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Corticospinal excitability

Zafer İşcan, Aaron Schurger, Marine Vernet, Jacobo D Sitt, Antoni Valero-Cabré
There has been a growing interest in the role of pre-stimulus oscillations on cortical excitability in visual and motor systems. Prior studies focused on the relationship between pre-stimulus neuronal activity and TMS-evoked motor evoked potentials (MEPs) have reported heterogeneous results. We aimed to assess the role of pre-stimulus neural activity on the latency of MEPs, which might enhance our understanding of the variability of MEP signals, and potentially provide information on the role played by cortical activity fluctuations in the excitability of corticospinal pathways...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Florian Herpich, Federica Contò, Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Lorella Battelli
BACKGROUND: Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can cause long term increase of corticospinal excitability when used to prime the motor cortex, before measuring the motor response in the hand muscles with TMS (Terney et al., 2008). In cognitive studies, tRNS has been used to improve visual attention and mathematical skills, an enhancement effect that might suggest sustained cortical plasticity changes (Cappelletti et al., 2013; Snowball et al., 2013). However, while the behavioral evidence of increased performance is becoming substantiated by empirical data, it still remains unclear whether tRNS over visual areas causes an increase in cortical excitability similar to what has been found in the motor cortex, and if that increase could be a potential physiological explanation for behavioral improvements found in visual tasks...
August 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Tulika Nandi, Claudine J C Lamoth, Helco G van Keeken, Lisanne B M Bakker, Iris Kok, George J Salem, Beth E Fisher, Tibor Hortobágyi
Reductions in the base of support (BOS) make standing difficult and require adjustments in the neural control of sway. In healthy young adults, we determined the effects of reductions in mediolateral (ML) BOS on peroneus longus (PL) motor evoked potential (MEP), intracortical facilitation (ICF), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also examined whether participant-specific neural excitability influences the responses to increasing standing difficulty...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Martin Riach, Paul S Holmes, Zoë C Franklin, David J Wright
Action observation produces activity in similar regions of the brain to those involved in action execution and can offer an effective intervention for motor (re)learning, although optimal viewing conditions for such interventions remain to be established. In this experiment, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and eye-tracking were used simultaneously to investigate the effect of manipulating background context on both corticospinal excitability and visual attention during action observation...
August 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Simranjit K Sidhu, Joshua C Weavil, Taylor S Thurston, Dorothea Rosenberger, Jacob E Jessop, Eivind Wang, Russell S Richardson, Chris J McNeil, Markus Amann
We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents in attenuating corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise and focused on GABAB neuron-mediated inhibition as a potential underlying mechanism. Both under control-conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl (FENT) impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents, subjects (n = 11) cycled at a comparable vastus-lateralis electromyography signal (EMG) (∼0.26 mV) before (PRE; 100 W) and immediately after (POST; 90 ± 2 W) fatiguing constant-load cycling exercise (80% Wpeak; 221 ± 10 W; ∼8 min)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Takuya Sasaki, Yuichiro Shirota, Satoshi Kodama, Naohiko Togashi, Yusuke Sugiyama, Shin-Ichi Tokushige, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Tatsushi Toda, Masashi Hamada
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects when interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between electrical peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to M1 are approximately 21-25 ms (PASLTP ). It was previously reported that two forms of motor learning (i.e., mode-free and model-based learning) can be differentially modulated by PASLTP depending on the different synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs), which relate to posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) currents induced by TMS (PA or AP inputs, respectively)...
July 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Su-Chuan Lin, Yoko Takahashi, Kozo Hatori, Meigen Liu, Ying-Zu Huang
This study explored the effect of corticospinal activity on spinal plasticity by examining the interactions between intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) of the motor cortex and peripheral patterned electrical stimulation (PES) of the common peroneal nerve (CPN). Healthy volunteers ( n = 10) received iTBS to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle zone of the motor cortex and PES of the CPN in three separate sessions: (1) iTBS-before-PES, (2) iTBS-after-PES, and (3) sham iTBS-before-PES...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Eran Dayan, Virginia López-Alonso, Sook-Lei Liew, Leonardo G Cohen
The link between the local structure of the primary motor cortex and motor function has been well documented. However, motor function relies on a network of interconnected brain regions and the link between the structural properties characterizing these distributed brain networks and motor function remains poorly understood. Here, we examined whether distributed patterns of brain structure, extending beyond the primary motor cortex can help classify two forms of motor function: corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibition...
August 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Tyler M Saumur, George Mochizuki
Motor preparation involves inhibitory and excitatory processes that influence the scaling and efficiency of movement. Understanding the modulation of these processes when predictability is altered can provide insight as to how individuals prepare for temporally-urgent scenarios where the lower limbs are engaged. This study aimed to determine the influence of task predictability on preparatory corticospinal excitability during a 3 s foreperiod. It was hypothesized that during preparation for an unpredictable choice (go/no-go) reaction time task, corticospinal excitability would be facilitated compared to the responses measured for the predictable (simple) reaction time task...
October 15, 2018: Brain Research
Yu-Qiu Jiang, Adrish Sarkar, Alzahraa Amer, John H Martin
Injury to the supraspinal motor systems, especially the corticospinal tract, leads to movement impairments. In addition to direct disruption of descending motor pathways, spinal motor circuits that are distant to and not directly damaged by the lesion undergo remodeling that contributes significantly to the impairments. Knowing which spinal circuits are remodeled and the underlying mechanisms are critical for understanding the functional changes in the motor pathway and for developing repair strategies. Here we target spinal premotor cholinergic interneuron that directly modulate motoneuron excitability via their cholinergic C-bouton terminals...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elizabeth Salmon Powell, Cheryl Carrico, Emily Salyers, Philip M Westgate, Lumy Sawaki
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the feasibility of modulating bilateral corticospinal excitability with different polarities of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) in chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Six subjects with chronic incomplete SCI (>12 months post injury) participated in this crossover study. Intervention consisted of 3 sessions, separated by at least 1 week, in which each subject received the conditions cathodal, anodal, and sham tsDCS...
July 2, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Heather R McGregor, Michael Vesia, Cricia Rinchon, Robert Chen, Paul L Gribble
While many of our motor skills are acquired through physical practice, we can also learn how to make movements by observing others. For example, individuals can learn how to reach in novel dynamical environments ('force fields', FF) by observing the movements of a tutor. Previous neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest a role for the motor system in motor learning by observing. Here, we tested the role of primary motor cortex (M1) in motor learning by observing. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in hand muscles at rest...
July 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ruben Perellón-Alfonso, Magdalena Kralik, Indre Pileckyte, Matic Princic, Jurij Bon, Caspar Matzhold, Benjamin Fischer, Petra Šlahorová, Zvezdan Pirtošek, John Rothwell, Maja Kojovic
Despite accumulating evidence of inter- and intra-individual variability in response to theta burst stimulation, it is widely believed that in therapeutic applications, repeated sessions can have a "build-up" effect that increases the response over and above that seen in a single session. However, strong evidence for this is lacking. Therefore, we examined whether daily administration of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) over the primary motor cortex induces cumulative changes in transcranial magnetic stimulation measures of cortical excitability, above the changes induced by sham stimulation...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wei Xu, Stuart N Baker
Primates (including humans) have a highly developed corticospinal tract, and specialized motor cortical areas which differ in key ways from rodents. Much work on motor cortex has therefore used macaque monkeys as a good animal model for human motor control. However, there is a paucity of data describing the fundamental functional architecture of primate primary motor cortex, which is best addressed with in vitro approaches. In this study we examined the cellular properties and the micro-circuitry of the adult macaque primary motor cortex by carrying out in-vitro intracellular recordings...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yoann M Garnier, Christos Paizis, Romuald Lepers
The present study assessed neuromuscular and corticospinal changes during and after a fatiguing submaximal exercise of the knee extensors in different modes of muscle contraction. Twelve subjects performed two knee extensors exercises in a concentric or eccentric mode, at the same torque and with a similar total impulse. Exercises consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions at an intensity of 80% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVIC). MVIC, maximal voluntary activation level (VAL) and responses of electrically evoked contractions of the knee extensors were assessed before and after exercise...
July 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Bárbara Oliveira, Marina Mitjans, Michael A Nitsche, Min-Fang Kuo, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Autistic traits are normally distributed across health and disease, with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at the extreme end. As we learned from mutations of synaptic or synapse regulating genes, leading to monogenetic forms of autism, the heterogeneous etiologies of ASD converge at the synapse. They result in a mild synaptic dysfunction as the final common pathway, also addressed as synaptopathy. Based on genetic rodent models and EEG/MEG findings in autists, a neuronal excitation-inhibition dysbalance is considered autism-pathognomonic...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Beraki Abraha, Arthur R Chaves, Liam P Kelly, Elizabeth M Wallack, Katie P Wadden, Jason McCarthy, Michelle Ploughman
Objective: Evaluate intensity-dependent effects of a single bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to moderate intensity constant-load exercise (MICE) on corticospinal excitability (CSE) and effects on upper limb performance in chronic stroke. Design: Randomized cross-over trial. Setting: Research laboratory in a tertiary rehabilitation hospital. Participants: Convenience sample of 12 chronic stroke survivors. Outcome measures: Bilateral CSE measures of intracortical inhibition and facilitation, motor thresholds, and motor evoked potential (MEP) latency using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dale M Harris, Timo Rantalainen, Makii Muthalib, Liam Johnson, Rachel L Duckham, Stuart T Smith, Robin M Daly, Wei-Peng Teo
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience postural instability, resulting in poor balance and an increased risk of falls. Exercise-based video gaming (exergaming) is a form of physical training that is delivered through virtual reality technology to facilitate motor learning and is efficacious in improving balance in aged populations. In addition, studies have shown that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), when applied to the primary motor cortex, can augment motor learning when combined with physical training...
July 16, 2018: Trials
Davide Crivelli, Ludovico Pedullà, Ambra Bisio, Miguel David Sabogal Rueda, Giampaolo Brichetto, Marco Bove, Michela Balconi
Action observation is known to enhance sensorimotor system activation, and such effect has been linked to neural priming and response facilitation mechanisms. This facilitation effect, however, has been primarily studied by focusing on high-level motor proficiency, whereas evidence on the effect of observing poorly performed actions is still lacking. We then devised a study to investigate neural correlates of the observation of suboptimal motor acts as mirrored by corticospinal activation (via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Experiment 1) and by modulation of cortical oscillatory activity (via electroencephalography (EEG), Experiment 2)...
August 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Ashlyn K Frazer, Alan J Pearce, Glyn Howatson, Kevin Thomas, Stuart Goodall, Dawson J Kidgell
Cross-education describes the strength gain in the opposite, untrained limb following a unilateral strength training program. Since its discovery in 1894, several studies now confirm the existence of cross-education in contexts that involve voluntary dynamic contractions, eccentric contraction, electrical stimulation, whole-body vibration and, more recently, following mirror feedback training. Although many aspects of cross-education have been established, the mediating neural mechanisms remain unclear. Overall, the findings of this review show that the neural adaptations to cross-education of muscle strength most likely represent a continuum of change within the central nervous system that involves both structural and functional changes within cortical motor and non-motor regions...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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