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Francesca Solmi, Daniela Melamed, Glyn Lewis, James B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences might represent non-specific markers of poor mental health in adolescence. However, only a few predominantly cross-sectional studies have tested their association with disordered eating behaviours in adolescent and adult populations. The aim of this study was to explore the association between psychotic experiences at age 13 years, and disordered eating behaviours and body-mass index (BMI) at age 18 years. METHODS: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in Avon (England, UK) including mothers with an expected delivery date between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992, and their children...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Yuanying Li, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Tomoya Hanibuchi, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Atsuhiko Ota, Mayu Uemura, Chifa Chiang, Rei Otsuka, Chiyoe Murata, Koji Tamakoshi, Hideaki Toyoshima, Atsuko Aoyama
The possible effects of a neighborhood's built environment on physical activity have not been studied in Asian countries as much as in Western countries. The present study cross-sectionally examined the relationship between geographic information system (GIS) measured residence and worksite neighborhood walkability, and the number of parks/green spaces and sports facilities within a 1 km radius of home and workplace, with self-reported leisure-time habitual (3-4 times per week or more) walking and moderate-to-vigorous intensity habitual exercise among local government workers aged 18 to 64 years living in an urban-suburban area of Aichi, Japan in 2013...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Niels Ørtenblad, Joachim Nielsen, Robert Boushel, Karin Söderlund, Bengt Saltin, Hans-Christer Holmberg
As one of the most physically demanding sports in the Olympic Games, cross-country skiing poses considerable challenges with respect to both force generation and endurance during the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration. The isoforms of myosin in skeletal muscle have long been considered not only to define the contractile properties, but also to determine metabolic capacities. The current investigation was designed to explore the relationship between these isoforms and metabolic profiles in the arms ( triceps brachii ) and legs ( vastus lateralis ) as well as the range of training responses in the muscle fibers of elite cross-country skiers with equally and exceptionally well-trained upper and lower bodies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Emma Louise Healey, Ebenezer K Afolabi, Martyn Lewis, John J Edwards, Kelvin P Jordan, Andrew Finney, Clare Jinks, Elaine M Hay, Krysia S Dziedzic
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability. NICE OA guidelines (2008) recommend that patients with OA should be offered core treatments in primary care. Assessments of OA management have identified a need to improve primary care of people with OA, as recorded use of interventions concordant with the NICE guidelines is suboptimal in primary care. The aim of this study was to i) describe the patient-reported uptake of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments recommended in the NICE OA guidelines in older adults with a self-reported consultation for joint pain and ii) determine whether patient characteristics or OA diagnosis impact uptake...
August 17, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Ming-Shyan Lin, Tung-Jung Huang, Yu-Chen Lin, Sui-Whi Jane, Mei-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with disabilities have health needs similar to the general population. Smoking and metabolic syndrome have emerged as major cardiovascular risks that contribute to systemic inflammation and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the association between smoking and cardiometabolic risks in adult men with disabilities. AIMS: This study explored the prevalence of smoking and its association with cardiometabolic risk and associated factors among male adults with disabilities...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Wing Sum Li, Sze Ying Chan, Wai Wang Chau, Sheung-Wai Law, Kai Ming Chan
BACKGROUND: The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake resulted in many amputees, yet due to the rare incidence, few studies have explored the rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life of bilateral lower limb amputees after major natural disasters. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rehabilitation outcomes of 17 young and adult bilateral lower limb amputees under the StandTall rehabilitation programme and to identify factors associated with successful functional recovery of bilateral amputees after large-scale disasters...
August 16, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Saskia J Te Velde, Kristel Lankhorst, Maremka Zwinkels, Olaf Verschuren, Tim Takken, Janke de Groot
BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available about how sports participation influences psychosocial health and quality of life in children and adolescents with a disability or chronic disease. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the association of sports participation with psychosocial health and with quality of life, among children and adolescents with a disability. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 195 children and adolescents with physical disabilities or chronic diseases (11% cardiovascular, 5% pulmonary, 8% metabolic, 8% musculoskeletal/orthopaedic, 52% neuromuscular and 9% immunological diseases and 1% with cancer), aged 10-19 years, completed questionnaires to assess sports participation, health-related quality of life (DCGM-37), self-perceptions and global self-worth (SPPC or SPPA) and exercise self-efficacy...
August 15, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Barbara N Morrison, James McKinney, Saul Isserow, Daniel Lithwick, Jack Taunton, Hamed Nazzari, Astrid M De Souza, Brett Heilbron, Carlee Cater, Mackenzie MacDonald, Benjamin A Hives, Darren E R Warburton
Background: Underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of sudden cardiac death in masters athletes (>35 years). Preparticipation screening may detect cardiovascular disease; however, the optimal screening method is undefined in this population. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+) and the American Heart Association (AHA) Preparticipation Screening Questionnaire are often currently used; however, a more comprehensive risk assessment may be required...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Young-Ah Choi, Seong-Min Chun, Yale Kim, Hyung-Ik Shin
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity joint contractures have negative effects on gait in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Thus, contracture prevention is essential for maintaining a patient's functional ability and an acceptable quality of life. This study investigated hip flexion (HF), knee flexion (KF), and ankle joint plantar flexion (APF) contractures among male patients with DMD, based on the patients' ambulatory status. Differences in major joint contractures, based on passive stretching exercise participation, were also investigated...
August 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Gertjan Ettema, Magne Øksnes, Espen Kveli, Øyvind Sandbakk
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on technique preference and the accompanying physiological response during classic skiing at constant workload, but with varying incline-speed combinations. METHODS: Seven male competitive cross-country skiers performed four tests, each lasting 23 min, at constant 200 W workload roller skiing on a treadmill using classic style, three in unfatigued state, and one after exhaustion...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Margaret Schneider
American adolescents overwhelmingly engage in insufficient physical activity (PA). Attention has turned to the role of affect in shaping PA, raising questions as to whether the impact of affect on PA is direct/automatic or cognitively mediated ("Type 1" or "Type 2" in the dual-process model). This study examines whether intrinsic motivation (IM) mediates the association between affect and PA. Adolescents ( N = 142, 48% Male, 20% non-Latino White, mean age = 11.04 years, mean VO2 = 37.19 ml/kg/min, mean BMI = 63...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lilin Xiong, Jie Li, Ting Xia, Xinyue Hu, Yan Wang, Maonan Sun, Meng Tang
Aims : This study aimed to describe risk reduction behaviors regarding ambient particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 ) among outdoor exercisers and to explore potential factors influencing those behaviors in the urban area of Nanjing, China. Method : A cross-sectional convenience sample survey was conducted among 302 outdoor exercisers in May 2015. Descriptive analysis was used to describe demographics, outdoor physical activity patterns, knowledge of PM2.5 and risk reduction behaviors...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Haruka Takei, Mie Shiraishi, Masayo Matsuzaki, Megumi Haruna
INTRODUCTION: Vegetable intake (VI) is important for both fetal and maternal health. However, VI is insufficient among many pregnant Japanese women. This study aimed to identify the factors related to VI during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014, at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Demographic, physical, and psychological characteristics, dietary habits, and health-related behaviors were investigated using another questionnaire...
August 10, 2018: Appetite
Thomas Leggett, Jonathan Williams, Colm Daly, Courtney Kipps, Richard Twycross-Lewis
CONTEXT:   Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is a potentially fatal condition that can be prevented by avoiding excessive fluid intake. Running has become more popular in recent years, so it is important to assess the safety of runners' hydration strategies. OBJECTIVE:   (1) To explore the intended hydration strategies of a sample of marathon runners before the 2014 London Marathon, (2) to examine their sources of information and knowledge about fluid intake and their understanding of EAH, and (3) to compare these findings with the results of a similar study carried out before the 2010 London Marathon...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Hojun Lee, Kijeong Kim, Boa Kim, Junchul Shin, Sudarsan Rajan, Jingwei Wu, Xiongwen Chen, Michael D Brown, Sukho Lee, Joon-Young Park
KEY POINTS: Referring to the muscle memory theory, previously trained muscles acquire strength and volume much faster than naive muscles. Using extreme experimental models such as synergist ablation or steroid administration, previous studies have demonstrated that the number of nuclei increases when a muscle becomes enlarged, which serves as a cellular muscle memory mechanism for the muscle. In the present study, we found that, when rats were subjected to physiologically relevant resistance training, the number of myonuclei increased and was retained during a long-term detraining period...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
P Bouzat, G Séchaud, P Banco, K Davranche, L Casini, S Baillieul, P Manhes, F Botrè, M Mazzarino, X De la Torre, P Robach, S Verges
Study objectives: Sleep is altered at high altitude leading many mountaineers to use hypnotics in order to improve sleep efficiency. While after a full night at altitude the short-acting hypnotic zolpidem does not appear to alter cognitive function, residual adverse effects should be considered following early waking-up as performed by mountaineers. We hypothesized that zolpidem intake at high altitude would alter cognitive function 4 hours after drug intake. Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled cross-over study, 22 subjects were evaluated during 2 nights at sea level and 2 nights at 3,800m, 4 hours after zolpidem (10mg) or placebo intake at 22:00pm...
August 7, 2018: Sleep
Weijia Sun, Dandan Chen, Jie Wang, Na Liu, Wei Zhang
Body image dissatisfaction has increased among pregnant women, affecting their mental and physical activities. Previous systematic reviews only found significant results existed in cross-sectional design instead of longitudinal designs. This meta-analytic review of cohort studies aimed to report the relationships and moderator variables about body image dissatisfaction and physical activity among pregnant women. We searched for studies in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane library until December 2017...
July 20, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Jean-Frederic Colombel, Andrea Shin, Peter R Gibson
DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this clinical practice update review is to describe key principles in the diagnosis and management of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The evidence and best practices summarized in this manuscript are based on relevant scientific publications, systematic reviews, and expert opinion where applicable. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: A stepwise approach to rule-out ongoing inflammatory activity should be followed in IBD patients with persistent GI symptoms (measurement of fecal calprotectin, endoscopy with biopsy, cross-sectional imaging)...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sammi R Chekroud, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Amanda B Zheutlin, Martin Paulus, Harlan M Krumholz, John H Krystal, Adam M Chekroud
BACKGROUND: Exercise is known to be associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes, but its association with mental health remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between exercise and mental health burden in a large sample, and to better understand the influence of exercise type, frequency, duration, and intensity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from 1 237 194 people aged 18 years or older in the USA from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System survey...
August 8, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
B Steenstrup, E Le Rumeur, S Moreau, J N Cornu
AIM: The sedentary lifestyle is defined by a lack of regular mobilizing activities in the activities of daily life. The purpose of this work was to gather data related to the potential link between urinary incontinence and sedentary lifestyle in women. METHOD: A literature review (Pubmed/MEDLINE databases) based on keywords: women; urinary incontinence; sedentary; sedentary behavior; sedentary lifestyle; physical activity; exercise; sport, over the period 2008-2018 was carried out...
August 8, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
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