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Vitamin D review

Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
D Hirjak, K M Kubera, S Bienentreu, P A Thomann, R C Wolf
The treatment of schizophrenic psychoses with antipsychotic drugs (AP) is often associated with an increased risk of delayed occurrence of antipsychotic-associated movement disorders. Persistence and chronicity of such symptoms are very frequent. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with the pharmacological effect profile of a particular AP, with treatment duration and age. This systematic review article summarizes the current study situation on prevalence, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and instruments for early prediction of TD in schizophrenic psychoses...
October 19, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Yan Yang, Shi Qiu, Linghui Deng, Xi Tang, Xinrui Li, Qiang Wei, Ping Fu
BACKGROUND: Mineral bone disease constitutes a common complication of post-kidney transplantation, leading to great disability. As there is no consensus on the optimal treatment for post-kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bisphosphonate and its combined therapies. METHODS: We incorporated relevant trials to perform a network meta-analysis from direct and indirect comparisons. We searched PubMed, Embase and the CENTRAL and the reference lists of relevant articles up to August 1, 2017, for randomized controlled trials...
October 19, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Laura Frau Pascual, Juan Hernandez
Percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency heat-ablation (UG-RHA) is a therapeutic option for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPTH) but information about its outcome is still controversial. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the outcome and complications of UG-RHA in dogs with PHPTH. The medical records of dogs with PHPTH submitted to UG-RHA between June 2012 and September 2015 in a French referral center were retrospectively reviewed. Eight cases were included. No sex predisposition was found...
October 18, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Jennifer C Yu, Ksenya Shliakhtsitsava, YunZu M Wang, Megan Paul, Lauge Farnaes, Victor Wong, Jenny Kim, Courtney D Thornburg
Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies of vitamin B12, copper, and vitamin C, may result in cytopenias and hematological symptoms. Early recognition of these deficiencies is imperative for prompt treatment and improvement in hematologic and other manifestations. We describe 5 cases which illustrate the hematologic manifestations of nutritional deficiencies and challenges to initial diagnosis and management. Supplementation of the deficient vitamin or micronutrient in all of these cases resulted in rapid resolution of cytopenias, hemorrhage, and other associated hematologic symptoms...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Silvia Maggini, Adeline Pierre, Philip C Calder
As humans age, the risk and severity of infections vary in line with immune competence according to how the immune system develops, matures, and declines. Several factors influence the immune system and its competence, including nutrition. A bidirectional relationship among nutrition, infection and immunity exists: changes in one component affect the others. For example, distinct immune features present during each life stage may affect the type, prevalence, and severity of infections, while poor nutrition can compromise immune function and increase infection risk...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Sara Tagliaferri, Debora Porri, Rachele De Giuseppe, Matteo Manuelli, Francesco Alessio, Hellas Cena
Increased oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of several diseases. In the last decade, an extensive literature has been produced on vitamin D, not limited to its well-known function like a steroid hormone on skeletal tissue, but for its potential pleiotropic role in human health. Several researchers have suggested relationships between vitamin D intake and health outcomes such as cancer prevention and increased immunity, or possible role in preventing diabetes, and in inflammation...
October 17, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Mary Waterhouse, Bronwyn Hope, Lutz Krause, Mark Morrison, Melinda M Protani, Martha Zakrzewski, Rachel E Neale
PURPOSE: Variation in the human microbiome has been linked with a variety of physiological functions, including immune regulation and metabolism and biosynthesis of vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Evidence for extraskeletal effects of vitamin D has been accruing and it has been suggested that the effect of vitamin D on health is partially mediated through the microbiome. We aimed to critically evaluate the evidence linking vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome. METHODS: We systematically searched the Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and CINAHL databases, including peer-reviewed publications that reported an association between a measure of vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome in humans or experimental animals...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Navzer D Sachinvala, Angeline Stergiou, Duane E Haines
In this report, we discuss the case of an multiple sclerosis (MS) patient, age 62, who learned to attain and sustain euthymia despite his ailments. He has Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS), asthma, MS, urticaria, and major depression (MD). Despite thriving limitations, the patient is an accomplished scientist, who struggled for > twelve years to emerge from being confined to bed and wheel chair with MS, to walking with crutches, scuba diving, writing manuscripts, and living a positive life. Through former educators, he reacquired problem-solving habits to study the literature on his illnesses; keep records; try new therapies; and use pharmaceutical, nutritional, physical, and psychological methods to attain euthymia...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Seungwha Paik, Jin Kyung Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Tuberculosis (TB), which is primarily caused by the major etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious infectious disease worldwide. Recently, much effort has been made to develop novel/improved therapies by modulating host responses to TB (i.e., host-directed therapy). Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that helps maintain homeostasis or the removal of invading pathogens via a lysosomal degradation process. The activation of autophagy by diverse drugs or agents may represent a promising treatment strategy against Mtb infection, even to drug-resistant strains...
October 15, 2018: Virulence
Shu-Yan Ng, Josette Bettany-Saltikov, Irene Yuen Kwan Cheung, Karen Kar Yin Chan
Several theories have been proposed to explain the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) until present. However, limited data are available regarding the impact of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency on scoliosis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in adolescents, including AIS patients. A series of studies conducted in Hong Kong have shown that as many as 30% of these patients have osteopenia. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level has been found to positively correlate with bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy adolescents and negatively with Cobb angle in AIS patients; therefore, vitamin D deficiency is believed to play a role in AIS pathogenesis...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Glenn Cardwell, Janet F Bornman, Anthony P James, Lucinda J Black
When commonly consumed mushroom species are exposed to a source of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, such as sunlight or a UV lamp, they can generate nutritionally relevant amounts of vitamin D. The most common form of vitamin D in mushrooms is D₂, with lesser amounts of vitamins D₃ and D₄, while vitamin D₃ is the most common form in animal foods. Although the levels of vitamin D₂ in UV-exposed mushrooms may decrease with storage and cooking, if they are consumed before the 'best-before' date, vitamin D₂ level is likely to remain above 10 μg/100 g fresh weight, which is higher than the level in most vitamin D-containing foods and similar to the daily requirement of vitamin D recommended internationally...
October 13, 2018: Nutrients
Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Rima Obeid, Andreas Hahn, Pawel Pludowski, Christian Trummer, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Faustino R Pérez-López, Spyridon N Karras, Winfried März
Vitamin D deficiency is common and there exists a huge gap between recommended dietary vitamin D intakes and the poor vitamin D supply in the general population. While vitamin D is important for musculoskeletal health, there are accumulating data suggesting that vitamin D may also be important for fertility, pregnancy outcomes and lactation. Significant changes in vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy such as increased production of the "active vitamin D hormone" calcitriol support the important role of vitamin D in this setting...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Ruti Sella, Natalie A Afshari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a comprehensive summary of the latest evidence-based data on nutrients linked to the pathogenesis of cataract formation and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: This summary of peer-reviewed publications emphasizes the ongoing effort to modulate the cataractogenous process through nutrition, and points at an only weak evidence for the contribution of a specific nutrient to this process. Although observational studies successfully demonstrated a positive correlation between specific nutrients intake and age-related cataract, such evidence was usually lacking in following interventional studies...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Xia Jiang, Douglas P Kiel, Peter Kraft
Vitamin D plays an essential role in human health as it influences immune function, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous health outcomes, including bone disease, cancer, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular conditions and more. However, the causal role of vitamin D beyond its importance for bone health remains unclear and is under much debate. Twin and familial studies from past decades have demonstrated a nontrivial heritability of circulating vitamin D concentrations...
October 12, 2018: Bone
Eugene Ng, Amanda D Loewy
Newborns are at risk for vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) caused by inadequate prenatal storage and deficiency of vitamin K in breast milk. Systematic review of evidence to date suggests that a single intramuscular (IM) injection of vitamin K at birth effectively prevents VKDB. Current scientific data suggest that single or repeated doses of oral (PO) vitamin K are less effective than IM vitamin K in preventing VKDB. The Canadian Paediatric Society and the College of Family Physicians of Canada recommend routine IM administration of a single dose of vitamin K at 0...
October 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Yexin Wang, Gongwei Jia, Jin Song, Xiangqing Kong, Weihong Zhang, Chunyang Meng
Bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, have become the most widely used and effective anti-resorptive therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Previous genetic studies suggest that ethnicity may drive differing responses to bisphosphonate therapy in East Asians and non-East Asians. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of alendronate upon lumbar spinal BMD and vertebral fracture rates in East Asians and non-East Asians with postmenopausal osteoporosis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of alendronate versus placebo (or calcium/mineral and/or Vitamin D or hormone replacement therapy) in primary postmenopausal osteoporotic women...
October 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Przemysław A Pekala, Brandon Michael Henry, Dominik Taterra, Monika Piwowar, Jens Vikse, R Shane Tubbs, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
The association of FokI (rs2228570), a polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene, with intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been investigated in a multitude of studies. However, conflicting results of these studies led to emergence of several meta-analyses over the past few years. Despite the increased statistical power, these meta-analyses have failed to provide uniform and conclusive data on the relationship of FokI with IDD. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive review based on the most up-to-date meta-analyses on the association of FokI with IDD...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Glenville Jones, Martin Kaufmann
Ever since the metabolism of vitamin D was elucidated in the early 1970s, organic chemists and pharmacologists have sought to design and synthesize vitamin D analogs that would mimic some, if not all, of the biological actions of the parent vitamin. Thousands of molecules have been prepared and tested but only a few of these have been successfully translated into marketed drug forms that can be used to treat bone disease or in other areas of clinical medicine. These synthetic vitamin D analogs have been reviewed extensively in recent years [1-5] and this chapter will not attempt to duplicate those reviews...
October 11, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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