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Myocardial ischemia and infarction

Yasuko Nagasaka, Bernadette O Fernandez, Andrea U Steinbicker, Ester Spagnolli, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol, Martin Feelisch
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning while exogenous NO protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs. Why those beneficial effects observed in animal models do not always translate into clinical effectiveness remains unclear. To mitigate reperfusion damage a source of NO is required. NO inhalation is known to increase tissue NO metabolites, but little information exists about the lifetime of these species...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Shmuel Chen, Björn Redfors, Yangbo Liu, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Marie-Claude Morice, Martin B Leon, David E Kandzari, Roxana Mehran, Nicholas J Lembo, Adrian P Banning, Béla Merkely, A Pieter Kappetein, Joseph F Sabik, Patrick W Serruys, Gregg W Stone
AIMS: We sought to compare clinical outcomes and procedural characteristics with transradial access (TRA) versus transfemoral access (TFA) in patients who were treated with PCI for left main coronary artery (LM) coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EXCEL trial was a prospective, international, open-label, multicenter trial that randomized 1905 patients with LM disease and SYNTAX scores ≤32 to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting...
August 14, 2018: EuroIntervention
Chunhu Gu, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Jianjun Lv, Wei Yi, Yang Yang, Minfeng Fang
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of some endogenous defensive molecules in various pathological processes, particularly myocardial ischemia (MI), a high risk of myocardial infarction. Thereby it is of great significance to explore the inherent mechanism between AMPK and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the structure and role of AMPK in the heart. Next, we introduce the mechanisms of AMPK in the heart; followed by the energy regulation of AMPK in MI. Lastly, the attention will be expanded to some potential directions and further perspectives...
August 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Ravi K Chilukoti, Josefine Lendeckel, Katrin Darm, Alicja Bukowska, Andreas Goette, Marc Sühling, Kirsten Utpatel, Barbara Peters, Georg Homuth, Uwe Völker, Carmen Wolke, Christian Scharf, Uwe Lendeckel
Dronedarone improves microvascular flow during atrial fibrillation and reduces the infarct size in acute models of myocardial infarction. However, dronedarone might be harmful in patients with recent decompensated heart failure and increases mortality in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. A pathophysiological explanation for these discrepant data is lacking. This study investigated the effects of dronedarone on gene and protein expression in the infarcted area and border zone in pigs subjected to anterior ischemia/reperfusion myocardial infarction...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kodchanan Singhanat, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been an economic and health burden in most countries around the world. Reperfusion is a standard treatment for AMI as it can actively restore blood supply to the ischemic site. However, reperfusion itself can cause additional damage; a process known as cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Although several pharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce tissue damage during I/R injury, they usually have undesirable effects. Therefore, endogenous substances such as melatonin have become a field of active investigation...
August 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
E Egerer, S Siemonsen, F Erbguth
The reciprocal culprit-victim relationship between the brain and the heart leads to dysfunction and damage to the other organ, especially in acute and severe diseases of one of both organs. In addition, both organ systems can be affected by identical systemic processes, e. g., arteriosclerotic changes. Cardiac embolic formation and pumping failure lead to focal cerebral ischemia or global hypoxia. Cerebral diseases leading to cardiac changes are acute cerebrovascular attacks such as cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as epileptic seizures...
August 13, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Yimin Xiao, Yanxia Zhang, Yueqiu Chen, Jingjing Li, Zihan Zhang, Yimin Sun, Han Shen, Zhenao Zhao, Zan Huang, Wencheng Zhang, Weiqian Chen, Zhenya Shen
Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) protects cardiomyocytes from a broad spectrum of pathologic injuries including myocardial infarction (MI). It is worthy of note that although cardiac Fstl1 is elevated in post-MI microenvironment, its cardioprotective role is still restricted to a limited extent considering the frequency and severity of adverse cardiac remodeling following MI. We therefore propose that intrinsic Fstl1-suppressing microRNA (miRNA) may exist in the heart and its neutralization may further facilitate post-MI recovery...
August 13, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Katarzyna Birkner, Bartosz Hudzik, Piotr Desperak, Mariusz Gąsior
OBJECTIVE: The aim: We aimed at assessing the prognostic significance of diabetes mellitus in patients with NSTEMI treated with PCI as well as determining the independent predictors of worse prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 830 patients hospitalized between January 2006 and December 2012 with diagnoses of NSTEMI and undergoing angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions. Patients were divided into two groups: with diabetes mellitus (246 patients) and without diabetes mellitus (584 patients)...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mohamed Khalfallah, Ayman Elsheikh, Mohamed Abdalaal
BACKGROUND: The proper time for the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) following the successful fibrinolysis for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) for maximum efficiency and minimum side effects has not been determined yet. The present study was designed to compare the outcome of myocardial infarction patients who received fibrinolytic therapy with successful results and underwent PCI very early (within 3-12 h) (group 1) versus early (within 12-24 h) (group 2)...
August 8, 2018: Global Heart
Yi Gao, Yichao Zhao, Ancai Yuan, Longwei Xu, Xian Huang, Yuanyuan Su, Lingchen Gao, Qingqi Ji, Jun Pu, Ben He
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury induces excessive cellular apoptosis and contributes significantly to final infarct size. We previously demonstrated that a nuclear receptor, Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a crucial role in mediating myocardial apoptosis. The FXR functions are regulated by post translational modifications (PTM). However, whether the proapoptotic effect of FXR in MI/R injury is regulated by PTM remains unclear. Here, we aimed to study the effect of SUMOylation, a PTM involved in the pathogenesis of MI/R injury per se, on the proapoptotic effect of FXR in MI/R injury...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Pauline V Marck, Sandrine V Pierre
The first reports of cardiac Na/K-ATPase signaling, published 20 years ago, have opened several major fields of investigations into the cardioprotective action of low/subinotropic concentrations of cardiotonic steroids (CTS). This review focuses on the protective cardiac Na/K-ATPase-mediated signaling triggered by low concentrations of ouabain and other CTS, in the context of the enduring debate over the use of CTS in the ischemic heart. Indeed, as basic and clinical research continues to support effectiveness and feasibility of conditioning interventions against ischemia/reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the mechanistic information available to date suggests that unique features of CTS-based conditioning could be highly suitable, alone /or as a combinatory approach...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Munish Sharma, Rubinder Toor, Koroush Khalighi
Elevated troponin and atypical chest pain in the setting of septicemia and Type II Non ST elevation myocardial infarction is frequently encountered. These cases are not necessarily scheduled for emergent cardiac catheterization. High index of clinical suspicion and continuous in-patient cardiac monitoring with serial trending of cardiac enzymes are important in such cases. Subsequent sudden development of electrocardiogram changes requires prompt investigation with emergent coronary catheterization. These types of cases may be missed especially in females who present with atypical chest pain and in patients with Left bundle branch block...
July 10, 2018: Clinics and Practice
Qun Zheng, Yue-Yue Huang, Peng-Chong Zhu, Qiang Tong, Xiao-Yi Bao, Qi-Hao Zhang, Guo-Qing Zheng, Yan Wang
Ligustrazine (Lig) is one of the main effective components of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort, which possesses a variety of biological activities in the cardiovascular system. Here, we conducted a preclinical systematic review to investigate the efficacy of Lig for animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and its possible mechanisms. Twenty-five studies involving 556 animals were identified by searching 6 databases from inception to August 2017. The methodological quality was assessed by using Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) 10-item checklist...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mengqiu Dang, Xiangjun Zeng, Buxing Chen, Hongxia Wang, Huihua Li, Fenghe Du, Caixia Guo
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is essential for protein degradation and plays critical roles in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injuries. Previous studies have demonstrated that the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-product (sRAGE) inhibited MI/R-induced apoptosis by upregulating proteasome subunits. However, the mechanism remains unknown. An MI/R model was established by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation in mice. Recombinant sRAGE protein or saline was injected intramyocardially with or without neutralizing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) antibody injected intraperitoneally before ligation...
August 8, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Yongcheol Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Inna Kim, Doo Hwan Lee, Min Chul Kim, Doo Sun Sim, Young Joon Hong, Ju Han Kim, Myung Ho Jeong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Feasibility of coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via left snuffbox approach is still concerned. We aimed to investigate efficacy and safety of the left snuffbox approach for CAG and PCI. METHODS: Left snuffbox approach was tried in 150 patients who planned to perform CAG or PCI for suspected myocardial ischemia between 1 November 2017 and 31 March 2018. RESULTS: Success rate of radial artery (RA) cannulation via snuffbox approach was 88...
August 6, 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Heidi Noels, Wendy Theelen, Marieke Sternkopf, Vera Jankowski, Julia Moellmann, Sandra Kraemer, Michael Lehrke, Nikolaus Marx, Lukas Martin, Gernot Marx, Joachim Jankowski, Andreas Goetzenich, Christian Stoppe
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) triggers myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury contributing to organ dysfunction. Preclinical studies revealed that dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP4) inhibition is protective during myocardial infarction. Here, we assessed for the first time the relation of peri-operative DPP4-activity in serum of 46 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with patients' post-operative organ dysfunction during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Whereas a prior myocardial infarction significantly reduced pre-operative DDP4-activity, patients with preserved left ventricular function showed an intra-operative decrease of DPP4-activity...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fei Luo, Panyun Wu, Jingfei Chen, Yuan Guo, Jiangang Wang, Xiangping Li, Zhenfei Fang
Angiopoietin Like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is at present considered as a central molecular target for therapy designed to reduce atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis. However, concerns about the safety of inactivation of ANGPTL3 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) especially myocardial infarction (MI) have been raised. ANGPTL3 is reported to possess proangiogenic property. Angiogenesis is critical to the recovery of MI. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have multiple differentiation potential and play an important role in the angiogenesis post-MI...
August 7, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Masaki Tokutome, Tetsuya Matoba, Yasuhiro Nakano, Arihide Okahara, Masaki Fujiwara, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Kaku Nakano, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kensuke Egashira
Aims: Monocyte-mediated inflammation is a major mechanism underlying myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and the healing process after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, no definitive anti-inflammatory therapies have been developed for clinical use. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist, has unique anti-inflammatory effects on monocytes/macrophages. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pioglitazone to monocytes/macrophages ameliorates IR injury and cardiac remodeling in preclinical animal models...
August 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Jing Li, Sean XiaoXiao Cai, Quan He, Helena Zhang, Daniel Friedberg, Fangfei Wang, Andrew N Redington
MicroRNA-144 is a cytoprotective miRNA. Our previous study showed that miR-144 provides potent acute cardioprotection in an ischemia/reperfusion injury model. This study was performed to further assess whether miR-144 improves post-MI remodeling in a non-reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) model. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MI by permanent left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation. miR-144 was delivered by intravenous injections of 8 mg/kg, 16 mg/kg, or 32 mg/kg at day 0, day 1, day 3, and then a similar dose given once every 3 days, until day 28 after MI...
August 6, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
V A Brazhnik, L O Minushkina, M A Evdokimova, A S Galyavich, S N Tereshchenko, N A Koziolova, M G Glezer, A V Yagoda, E V Khorolets, E N Dankovtseva, O I Boeva, V O Konstantinov, D A Zateishchikov
PURPOSE: to analyze possible associations of clinical and genetic factors with development of ischemic stroke after exacerbation of ischemic heart disease (IHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Russian multicenter study aimed at assessment of risk of unfavorable outcomes after exacerbation of IHD "Exacerbation of IHD: logical probabilistic ways to course prognostication for optimization of treatment" (meaning of Cyrillic acronym - oracle) was conducted in 16 centers of 7 cities in Russia...
July 2018: Kardiologiia
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