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Maples, A.

Nan Yang, Olaf Butenschoen, Rumana Rana, Lars Köhler, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Stefan Scheu, Andrea Polle, Rodica Pena
In forest ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for plant growth and soil biogeochemical processes. The biochemical composition of ECM mycelium is an important fungal effect trait with consequences for its decomposition rate, and consequently on soil carbon pools and plant nutrition. Although the link between ECM fungi and leaf litter-released nutrients is well known, the response of ECM fungal biochemical composition to different leaf litter species remains poorly understood. To determine how leaf litter quality influences ECM fungi's biochemical profiles, we planted young beech trees in an oak forest and replaced the natural leaf litter with that of European beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), or lime (Tilia cordata)...
December 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Julia J Mlynarek, Amélie Grégoire Taillefer, Terry A Wheeler
Saproxylic insects, those associated directly or indirectly with decaying wood for all or part of their life cycle, compose a large proportion of forest organisms. Flies (Diptera) are often the most abundant and species-rich group of insects in forest microhabitats, yet most work to date on saproxylic insect diversity and ecology has focused on beetles (Coleoptera). We compared saproxylic Diptera assemblages reared from two tree species (sugar maple and American beech) at two stages of decay (early/young and advanced/old) for a total of 20 logs in an eastern Canadian Nearctic old-growth forest...
2018: PeerJ
R Kirkham, L J Maple-Brown, N Freeman, B Beaton, R Lamilami, M Hausin, A-M Puruntatemeri, P Wood, S Signal, S W Majoni, A Cass, J T Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare policy and planning should be informed by a partnership between healthcare services and healthcare users. This is critical for people who access care frequently such as indigenous Australians who have a high burden of chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to explore the most appropriate ways of enhancing services by incorporating renal patients' expectations and satisfaction of care in Australia's Northern Territory. STUDY DESIGN: This is a participatory action research...
October 24, 2018: Public Health
Louise Maple-Brown, I-Lynn Lee, Danielle Longmore, Federica Barzi, Christine Connors, Jacqueline A Boyle, Elizabeth Moore, Cherie Whitbread, Marie Kirkwood, Sian Graham, Vanya Hampton, Alison Simmonds, Paula Van Dokkum, Joanna Kelaart, Sujatha Thomas, Shridhar Chitturi, Sandra Eades, Sumaria Corpus, Michael Lynch, Zhong X Lu, Kerin O'Dea, Paul Zimmet, Jeremy Oats, Harold D McIntyre, Alex D H Brown, Jonathan E Shaw
Background: In Australia's Northern Territory, 33% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers, who experience high rates of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. We aimed to determine the extent to which pregnancy outcomes for Indigenous Australian women are explained by relative frequencies of diabetes type [type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and gestational diabetes (GDM)]. Methods: This prospective birth cohort study examined participants recruited from a hyperglycemia in pregnancy register...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Andrew B Reinmann, Jessica R Susser, Eleonora M C Demaria, Pamela H Templer
Changes in growing season climate are often the foci of research exploring forest response to climate change. By contrast, little is known about tree growth response to projected declines in winter snowpack and increases in soil freezing in seasonally snow-covered forest ecosystems, despite extensive documentation of the importance of winter climate in mediating ecological processes. We conducted a 5-year snow-removal experiment whereby snow was removed for the first 4-5 weeks of winter in a northern hardwood forest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA...
November 30, 2018: Global Change Biology
David Allen, Christopher W Dick, Ethan Strayer, Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer
Forests in eastern North America are undergoing rapid compositional changes as they experience novel climate, disturbance, and pest conditions. One striking pattern is the replacement of canopy oaks (Quercus spp.) by mesic, fire-sensitive, shade-tolerant species like red maple (Acer rubrum) . To gain insight into the successional patterns driving stand-level canopy oak replacement we ask two questions: (i) What is the spatial association of oak and mesophyte recruitment compared to oak and mesophyte overstory individuals, and (ii) How do oaks and mesophytes differentially respond to canopy openings...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Tanja Jovanovic, Boadie W Dunlop, Sheila Rauch, Carly Yasinski, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Callan Coghlan, Seth Norrholm, Albert Skip Rizzo, Kerry Ressler, Barbara O Rothbaum
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by exaggerated expression of fear responses to danger and safety cues. Translational research suggests that dexamethasone facilitates fear extinction in animal and human fear conditioning models. For this randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N = 27), we aimed to translate these findings to the clinic by using virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy for OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD to determine whether dexamethasone will increase the efficacy of exposure therapy for VRE relative to placebo...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Michaela D Gjerstad, Guido Alves, Jodi Maple-Grødem
Sleep contributes to the consolidation of our memory and facilitates learning. Short term sleep deprivation temporarily reduces mnestic capacity, whereas long lasting sleep deprivation is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus and cortical areas. However, it is unknown whether early intervention and treatment of sleep disorders could have a neuroprotective effect. In neurodegenerative diseases sleep disorders can occur at preclinical stages and are frequently observed in patients with established Parkinson's disease (PD) and other α-synucleinopathies...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jeffrey M Cumming, Bradley J Sinclair, Scott E Brooks, Julia Mlynarek, Terry A Wheeler
A large diversity of saproxylic Empidoidea from a temperate deciduous forest in southern Quebec is documented. Adults of 43 empidoid species representing 19 genera in 12 subfamilies and three families were collected from in situ sealed emergence traps placed over decayed logs of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). The results of this technique give a clear indication of the saproxylic larval and pupal habitat of these species. The importance of Empidoidea as larval predators in decayed wood niches is noted...
November 13, 2018: Zootaxa
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Jessica Maples-Keller, Elizabeth I Roger, Francesca L Beaudoin, Jennifer A Sumner, Barbara O Rothbaum, Lauren Hudak, Charles F Gillespie, Ian M Kronish, Samuel A McLean, Kerry J Ressler
While nausea often develops following exposure to trauma, little is known regarding the relationship between peri-traumatic nausea and prospective risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the association between peri-traumatic nausea and PTSD symptom development in three independent cohorts. Participants were recruited from (1) the Emergency Departments (ED) at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH) in Atlanta, GA, (2) from multiple other ED sites in the TRYUMPH Research Network, and (3) from the ED during evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome in the REACH cohort...
November 21, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Carlos Camacho, Jaime Potti
Examples of tool-use behaviors by birds outside foraging contexts are scarce and limited to a handful of species. We report a field experiment aimed to test whether an observed suite of odd behaviors by European Honey-buzzards (Pernis apivorus) represents use of green twigs cut from trees and woody shrubs as a tool to attract ants for anting. Specifically, we tested whether buzzards are selective in their choice of twigs, under the assumption that birds would prefer easy-to-collect twigs from plants that effectively attract ants...
2018: PloS One
Meisam Rostaminasab Dolatabad, Lu-Lu Guo, Peng Xiao, Zhongliang Zhu, Qing-Tao He, Du-Xiao Yang, Chang-Xiu Qu, Sheng-Chao Guo, Xiao-Lei Fu, Rui-Rui Li, Lin Ge, Ke-Jia Hu, Liu Hong-da, Yue-Mao Shen, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun, Peng-Ju Zhang
Protein Phosphatase Mg2+ /Mn2+ Dependent 1K (PPM1K),also named as PP2Cm or branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex phosphatase (BDP), is a member of the metal-dependent phosphatase family and an important metabolic regulator. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PPM1K contributing to protein functional defects have been found to be associated with numerous human diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, maple syrup urine disease, type 2 diabetes, and neurological disease. PPM1K N94K is an identified missense mutant produced by one of the SNPs in the human PPM1K coding sequence...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Karen E Martin, James N Maples
PURPOSE: Guardianship is a legal process intended to aid incapacitated persons unable to fully care for themselves. Guardianship in the state of Kentucky ranges from total observation (24-hour care) to informal care (such as a group home) and also includes persons who are no longer being supervised but should be. One intent of guardianship includes preventing incapacitated persons from engaging in criminal acts. However, no research has been conducted on incapacitated persons currently in guardianship and the prevalence for committing predatory crimes such as murder, fire starting, or assault...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Kun Peng Shi, Shuang Lin Dong, Yan Gen Zhou, Qin Feng Gao, Da Jiang Sun
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a cold-water fish species with optimal temperature of 12-18 ℃. Temperature stress is a common issue in commercial culture of the Salmonid fish in summer. Both maple trout and steelhead trout are rainbow trout breeding species with good quality. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of acute temperature stress on antioxidant responses of two kinds of rainbow trout. The juvenile maple trout was diploid, and the juvenile steelhead trout was triploid. The fishes were exposed to four different temperature treatments: 13, 17, 21, and 25 ℃, and hepatic samples were collected at 0, 1, 6, and 12 h...
September 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Seiko Hirono, Manabu Kawai, Ken-Ichi Okada, Tsutomu Fujii, Masayuki Sho, Sohei Satoi, Ryosuke Amano, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yuko Mataki, Masafumi Nakamura, Ippei Matsumoto, Hideo Baba, Masaji Tani, Yasunari Kawabata, Yuichi Nagakawa, Suguru Yamada, Yoshiaki Murakami, Toshio Shimokawa, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: The mesenteric approach is an artery-first approach to pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer, which starts with the dissection of connective tissues around the superior mesenteric artery. The procedure aims for early confirmation of resectability by checking the surgical margin around the superior mesenteric artery first during the operation. It also aims to decrease intraoperative blood loss by early ligation of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery and to increase R0 rate by complete clearance of the lymph nodes around the superior mesenteric artery and pancreatic head plexus II, the most favorable positive margin site for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
November 8, 2018: Trials
Markus Schlegel, Valentin Queloz, Thomas N Sieber
The European ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ) is threatened by the introduced ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus , the causal agent of ash dieback. Endophytic fungi are known to modulate their host's resistance against pathogens. To understand possible consequences of ash dieback on the endophytic mycobiome, F. excelsior leaves were collected in naturally regenerated forests and the fungal communities analyzed by classic culture and Illumina amplicon sequencing using a newly developed and validated fungal-specific primer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rabindra R Watson, Mansour A Parsi, Harry R Aslanian, Adam J Goodman, David R Lichtenstein, Joshua Melson, Udayakumar Navaneethan, Rahul Pannala, Amrita Sethi, Shelby A Sullivan, Nirav C Thosani, Guru Trikudanathan, Arvind J Trindade, John T Maple
Background and Aims: Lithotripsy is a procedure for fragmentation or destruction of stones to facilitate their removal or passage from the biliary or pancreatic ducts. Although most stones may be removed endoscopically using conventional techniques such as endoscopic sphincterotomy in combination with balloon or basket extraction, lithotripsy may be required for clearance of large, impacted, or irregularly shaped stones. Several modalities have been described, including intracorporeal techniques such as mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL), and laser lithotripsy, as well as extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)...
November 2018: VideoGIE: an official video journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Jean-François Louf, Logan Nelson, Hosung Kang, Pierre Ntoh Song, Tim Zehnbauer, Sunghwan Jung
From a geometrical point of view, a non-sessile leaf is composed of two parts: a large flat plate called the lamina, and a long beam called the petiole which connects the lamina to the branch/stem. While wind is exerting force (e.g. drag) on the lamina, the petiole undergoes twisting and bending motions. To survive in harsh abiotic conditions, leaves may have evolved to form in different shapes, resulting from a coupling between the lamina geometry and the petiole mechanical properties. In this study, we measure the shape of laminae from 120 simple leaf species (no leaflets)...
November 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kevin P Sierzega, Michael W Eichholz
Modifications to disturbance regimes have landscape-level effects on plant communities and have the potential to influence organisms at multiple trophic levels. We examined differences in the arthropod community across a gradient of oak/hickory dominance, a plant community maintained by disturbance such as periodic fires and extensive land clearing. In southern Illinois, we used patches of forest that varied in tree dominance ranging from 94 to 0% oak/hickory composition dependent on prior land usage that occurred > 50 years ago at minimum, to test two predictions: (1) oak (Quercus) and hickory (Carya) species contain more arthropod biomass and diversity than mesic tree species [e...
November 2, 2018: Oecologia
Alexandre Fruleux, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Catherine Collet, Aurélie Deveau, Laurent Saint-André, Philippe Santenoise, Damien Bonal
The relationship between forest productivity and tree species diversity has been described in detail, but the underlying processes have yet to be identified. One important issue is to understand which processes are at the origin of observed aboveground overyielding in some mixed forests. We used a beech-maple plantation exhibiting aboveground overyielding to test whether belowground processes could explain this pattern. Soil cores were collected to determine fine root (FR) biomass and vertical distribution...
December 2018: Oecologia
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