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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321505/understanding-disease-progression-and-improving-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-trials-recent-highlights-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#1
REVIEW
Dallas P Veitch, Michael W Weiner, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI is a multisite, longitudinal, observational study that has collected many biomarkers since 2004. Recent publications highlight the multifactorial nature of late-onset AD. We discuss selected topics that provide insights into AD progression and outline how this knowledge may improve clinical trials. METHODS: We used standard methods to identify nearly 600 publications using ADNI data from 2016 and 2017 (listed in Supplementary material and searchable at http://adni...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321070/current-and-up-and-coming-pharmacotherapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-adults
#2
Giacomo Grassi, Stefano Pallanti
Only 40-60% of obsessive-compulsive patients respond to first line treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Several second-line treatments have been investigated in the last two decades, and most of them seem to work, at least in a subset of patients. However, since there is still a lack of treatment predictors, the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still empirical and non-evidence based. Areas covered: In this paper, we review current and up-and-coming pharmacotherapy for OCD in adults, focusing on two emerging fields of research, inflammation and glutamate systems, since they have attracted the greatest attention in recent years in OCD pharmacological research...
October 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319358/potential-effects-of-msc-derived-exosomes-in-neuroplasticity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Edwin E Reza-Zaldivar, Mercedes A Hernández-Sapiéns, Benito Minjarez, Yanet K Gutiérrez-Mercado, Ana L Márquez-Aguirre, Alejandro A Canales-Aguirre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting regions of the central nervous system that exhibit synaptic plasticity and are involved in higher brain functions such as learning and memory. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, memory loss and behavioral disturbances of synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism. Cell therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment of AD. The use of adult stem cells, such as neural stem cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have the potential to decrease cognitive deficits, possibly by reducing neuronal loss through blocking apoptosis, increasing neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318664/exposure-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chronic-back-pain-an-rct-on-treatment-processes
#4
Lea Schemer, Andreas Schroeder, Eva Ørnbøl, Julia Anna Glombiewski
BACKGROUND: To improve treatment outcomes it is essential to understand the processes involved in therapeutic change. The aim of this study was to investigate the processes involved in treatment of individuals with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) and high fear-avoidance. Graded in vivo exposure (Exposure), a specific treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a general treatment, were compared. METHODS: Our study used data from a three-arm randomized controlled trial...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317930/current-viral-mediated-gene-transfer-research-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Andrew Octavian Sasmita
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and has affected millions of individuals worldwide. The hallmarks of AD include the amyloid beta plaque deposits, tau neurofibrillary tangles, altered neuronal signaling, alongside decline in memory and cognitive functions. Conventional drug therapies do exist, such as donepezil or aducanumab, but these drugs mostly focus on halting AD progression instead of causing a reversal within the disease. In an effort to ameliorate and ultimately cure AD, researchers have delved into viral-mediated gene therapy to fix this disease from its root molecular causes...
October 14, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314604/molecular-imaging-of-addictive-behavior-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Rebecca Strafella, Irene Navalpotro, Jinhee Kim, Antonio P Strafella
Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the development of behavioral addictions. This chapter will discuss potential risk factors and associations with the development of addictive behavior in PD including the role of dopaminergic medication and genetic predisposition...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310961/cognitive-and-socio-cognitive-functioning-of-chronic-non-medical-prescription-opioid-users
#7
Sara L Kroll, Emilija Nikolic, Franziska Bieri, Michael Soyka, Markus R Baumgartner, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) has become a major public health issue in the USA and is also increasing in Europe. However, little is known about neuropsychological associations of NMPOU-specifically regarding social cognition, which is essential for social functioning and treatability of opioid dependence. Previous studies with heroin users and opioid-substituted patients reported deficits in various cognitive functions, but these results are likely confounded by comorbid physical and psychiatric diseases, overdose-associated hypoxia, and adulteration of street heroin...
October 11, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306498/personalized-group-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-obesity-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-real-world-clinical-setting
#8
Riccardo Dalle Grave, Simona Calugi, Giovanna Bosco, Luigi Valerio, Chiara Valenti, Marwan El Ghoch, Dante Zini
PURPOSE: Severe obesity is difficult to treat, and non-surgical treatment is not supported by robust evidence. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term outcomes following "personalized" form of group cognitive behavioural therapy for obesity (CBT-OB)-a new treatment designed to address specific cognitive processes that have been associated with attrition, weight loss, and weight maintenance in previous studies. METHODS: Sixty-seven adult patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) were recruited from consecutive referrals to an Italian National Health Service obesity clinic...
October 10, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306351/gender-affirming-hormone-use-in-transgender-individuals-impact-on-behavioral-health-and-cognition
#9
REVIEW
Hillary B Nguyen, Alexis M Chavez, Emily Lipner, Liisa Hantsoo, Sara L Kornfield, Robert D Davies, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With increasing numbers of transgender and gender non-binary individuals presenting for care, knowing how to elucidate the mental health and cognitive outcomes of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is necessary. This article reviews the present literature covering GAHT effects on mood, behavioral health, and cognition in these individuals and offers research priorities to address knowledge gaps. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are some conflicting data, GAHT overwhelmingly seems to have positive psychological effects in both adolescents and adults...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303829/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-veterans-treatments-and-risk-factors-for-nonadherence
#10
Bradley Haveman-Gould, Chelsea Newman
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects about 20% of US military veterans and is a major cause of mortality in these men and women. The incidence of PTSD has persisted over the last decade with the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, yet treatment and adherence remain inadequate in part due to clinician lack of knowledge about cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure, the proven gold standards in treatment. This article reviews the most current and successful PTSD treatment options and identifies risk factors for patient nonadherence in hopes of reducing the rate of veteran suicide related to PTSD...
October 9, 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303262/clients-experience-of-change-an-exploration-of-the-influence-of-reformulation-tools-in-cognitive-analytic-therapy
#11
Rebecca Tyrer, Ciara Masterson
Case formulation is considered important in both the development of the therapeutic relationship and in starting the process of therapeutic change. Cognitive analytic therapy describes the developmental origins and maintenance of a client's problems in both written (reformulation letter) and diagrammatic form (Sequential diagrammatic reformulation; SDR). This study aimed to investigate the effects of these reformulation tools on insight and symptom change. A small-N repeated measures design was employed with quantitative and qualitative measures collected from six therapist/client dyads...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301303/a-novel-bio-psychosocial-behavioral-treatment-model-of-panic-disorder
#12
Seon-Cheol Park, Yong-Ku Kim
To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically focused on neurotransmitters, including serotonin, neuropeptides, glucocorticoids, and neurotrophins. Although pharmacological interventions for PD are currently available, the need for more effective, faster-acting, and more tolerable pharmacological interventions is unmet...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300559/concentric-group-therapy-for-aggression-a-historical-perspective
#13
Marilyn Lanza
The purpose of this study is to present themes from a novel group therapy intervention for veterans with aggression. The groups were designed based on a psychodynamic rather than cognitive?behavioral theoretical framework, in which there are two overlapping short and long-term groups. Content analysis revealed six themes including, control your anger, helplessness, improvement, disagreements, where are the boundaries, and co-leadership, parallel process. This unique and innovative approach for the treatment of veterans with a history of aggressive behavior helped improved their understanding of aggression and decreased these behaviors...
October 9, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299310/major-surgery-and-the-immune-system-from-pathophysiology-to-treatment
#14
Manu Shankar Hari, Charlotte Summers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the immune response to major surgery, and the ways in which it may be modulated to improve postoperative outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from patients who have undergone a variety of tissue injuries (surgery, burns, sepsis, trauma) have shown the presence of a conserved 'genomic storm' that alters the leukocyte transcriptome, with upregulation of the innate immune response and concomitant downregulation of the adaptive immune response...
October 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296894/neuropsychological-predictors-of-patient-reported-cognitive-decline-after-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Kelly A Mills, Kristyn Donohue, Aathman Swaminathan, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Gwenn Smith, Jason Brandt
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treatment of motor complications of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) but occasionally has been associated with multidomain cognitive decline. Patient- and caregiver-reported cognitive decline are clinically meaningful and increasingly recognized as important to consider when evaluating therapeutic interventions for PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess presurgical neuropsychological and clinical factors associated with PD patient- and caregiver-reported cognitive decline in two or more domains after DBS...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292840/widespread-distribution-of-tauopathy-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Stephanie A Schultz, Brian A Gordon, Shruti Mishra, Yi Su, Richard J Perrin, Nigel J Cairns, John C Morris, Beau M Ances, Tammie L S Benzinger
The objective of this study was to examine the distribution and severity of tau-PET binding in cognitively normal adults with preclinical Alzheimer's disease as determined by positive beta-amyloid PET. 18 F-AV-1451 tau-PET data from 109 cognitively normal older adults were processed with 34 cortical and 9 subcortical FreeSurfer regions and averaged across both hemispheres. Individuals were classified as being beta-amyloid positive (N = 25, A+) or negative (N = 84, A-) based on a 18 F-AV-45 beta-amyloid-PET standardized uptake value ratio of 1...
September 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292438/the-psychology-of-tourette-disorder-revisiting-the-past-and-moving-toward-a-cognitively-oriented-future
#17
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Gagné
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic tics (i.e., repetitive and stereotyped movements and vocalizations) and premonitory urges (i.e., aversive sensations preceding tics that are alleviated once a tic is performed). Research supports that dysfunctional neurobiological and psychological processes interact and contribute to the development and maintenance of tics. However, psychological theories of Tourette syndrome and accompanying research have mainly focused on the emotional states (e...
September 23, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289154/-cognitive-neurorehabilitation-the-foundations-and-applications-of-neurologic-music-therapy
#18
REVIEW
J A Jauset-Berrocal, G Soria-Urios
INTRODUCTION: Music is the result of a perception in the brain involving a number of cortical and subcortical areas in both brain hemispheres. Increased knowledge about brain plasticity and the numerous neuroimaging studies conducted in recent years have made it possible to further our understanding of the processing of musical stimuli in the brain. This has led to an interest in analysing and studying its application in the non-invasive treatment of certain dysfunctions or diseases with the aim of helping to achieve an improved quality of life...
October 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287669/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-muscle-disease-actmus-protocol-for-a-two-arm-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-guided-self-help-act-programme-for-improving-quality-of-life-in-people-with-muscle-diseases
#19
Michael R Rose, Sam Norton, Chiara Vari, Victoria Edwards, Lance McCracken, Christopher D Graham, Aleksandar Radunovic, Trudie Chalder
INTRODUCTION: In adults, muscle disease (MD) is often a chronic long-term condition with no definitive cure. It causes wasting and weakness of the muscles resulting in a progressive decline in mobility, alongside other symptoms, and is typically associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). Previous research suggests that a psychological intervention, and in particular Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), may help improve QoL in MD. ACT is a newer type of cognitive behavioural treatment that aims to improve QoL by virtue of improvement in a process called psychological flexibility...
October 3, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286664/nationwide-implementation-of-a-national-policy-for-evidence-based-rehabilitation-with-focus-on-facilitating-return-to-work-a-survey-of-perceived-use-facilitators-and-barriers
#20
Elisabeth Björk Brämberg, Irene Jensen, Lydia Kwak
AIM: The aim is to assess whether the national policy for evidence-based rehabilitation with a focus on facilitating return-to-work is being implemented in health-care units in Sweden and which factors influence its implementation. METHODS: A survey design was used to investigate the implementation. Data were collected at county council management level (process leaders) and clinical level (clinicians in primary and secondary care) using web surveys. Data were analyzed using SPSS, presented as descriptive statistics...
October 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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