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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389621/increased-placental-igf-1-mtor-activity-in-macrosomia-born-to-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#1
Min Shang, Zhaoyang Wen
AIMS: Newborns of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are susceptible to be macrosomic, even if the blood glucose levels are in normal ranges. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that placental insulin like growth factor(IGF)-I and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is activated and amino acid transporter expression is increased in women with GDM who give birth to macrosomic babies. METHODS: 50 Chinese pregnant women with GDM whose blood glucose levels were controlled within normal range were recruited and their placental tissues were collected...
October 31, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359963/glycine-induces-migration-of-microglial-bv-2-cells-via-snat-mediated-cell-swelling
#2
Michael Kittl, Heidemarie Dobias, Marlena Beyreis, Tobias Kiesslich, Christian Mayr, Martin Gaisberger, Markus Ritter, Hubert H Kerschbaum, Martin Jakab
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The neutral, non-essential amino acid glycine has manifold functions and effects under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Besides its function as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, glycine also exerts immunomodulatory effects and as an osmolyte it participates in cell volume regulation. During phagocytosis, glycine contributes to (local) cell volume-dependent processes like lamellipodium formation. Similar to the expansion of the lamellipodium we assume that glycine also affects the migration of microglial cells in a cell volume-dependent manner...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240589/glutamate-glutamine-transfer-and-chronic-stress-induced-sex-differences-in-cocaine-responses
#3
Akiko Shimamoto, Virginie Rappeneau, Havisha Munjal, Tonie Farris, Christopher Davis, Alicia Wilson, Malcolm Edwards, Cindy Moore, Collin Reynolds, Charles K Meshul
Substance use disorders (SUD) often co-occur with other mental disorders such as major depression (MD). Our previous findings revealed sex-dependent changes in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in Long-Evans rats that were exposed to 21 days of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), which models MD. The current study investigated the role of a Gln transporter called sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter subtype 1/2 (SNAT 1/2), phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG), and astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) on CSDS animals exposed to cocaine...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971004/pats-and-snats-amino-acid-sensors-in-disguise
#4
Shih-Jung Fan, Deborah C I Goberdhan
Solute Carriers (SLCs) are involved in the transport of substances across lipid bilayers, including nutrients like amino acids. Amino acids increase the activity of the microenvironmental sensor mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) to promote cellular growth and anabolic processes. They can be brought in to cells by a wide range of SLCs including the closely related Proton-assisted Amino acid Transporter (PAT or SLC36) and Sodium-coupled Neutral Amino acid Transporter (SNAT or SLC38) families...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898451/pathophysiology-of-depression-molecular-regulation-of-melatonin-homeostasis-current-status
#5
REVIEW
Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Edyta Reszka
Circadian rhythm alterations resulting in disturbed sleep and disturbed melatonin secretion are flagship features of depression. Melatonin, known as a hormone of darkness, is secreted by the pineal gland located near to the center of the brain between the two hemispheres. Melatonin has an antidepressant effect by maintaining the body's circadian rhythm, by regulating the pattern of expression of the clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and modifying the key genes of serotoninergic neurotransmission that are linked with a depressive mood...
2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858792/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-tumor-apoptosis-with-a-caspase-sensitive-nano-aggregation-tracer-18-f-c-snat
#6
Zixin Chen, Jianghong Rao
Cellular apoptosis is an important criterion for evaluating the efficacy of cancer therapies. We have developed a new small molecule probe ([18 F]C-SNAT) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of apoptosis. [18 F]C-SNAT, when activated by caspase-3 and glutathione reduction, undergoes intramolecular cyclization followed by self-assembly to form nano-aggregates in apoptotic cells. This unique mechanism creates preferential retention of gamma radiation signals in targeted cells and thus enables the detection of apoptosis using PET, a sensitive and clinically practical technique...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851162/flavonoids-inhibit-both-rice-and-sheep-serotonin-n-acetyltransferases-and-reduce-melatonin-levels-in-plants
#7
Kyungjin Lee, Ok Jin Hwang, Russel J Reiter, Kyoungwhan Back
The plant melatonin biosynthetic pathway has been well characterized, but inhibitors of melatonin synthesis have not been well studied. Here, we found that flavonoids potently inhibited plant melatonin synthesis. For example, flavonoids including morin and myricetin significantly inhibited purified, recombinant sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). Flavonoids also dose-dependently and potently inhibited purified rice SNAT1 and SNAT2. Thus, myricetin (100 μmol/L) reduced rice SNAT1 and SNAT2 activity 7- and 10-fold, respectively, and also strongly inhibited the N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity of purified, recombinant rice caffeic acid O-methyltransferase...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766569/differential-roles-of-melatonin-in-plant-host-resistance-and-pathogen-suppression-in-cucurbits
#8
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone, melatonin, has focused on its multiregulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607549/melatonin-is-involved-in-skotomorphogenesis-by-regulating-brassinosteroid-biosynthesis-in-rice-plants
#9
Ok Jin Hwang, Kyoungwhan Back
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis catalyzing the conversion of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin. In plants, SNAT is encoded by 2 isogenes of which SNAT1 is constitutively expressed and its overexpression confers increased yield in rice. However, the role of SNAT2 remains to be clarified. In contrast to SNAT1, the diurnal rhythm of SNAT2 mRNA expression peaks at night. In this study, transgenic rice plants in which SNAT2 expression were suppressed by RNAi technology showed a decrease in melatonin and a dwarf phenotype with erect leaves, reminiscent of brassinosteroids (BR)-deficient mutants...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528161/heritability-of-aggression-following-social-evaluation-in-middle-childhood-an-fmri-study
#10
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Middle childhood marks an important phase for developing and maintaining social relations. At the same time, this phase is marked by a gap in our knowledge of the genetic and environmental influences on brain responses to social feedback and their relation to behavioral aggression. In a large developmental twin sample (509 7- to 9-year-olds), the heritability and neural underpinnings of behavioral aggression following social evaluation were investigated, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral, or negative feedback to the participant's profile...
July 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403001/effect-of-melatonin-on-the-stability-and-expression-of-reference-genes-in-catharanthus-roseus
#11
S A Sheshadri, M J Nishanth, V Yamine, Bindu Simon
The role of Melatonin in influencing diverse genes in plants has gained momentum in recent years and many reports have employed qRT-PCR for their quantification. Relative quantification of gene expression relies on accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data against a stably-expressing internal reference-gene. Although researchers have been using commonly available reference-genes to assess Melatonin-induced gene expression, but to-date, there have been no attempts to validate the reference-gene stability under Melatonin-supplementation in planta...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247559/rice-histone-deacetylase-10-and-arabidopsis-histone-deacetylase-14-genes-encode-n-acetylserotonin-deacetylase-which-catalyzes-conversion-of-n-acetylserotonin-into-serotonin-a-reverse-reaction-for-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-plants
#12
Kyungjin Lee, Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
In plants, melatonin production is strictly regulated, unlike the production of its precursor, serotonin, which is highly inducible in response to stimuli, such as senescence and pathogen exposure. Exogenous serotonin treatment does not greatly induce the production of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and melatonin in plants, which suggests the possible existence of one or more regulatory genes in the pathway for the biosynthesis of melatonin from serotonin. In this report, we found that NAS was rapidly and abundantly converted into serotonin in rice seedlings, indicating the presence of an N-acetylserotonin deacetylase (ASDAC)...
March 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065548/cadmium-disrupts-subcellular-organelles-including-chloroplasts-resulting-in-melatonin-induction-in-plants
#13
Hyoung-Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
Cadmium is a well-known elicitor of melatonin synthesis in plants, including rice. However, the mechanisms by which cadmium induces melatonin induction remain elusive. To investigate whether cadmium influences physical integrities in subcellular organelles, we treated tobacco leaves with either CdCl₂ or AlCl₃ and monitored the structures of subcellular organelles-such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-using confocal microscopic analysis. Unlike AlCl₃ treatment, CdCl₂ (0...
October 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729833/altered-neuronal-activity-topography-markers-in-the-elderly-with-increased-atherosclerosis
#14
Takashi Shibata, Toshimitu Musha, Yukio Kosugi, Michiya Kubo, Yukio Horie, Naoya Kuwayama, Satoshi Kuroda, Karin Hayashi, Yohei Kobayashi, Mieko Tanaka, Haruyasu Matsuzaki, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Takashi Asada
Background: Previously, we reported on vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) templates, consisting of patients with VCI associated with carotid stenosis (>60%) using a quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) technique called neuronal activity topography (NAT). Here using the VCI templates, we investigated the hypothesis that internal carotid artery-intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) is associated with EEG spectrum intensity (sNAT) and spectrum steepness (vNAT). Methods: A total of 221 community-dwelling elderly subjects were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647436/social-judgments-frontal-asymmetry-and-aggressive-behavior-in-young-children-a-replication-study-using-eeg
#15
Ilse C van Wijk, Bianca G van den Bulk, Saskia Euser, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Renske Huffmeijer
Early in their lives young children are confronted with social judgments by peers. Previous studies have shown that in adults negative social judgments are associated with more aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the relation between social judgments and aggressive behavior, or the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, in early childhood. We developed the Social Network Aggression Task - Early Childhood (SNAT-EC) to examine the mediating role of frontal EEG asymmetry in the relation between social judgment and aggressive behavior in 4-6 year old children...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599069/plant-mitochondria-synthesize-melatonin-and-enhance-the-tolerance-of-plants-to-drought-stress
#16
Lin Wang, Chao Feng, Xiaodong Zheng, Yan Guo, Fangfang Zhou, Dongqian Shan, Xuan Liu, Jin Kong
Synthesis of melatonin in mitochondria was reported in animals. However, there is no report on whether plant mitochondria also produce melatonin. Herein, we show that plant mitochondria are a major site for melatonin synthesis. In an in vitro study, isolated apple mitochondria had the capacity to generate melatonin. Subcellular localization analysis documented that an apple SNAT isoform, MzSNAT5, was localized in the mitochondria of both Arabidopsis protoplasts and apple callus cells. The kinetic analysis revealed that the recombinant MzSNAT5 protein exhibited high enzymatic activity to catalyze serotonin to N-acetylserotonin with the Km and Vmax of 55 μmol/L and 0...
October 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554691/melatonin-confers-plant-tolerance-against-cadmium-stress-via-the-decrease-of-cadmium-accumulation-and-reestablishment-of-microrna-mediated-redox-homeostasis
#17
Quan Gu, Ziping Chen, Xiuli Yu, Weiti Cui, Jincheng Pan, Gan Zhao, Sheng Xu, Ren Wang, Wenbiao Shen
Although melatonin-alleviated cadmium (Cd) toxicity both in animals and plants have been well studied, little is known about its regulatory mechanisms in plants. Here, we discovered that Cd stress stimulated the production of endogenous melatonin in alfalfa seedling root tissues. The pretreatment with exogenous melatonin not only increased melatonin content, but also alleviated Cd-induced seedling growth inhibition. The melatonin-rich transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing alfalfa SNAT (a melatonin synthetic gene) exhibited more tolerance than wild-type plants under Cd conditions...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486364/association-between-planned-cesarean-delivery-and-neonatal-mortality-and-morbidity-in-twin-pregnancies
#18
Thomas Schmitz, Caroline Prunet, Elie Azria, Caroline Bohec, André Bongain, Pierre Chabanier, Claude DʼErcole, Philippe Deruelle, Renaud De Tayrac, Michel Dreyfus, Corinne Dupont, Jean Gondry, Olivier Graesslin, Gilles Kayem, Bruno Langer, Loïc Marpeau, Olivier Morel, Olivier Parant, Franck Perrotin, Fabrice Pierre, Patrice Poulain, Didier Riethmuller, Patrick Rozenberg, René-Charles Rudigoz, Paul Sagot, Marie-Victoire Sénat, Loïc Sentilhes, Christophe Vayssière, Françoise Venditelli, Eric Verspyck, Norbert Winer, Laurence Lecomte-Raclet, Pierre-Yves Ancel, François Goffinet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the planned mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and morbidity in an unselected population of women with twin pregnancies. METHODS: The JUmeaux MODe d'Accouchement (JUMODA) study was a national prospective population-based cohort study. All women with twin pregnancies and their neonates born at or after 32 weeks of gestation with a cephalic first twin were recruited in 176 maternity units in France from February 2014 to March 2015...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378373/chloroplast-overexpression-of-rice-caffeic-acid-o-methyltransferase-increases-melatonin-production-in-chloroplasts-via-the-5-methoxytryptamine-pathway-in-transgenic-rice-plants
#19
Geun-Hee Choi, Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
Recent analyses of the enzymatic features of various melatonin biosynthetic genes from bacteria, animals, and plants have led to the hypothesis that melatonin could be synthesized via the 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) pathway. 5-MT is known to be synthesized in vitro from serotonin by the enzymatic action of O-methyltransferases, including N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), leading to melatonin synthesis by the subsequent enzymatic reaction with serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT)...
August 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332771/prenatal-high-fat-diet-alters-placental-morphology-nutrient-transporter-expression-and-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat
#20
Lin Song, Bo Sun, Gretha J Boersma, Zachary A Cordner, Jianqun Yan, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L K Tamashiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the rat placenta and fetus respond to maternal high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and to identify the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (13.5% fat) or HF (60% fat) diet during gestation. Placentas were collected on gestation day 21. RESULTS: HF dams had greater fat mass, higher plasma leptin, lower plasma adiponectin, and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy...
May 2017: Obesity
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