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Essential Tremor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#1
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136548/wavelet-coherence-analysis-a-new-approach-to-distinguish-organic-and-functional-tremor-types
#2
G Kramer, A M M Van der Stouwe, N M Maurits, M A J Tijssen, J W J Elting
OBJECTIVE: To distinguish tremor subtypes using wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). WCA enables to detect variations in coherence and phase difference between two signals over time and might be especially useful in distinguishing functional from organic tremor. METHODS: In this pilot study, polymyography recordings were studied retrospectively of 26 Parkinsonian (PT), 26 functional (FT), 26 essential (ET), and 20 enhanced physiological (EPT) tremor patients. Per patient one segment of 20 s in duration, in which tremor was present continuously in the same posture, was selected...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133699/referral-practice-reporting-standards-and-the-impact-of-dopamine-transporter-scans-done-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#3
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128955/right-brodmann-area-18-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-vim-radiosurgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#4
Constantin Tuleasca, Tatiana Witjas, Dimitri Van de Ville, Elena Najdenovska, Antoine Verger, Nadine Girard, Jerome Champoudry, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Eric Guedj, Jean Régis
INTRODUCTION: Drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) can benefit from open standard stereotactic procedures, such as deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy. Non-surgical candidates can be offered either high-focused ultrasound (HIFU) or radiosurgery (RS). All procedures aim to target the same thalamic site, the ventro-intermediate nucleus (e.g., Vim). The mechanisms by which tremor stops after Vim RS or HIFU remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data and assessed which anatomical site would best correlate with tremor arrest 1 year after Vim RS...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126946/sensory-percepts-induced-by-microwire-array-and-dbs-microstimulation-in-human-sensory-thalamus
#5
Brandon D Swan, Lynne B Gasperson, Max O Krucoff, Warren M Grill, Dennis A Turner
BACKGROUND: Microstimulation in human sensory thalamus (ventrocaudal, VC) results in focal sensory percepts in the hand and arm which may provide an alternative target site (to somatosensory cortex) for the input of prosthetic sensory information. Sensory feedback to facilitate motor function may require simultaneous or timed responses across separate digits to recreate perceptions of slip as well as encoding of intensity variations in pressure or touch. OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of evoking sensory percepts on separate digits with variable intensity through either a microwire array or deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode, recreating "natural" and scalable percepts relating to the arm and hand...
October 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125566/botulinum-toxin-in-management-of-limb-tremor
#6
REVIEW
Elina Zakin, David Simpson
Essential tremor is characterized by persistent, usually bilateral and symmetric, postural or kinetic activation of agonist and antagonist muscles involving either the distal or proximal upper extremity. Quality of life is often affected and one's ability to perform daily tasks becomes impaired. Oral therapies, including propranolol and primidone, can be effective in the management of essential tremor, although adverse effects can limit their use and about 50% of individuals lack response to oral pharmacotherapy...
November 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125416/gamma-oscillations-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-a-patient-with-a-phantom-limb-case-report
#7
Diellor Basha, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison
The amputation of an extremity is commonly followed by phantom sensations that are perceived to originate from the missing limb. The mechanism underlying the generation of these sensations is still not clear although the development of abnormal oscillatory bursting in thalamic neurons may be involved. The theory of thalamocortical dysrhythmia implicates gamma oscillations in phantom pathophysiology although this rhythm has not been previously observed in the phantom limb thalamus. In this study, the authors report the novel observation of widespread 38-Hz gamma oscillatory activity in spike and local field potential recordings obtained from the ventral caudal somatosensory nucleus of the thalamus (Vc) of a phantom limb patient undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117603/-clinical-tests-for-symptom-validity-assessment
#8
Bernhard Widder
Assessing symptom validity is essential both in the clinical and medicolegal contexts. If neurological symptoms are demonstrated and/or a patient complains of pain that is not or cannot be fully explained by an underlying disease, it is necessary to recognize reliably a possible psychological cause in order to avoid further unnecessary examinations. In the medicolegal context, malingering or exaggeration of complaints for obtaining financial benefit is to be differentiated in a further step. The present overview contains a summary of clinical observations and tests for neurologists and psychiatrists used for symptom validity assessment of sensorimotor symptoms, tremor, gait, equilibrium and visual disturbances as well as pain...
November 8, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109210/essential-tremor
#9
Graeme Schwindt, Jeremy Rezmovitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109113/generation-and-characterization-of-sult4a1-mutant-mouse-models
#10
Patrick L Garcia, Mohammed I Hossain, Shaida A Andrabi, Charles N Falany
Sulfotransferase 4A1 (SULT4A1) belongs to the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) superfamily of enzymes that catalyze sulfonation reactions with a variety of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Of the SULTs, SULT4A1 was shown to have the highest sequence homology between vertebrate species, yet no known function or enzymatic activity have been identified for this orphan SULT. To better understand SULT4A1 function in mammalian brain, two mutant SULT4A1 mouse strains were generated utilizing CRISPR-Cas9 technology...
November 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103291/current-and-future-uses-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-in-neurosurgery
#11
David S Hersh, Howard M Eisenberg
Focused ultrasound (FUS) produces a region of high intensity at the focal zone of the beam but with minimal effects at adjacent areas, allowing the sonication of deep targets throughout the body. Despite early obstacles to transmitting ultrasound energy through the skull, recent advances in ultrasound technology, software, and real-time monitoring have resulted in a renewed interest in the clinical applications of transcranial FUS. Following extensive pre- clinical studies, ultrasound-induced thermal ablation has been approved by several countries for the treatment of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and neuropathic pain...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102253/square-biphasic-pulse-deep-brain-stimulation-for-essential-tremor-the%C3%A2-bip-tremor-study
#12
Sol De Jesus, Leonardo Almeida, Leili Shahgholi, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Jaimie Roper, Chris J Hass, Umer Akbar, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Robert S Raike, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) utilizes regular, high frequency pulses to treat medication-refractory symptoms in essential tremor (ET). Modifications of DBS pulse shape to achieve improved effectiveness is a promising approach. OBJECTIVES: The current study assessed the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of square biphasic pulse shaping as an alternative to conventional ET DBS. METHODS: This pilot study compared biphasic pulses (BiP) versus conventional DBS pulses (ClinDBS)...
October 20, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084313/safety-and-efficacy-of-focused-ultrasound-thalamotomy-for-patients-with-medication-refractory-tremor-dominant-parkinson-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Aaron E Bond, Binit B Shah, Diane S Huss, Robert F Dallapiazza, Amy Warren, Madaline B Harrison, Scott A Sperling, Xin-Qun Wang, Ryder Gwinn, Jennie Witt, Susie Ro, W Jeffrey Elias
Importance: Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor, but its effectiveness and safety for managing tremor-dominant Parkinson disease (TDPD) is unknown. Objective: To assess safety and efficacy at 12-month follow-up, accounting for placebo response, of unilateral FUS thalamotomy for patients with TDPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Of the 326 patients identified from an in-house database, 53 patients consented to be screened...
October 30, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076274/transcranial-mri-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-treatment-of-essential-tremor-a-pilot-study-on-the-correlation-between-lesion-size-lesion-location-thermal-dose-and-clinical-outcome
#14
Christian Federau, Maged Goubran, Jarrett Rosenberg, Jaimie Henderson, Casey H Halpern, Veronica Santini, Max Wintermark, Kim Butts Pauly, Pejman Ghanouni
BACKGROUND: Transcranial MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) is a promising noninvasive method to treat medication-refractory essential tremor. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To define the correlation between lesion size after ablation, thermal dose, and clinical outcome in tcMRgFUS treatment of essential tremor. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION/SUBJECTS/PHANTOM/SPECIMEN/ANIMAL MODEL: Eight patients with medication-refractory essential tremor were treated using a tcMRgFUS system at 3T...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076006/evaluation-of-thickness-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-ganglion-cell-layer-and-choroidal-thickness-in-essential-tremor-can-eyes-be-a-clue-for-neurodegeneration
#15
Ali Zeynel Abidin Tak, Yıldızhan Şengül, Ayşe Sevgi Karadağ
The pathology of essential tremor (ET) and underlying mechanisms of the disease are still unclear, but an increasing amount of research has been conducted on the subject. Discussions are ongoing about ET's definition as a neurodegenerative disease. Optic coherence tomography (OCT) provides a window to the brain where direct visualization of central nervous system (CNS) changes may be possible, and it can help us to develop a new point of view on ET. The goal of this study was to examine OCT parameters in ET...
October 26, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068830/propofol-induced-changes-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-sensorimotor-cortical-connectivity
#16
Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Nicholas AuYong, Collin M Price, Evangelia Tsolaki, Andrew E Hudson, Nader Pouratian
BACKGROUND: Anesthetics are believed to alter functional connectivity across brain regions. However, network-level analyses of anesthesia, particularly in humans, are sparse. The authors hypothesized that propofol-induced loss of consciousness results in functional disconnection of human sensorimotor cortices underlying the loss of volitional motor responses. METHODS: The authors recorded local field potentials from sensorimotor cortices in patients with Parkinson disease (N = 12) and essential tremor (N = 7) undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery, before and after propofol-induced loss of consciousness...
October 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054781/superselective-thalamotomy-in-the-most-lateral-part-of-the-ventralis-intermedius-nucleus-for-controlling-essential-and-parkinsonian-tremor
#17
Masafumi Hirato, Takaaki Miyagishima, Akio Takahashi, Yuhei Yoshimoto
OBJECTIVE: The minimum and essential thalamic areas for reducing tremor were investigated in cases treated by superselective thalamotomy in the most lateral part of ventralis intermedius nucleus (mlp-VIM). METHODS: Stereotactic superselective VIM thalamotomy with depth microrecording was performed in 21 patients with essential tremor (ET) and 15 patients with tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). A very small and narrow (axial plane) therapeutic lesion was formed as a square on the sagittal plane and inverse V on the axial plane in the mlp-VIM, which covered the kinesthetic response area topographically related to tremor...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053074/clinical-improvement-associated-with-targeted-interruption-of-the-cerebellothalamic-tract-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor
#18
J Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E Stieg, Robert J Min, Douglas J Ballon, Kane O Pryor, Paul M Riegelhaupt, Michael G Kaplitt
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051842/is-there-a-premotor-phase-of-essential-tremor
#19
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Julian Benito-León, Elan D Louis
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder. In addition to its hallmark feature, kinetic tremor of the upper limbs, patients may have a number of non-motor symptoms and signs (NMS). Several lines of evidence suggest that ET is a neurodegenerative disorder and certain NMS may antedate the onset of tremor. This article comprehensively reviews the evidence for the existence of a "premotor phase" of ET, and discusses plausible biological explanations and implications...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039117/in-vivo-dentate-nucleus-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-concentration-in-essential-tremor-vs-controls
#20
Elan D Louis, Nora Hernandez, Jonathan P Dyke, Ruoyun E Ma, Ulrike Dydak
Despite its high prevalence, essential tremor (ET) is among the most poorly understood neurological diseases. The presence and extent of Purkinje cell (PC) loss in ET is the subject of controversy. PCs are a major storehouse of central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), releasing GABA at the level of the dentate nucleus. It is therefore conceivable that cerebellar dentate nucleus GABA concentration could be an in vivo marker of PC number. We used in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA concentrations in two cerebellar volumes of interest, left and right, which included the dentate nucleus, comparing 45 ET cases to 35 age-matched controls...
October 16, 2017: Cerebellum
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