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Myocardial ischemia and infarction

Alfonso Ielasi, Gianluca Campo, Bernardo Cortese, Massimo Leoncini, Attilio Varricchio, Salvatore Brugaletta, Enrico Favaretto, Massimo Fineschi, Davide Piraino, Paolo Calabria, Francesco Granata, Francesco Pisano, Marco Mussardo, Azeem Latib, Maurizio Tespili
BACKGROUND: data from clinical experiences with Absorb bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) in STEMI raised concerns among clinicians about the device safety because a noteworthy scaffold thrombosis (ScT) rate was reported at early and long-term follow-up. Nevertheless, pre-specified technical suggestions of how to perform an optimal BRS procedure in STEMI were lacking. In this study we sought to assess the 1-year results following a pre-specified BRS implantation strategy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI (pPCI)...
October 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Timothy Chen
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major but potentially preventable contributor to the final tissue damage after acute myocardial infarction. Many therapies have demonstrated successful reduction of ischemia-reperfusion injury in preclinical settings, but none have shown improved outcomes in clinical studies. Part of the failure to translate new therapies to clinical settings can be attributed to the reliance on small animal models in preclinical studies. While animal models encapsulate the complexity of the systemic in vivo environment, they do not necessarily recapitulate human physiology...
October 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Kyunghee Lim, Jeong Hoon Yang, Joo-Yong Hahn, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Sung-Ji Park, Young Bin Song
BACKGROUND: Mild hypothermia (32-35°C) during acute myocardial ischemia has been considered cardioprotective in animal studies. We sought to determine the association of between natural mild hypothermia and myocardial salvage as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In 291 patients with STEMI, CMR was performed a median of 3 days after the index event...
September 2018: Journal of cardiovascular imaging
Diana Rivero, Mohammad Alhamaydeh, Ziad Faramand, Mohammad Alrawashdeh, Christian Martin-Gill, Clifton Callaway, Barbara Drew, Salah Al-Zaiti
BACKGROUND: Nonspecific ST-T repolarization (NST) abnormalities alter the ST-segment for reasons often unrelated to acute myocardial ischemia, which could contribute to misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment. We sought to define the prevalence of NST patterns in patients with chest pain and evaluate how such patterns correlate with the eventual etiology of chest pain and course of hospitalization. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that included consecutive prehospital chest pain patients from three tertiary care hospitals in the U...
October 8, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Luisa F González Arbeláez, Alejandro Ciocci Pardo, Erik R Swenson, Bernardo Álvarez, Susana M Mosca, Juliana C Fantinelli
BACKGROUND: Recent studies from our laboratory show the cardioprotective action of benzolamide (BZ, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) against ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the participation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of BZ in a model of regional ischemia. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts perfused by Langendorff technique were submitted to 40 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 60 min of reperfusion (IC)...
October 8, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Yi-Fen Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
The prevalence of chronic pain increases with age. The pain occurrence in the elderly ranges from 25% to 80% in different countries. Ischemic heart disease is also prevailing in the aged people. Restored blood flow quickly rescues myocardium but also causes ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Brief episodes of ischemia at a distant organ could reduce the myocardial reperfusion injury. This is called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) cardioprotection. Several circulating factors and neurogenic signals contribute to the cardioprotection by RIPC...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Angela Raucci, Stefania Di Maggio, Francesco Scavello, Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Marco E Bianchi, Maurizio C Capogrossi
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein involved in transcription regulation, DNA replication and repair and nucleosome assembly. HMGB1 is passively released by necrotic tissues or actively secreted by stressed cells. Extracellular HMGB1 acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule and gives rise to several redox forms that by binding to different receptors and interactors promote a variety of cellular responses, including tissue inflammation or regeneration. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 in experimental models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocarditis, cardiomyopathies induced by mechanical stress, diabetes, bacterial infection or chemotherapeutic drugs reduces inflammation and is protective...
October 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Nicholas G Kounis, Gianfranco Cervellin, Ioanna Koniari, Laura Bonfanti, Periklis Dousdampanis, Nikolaos Charokopos, Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Stavros K Kakkos, Ioannis G Ntouvas, George D Soufras, Ioannis Tsolakis
The first reported human anaphylactic death is considered to be the Pharaoh Menes death, caused by a wasp sting. Currently, anaphylactic cardiovascular events represent one of most frequent medical emergencies. Rapid diagnosis, prompt and appropriate treatment can be life saving. The main concept beyond anaphylaxis lies to myocardial damage and ventricular dysfunction, thus resulting in cardiovascular collapse. Cardiac output depression due to coronary hypoperfusion from systemic vasodilation, leakage of plasma and volume loss due to increased vascular permeability, as well as reduced venous return, are regarded as the main causes of cardiovascular collapse...
September 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Chiu-Fen Yang
Acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a significant, unsolved clinical puzzle. In the disease context of acute myocardial infarction, reperfusion remains the only effective strategy to salvage ischemic myocardium, but it also causes additional damage. Myocardial I/R injury is composed of four types of damage, and these events attenuate the benefits of reperfusion therapy. Thus, inventing new strategies to conquer I/R injury is an unmet clinical need. A variety of pathological processes and mediators, including changes in the pH, generation of reactive oxygen radicals, and intracellular calcium overload, are proposed to be crucial in I/R-related cell injury...
October 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Zhibing Qiu, Xin Chen, Li Yin, Wen Chen, Yueyue Xu, Ben Jiang
Previous studies have shown that stomatin-like protein-2 (SLP-2) could regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function. The study was designed to explore the contribution of SLP-2 to the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Anesthetized rats were treated with SLP-2 and subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes before 3 hours of reperfusion. An oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation model of I/R was established in H9C2 cells. In vivo, SLP-2 significantly improved cardiac function recovery of myocardial I/R injury rats by increasing fractional shortening and ejection fraction...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Thomas R Porter
In a study, published in this issue of Echo Research and Practice, Ntoskas et al. retrospectively analyzed the safety of a cardiac physiologist performing, and interpreting, Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in of 300 patients undergoing DSE for the detection of inducible reversible ischemia, myocardial viability and valvular heart disease. While safety during the tests themselves did not appear to be compromised with this unsupervised approach, the interpretation of these DSEs causes concerns regarding broad patient safety relative to misread results...
September 1, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Feng Kuai, Lei Wang, Jianhua Su, Yu Wang, Yi Han, Suming Zhou
FTY720 is a sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Sepsis is a complex syndrome associated with progressive endotoxemic developments, which finally leads to damage of multiple organs, including the heart. In critical patients, cardiovascular dysfunction due to sepsis is a major cause of death. Previous studies have shown an association between S1P and cardioprotection in the situation of ischemia reperfusion and myocardial infarction...
October 8, 2018: Shock
Eram Fauzia, Tarun Kumar Barbhuyan, Amit Kumar Shrivastava, Manish Kumar, Paarth Garg, Mohsin Ali Khan, Avril A B Robertson, Syed Shadab Raza
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-related disorders, such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular disease, are among the most frequent causes of disease and death. Tissue injury or death may result from the initial ischemic insult, primarily determined by the magnitude and duration of the interruption in blood supply and then by the subsequent reperfusion-induced damage. Various in vitro and in vivo models are currently available to study I/R mechanism in the brain and other tissues. However, thus far, no in ovo I/R model has been reported for understanding the I/R mechanisms and for faster drug screening...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Maximilian J Schloss, Michael Horckmans, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Daniel Hering, Estelle Lauer, Sebastien Lenglet, Christian Weber, Aurelien Thomas, Sabine Steffens
Aims: Myocardial infarction leads to an enhanced release of endocannabinoids and a massive accumulation of neutrophils and monocytes within the ischemic myocardium. These myeloid cells originate from hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow and are rapidly mobilized in response to myocardial infarction. We aimed to determine whether endocannabinoid signaling is involved in myeloid cell mobilization and cardiac recruitment after ischemia onset. Methods and results: Intravenous administration of endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol into wildtype C57BL6 mice induced a rapid increase of blood neutrophil and monocyte counts as measured by flow cytometry...
September 28, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Seung-Jun Lee, Choong-Kun Lee, Seok Kang, Intae Park, Yoo Hyung Kim, Seo Ki Kim, Seon Pyo Hong, Hosung Bae, Yulong He, Yoshiaki Kubota, Gou Young Koh
Emerging evidence indicates that angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2), a well-recognized vascular destabilizing factor, is a biomarker of poor outcome in ischemic heart disease. However, its precise role in postischemic cardiovascular remodeling is poorly understood. Here, we show that Angpt2 plays multifaceted roles in the exacerbation of cardiac hypoxia and inflammation after myocardial ischemia. Angpt2 was highly expressed in endothelial cells at the infarct border zone after myocardial infarction (MI) or ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Raúl Lelio Sanz, Luciana Mazzei, Walter Manucha
New advances in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction involve novel signaling pathways and cellular progeny. In this sense, regeneration is a novel tool that would contribute to post-infarction physiological ventricular remodeling. More specifically, re-expression of the WT1 transcription factor in the myocardial wall by ischemia and infarction would be related to the invasion of cells with the capacity for regeneration. This mechanism seems not to be sufficient to restore muscle cells and lost vessels entirely...
October 3, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Lauro Cortigiani, Quirino Ciampi, Fausto Rigo, Francesco Bovenzi, Eugenio Picano, Rosa Sicari
AIMS: To assess the prognostic value of dual imaging stress echocardiography after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Dual imaging stress echocardiography, combining the evaluation of regional wall motion and Doppler echocardiographic derived coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), is the state-of-the-art methodology during vasodilatory stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective, multicenter, observational study, 349 patients (270 men; 69 ± 9 years; 262 symptomatic) with history of CABG underwent high-dose dipyridamole (0...
September 27, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Han Byul Kim, Young Joon Hong, Hyuk Jin Park, Youngkeun Ahn, Myung Ho Jeong
We evaluated the effects of Ivabradine on left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV infarcted tissue in the rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model. Twenty rats were randomly assigned to group 1 (ischemia-reperfusion, no treatment, n=10) and group 2 (ischemia-reperfusion + Ivabradine 10 mg/kg, n=10). Ivabradine was administered for 28 days. Echocardiography was performed at 7 days and at 28 days after the induction of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiac fibrosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury was evaluated by Masson's trichrome staining...
September 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
Rebecca M Parodi-Rullán, Jadira Soto-Prado, Jesús Vega-Lugo, Xavier Chapa-Dubocq, Sara I Díaz-Cordero, Sabzali Javadov
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Inhibition of cyclophilin-D (CyP-D), a key regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury on various animal models, mostly in males. However, failure of recent clinical trials requires a detailed elucidation of the cardioprotective efficacy of CyP-D inhibition...
October 3, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
J Dong, Y Zhao, X-K He
OBJECTIVE: DJ-1-phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PTEN/PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway plays a role in the regulation of ischemic reperfusion (I-R) injury. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that there is a complementary binding site between microRNA-192 (miR-192) and the 3'-UTR of DJ-1 mRNA. This study investigated the role of miR-192 in regulating DJ-1-PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and myocardial I-R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-122 and DJ-1 mRNA expressions in myocardial tissue were detected by Real-time PCR (RT-PCR)...
September 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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