osteoblasts/osteocytes in bone. In cooperation with the transmembrane protein Klotho, FGF23 is a powerful inhibitor of 1α 25OH Vitamin D Hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) and thus of the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). As 1,25(OH)2D3 up-regulates intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, the downregulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis counteracts phosphate excess and tissue calcification. FGF23 also directly inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption...
November 30, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Sherifa A Hamed
Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies and myopathy...
December 2, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Omid Eslami, Farzad Shidfar, Maryam Akbari-Fakhrabadi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, the association between vitamin D and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is still inconsistent and there is a lack of a comprehensive review on this topic. AIM: To systematically review the literature including both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between vitamin D and CRF in the general population. METHODS: The literature was investigated by exploring databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and ISI Web of Science as well as a manual search up to April 2017 by using related MeSH terms and key words...
November 30, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
E Dent, J E Morley, A J Cruz-Jentoft, H Arai, S B Kritchevsky, J Guralnik, J M Bauer, M Pahor, B C Clark, M Cesari, J Ruiz, C C Sieber, M Aubertin-Leheudre, D L Waters, R Visvanathan, F Landi, D T Villareal, R Fielding, C W Won, O Theou, F C Martin, B Dong, J Woo, L Flicker, L Ferrucci, R A Merchant, L Cao, T Cederholm, S M L Ribeiro, L Rodríguez-Mañas, S D Anker, J Lundy, L M Gutiérrez Robledo, I Bautmans, I Aprahamian, J M G A Schols, M Izquierdo, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia, defined as an age-associated loss of skeletal muscle function and muscle mass, occurs in approximately 6 - 22 % of older adults. This paper presents evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia from the task force of the International Conference on Sarcopenia and Frailty Research (ICSFR). METHODS: To develop the guidelines, we drew upon the best available evidence from two systematic reviews paired with consensus statements by international working groups on sarcopenia...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun
Vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, has, over the years, mainly been known for its classic role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis of the human body. However, there is increasing understanding that vitamin D contributes to the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, especially via voltage-gated calcium channels, in another major organ that uses calcium, the brain. Almost 30 years ago, the role of dysregulation in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) gave rise to the Ca2+ hypothesis of brain aging and dementia...
November 27, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen-Ak
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder seen mostly in the elderly population. While to date AD research has focused on either neurochemical disruptions, genetic studies, or the pathological hallmarks, little has been done to establish a novel approach that would encompass all three aspects, one that would overcome the current barriers in AD research and determine the cause of AD and, eventually, discover a treatment. Meanwhile, there have been strong indications in recent years that vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, and its receptors are fundamentally involved in neurodegenerative mechanisms...
November 27, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Amy Elizabeth Howell, Jie Zheng, Philip C Haycock, Alexandra McAleenan, Caroline Relton, Richard M Martin, Kathreena M Kurian
Gliomas are a group of primary brain tumors, the most common and aggressive subtype of which is glioblastoma. Glioblastoma has a median survival of just 15 months after diagnosis. Only previous exposure to ionizing radiation and particular inherited genetic syndromes are accepted risk factors for glioma; the vast majority of cases are thought to occur spontaneously. Previous observational studies have described associations between several risk factors and glioma, but studies are often conflicting and whether these associations reflect true casual relationships is unclear because observational studies may be susceptible to confounding, measurement error and reverse causation...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Xiaoyue Luo, Ruwei Ou, Rajib Dutta, Yuan Tian, Hai Xiong, Huifang Shang
Background: Vitamin D is an important secosteroid which is involved the development and regulation of brain activity. Several studies have focused on exploring the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the conclusion remains ambiguous. Methods: We searched observational studies that explored the association between serum vitamin D levels and PD based on PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library from inception through to January 2018. The quality of included studies was evaluated by using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
H Göring
The review discusses the data on vitamin D accumulation in animals, plants, and other organisms. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and ergosterol are considered to be the only true precursors of vitamin D, although even vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is not fully comparable to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in regard to their functions. These precursors are converted by UV radiation into the corresponding D vitamins. There are a few published reports that this reaction can also occur in the dark or under blue light, which is unexpected and requires explanation...
November 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Huai H Loh, Anne Yee, Huai S Loh
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed a possible association between hyperaldosteronism and secondary hyperparathyroidism leading to reduced bone health, however results are conflicting. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between primary aldosteronism (PA) with bone biochemical markers and to assess bone mineral density in patients with primary aldosteronism. RESULTS: A total of 939 subjects were examined (37.5% with PA)...
November 26, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Nancy Medley, Joshua P Vogel, Angharad Care, Zarko Alfirevic
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major factor contributing to global rates of neonatal death and to longer-term health problems for surviving infants. Both the World Health Organization and the United Nations consider prevention of PTB as central to improving health care for pregnant women and newborn babies. Current preventative clinical strategies show varied efficacy in different populations of pregnant women, frustrating women and health providers alike, while researchers call for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that lead to PTB...
November 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Silvia Ravalli, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosalia Maria Leonardi, Giuseppe Musumeci
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of articular cartilage with limited treatment options. This reality encourages clinicians to suggest preventive measures to delay and contain the outbreak of the pathological conditions. Articular cartilage and synovium suffering from OA are characterised by an inflammatory state and by significant oxidative stress, responsible for pain, swelling and loss of mobility in the advanced stages. This review will focus on the ability of olive oil to exert positive effects on the entire joint to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increase lubricin synthesis, olive leaf extract, since it maintains lubrication by stimulating high molecular weight hyaluronan synthesis in synovial cells, curcumin, which delays the start of pathological cartilage breakdown, sanguinarine, which downregulates catabolic proteases, vitamin D for its capacity to influence the oxidative and pro-inflammatory environment, and carnosic acid as an inducer of heme oxygenase-1, which helps preserve cartilage degeneration...
November 18, 2018: World Journal of Orthopedics
T Willinger
Cholesterol is an essential molecule for life. It is a component of the cell membrane, and it is a precursor molecule for bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. Cholesterol is actively metabolized, but the impact of endogenous cholesterol metabolites on immune function, especially in the intestine, is poorly understood. In this review, I focus on oxysterols, hydroxylated forms of cholesterol, and their specialized functions in intestinal immunity. Oxysterols act through various intracellular and extracellular receptors and serve as key metabolic signals, coordinating immune activity and inflammation...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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