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Michael N Travanty, Bryon Calawa, Waleed S Shalaby, Michael J Jozwiakowski, Kyle B Haraldsen
Background: Current administration of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) by intramuscular injection is associated with limitations, including the potential for human error and contamination, patient anxiety, and increased risk of needlestick injury. Objective: To describe the design of an auto-injector for subcutaneous (SC) administration of HPC and the results of studies that evaluated the target user's understanding of the proper use of this device. Materials and methods: A single-use, prefilled, fixed-dose, disposable auto-injector intended for the SC administration of HPC was developed, and its usability by health care providers was evaluated in 3 formative (N=32, 64 injections) and 3 validation studies (N=45, 90 injections)...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Simon Read, Heather Waterman, James E Morgan, Robert A Harper, Anne Fiona Spencer, Penelope Stanford
Purpose: "She wouldn't remember. Even when I go through, and she's decided to go to bed, I'll say I'll come and do her drops. If I didn't say that, they wouldn't be done." Dementia is widely considered as a key factor in whether patients take their medication as prescribed. However, few studies have examined the effect of dementia on medication management strategies for glaucoma including how patient and carer needs impact adherence and long-term prognosis. We report findings from a qualitative grounded theory study incorporating the views of patients, carers, and healthcare professionals...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Katharine Harding, Valerie Anderson, Owain Williams, Mark Willis, Sara Butterworth, Emma Tallantyre, Fady Joseph, Mark Wardle, Trevor Pickersgill, Neil Robertson
BACKGROUND: Mortality studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) are valuable to identify changing disease patterns and inform clinical management. This study examines mortality in a British MS cohort. METHODS: Patients were selected from the southeast Wales MS registry. Hazard of death was analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for onset age, annualised relapse rate, initial disease course, time to EDSS 4.0, sex, socioeconomic status, and onset year...
August 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Rose Cairns, Andrea L Schaffer, Nicole Ryan, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pregabalin is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, used to treat neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Pregabalin was registered in Australia in 2005, and publically subsidised in 2013. We aimed to describe Australian patterns of pregabalin use and intentional poisoning, and identify people potentially at high risk of misuse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based retrospective cohort study of dispensings in the 10% sample of Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (July 2012-February 2017); intentional poisoning calls to New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC) (2004-2016); intentional poisonings in two Australian toxicology service databases; poisoning fatalities in NSW coronial records (2005-2016)...
August 11, 2018: Addiction
Raymond Li, Colin Curtain, Luke Bereznicki, Syed Tabish Razi Zaidi
Background Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by healthcare professionals is prevalent worldwide. Community pharmacists are the most frequently visited healthcare professional and are well placed to document ADRs as a part of their routine practice. Objective To measure community pharmacists' knowledge and perspectives towards ADR reporting and their reporting practices. Setting Community pharmacists in the New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Method A survey tool consisting of 28 items was developed, piloted and validated by a panel of expert reviewers...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Muhammad Asif, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Zahurin Mohamed, Mariam Ahmad, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Dhamraa Waleed Al-Dualimi, Mun Fei Yam
The growth of adipose tissues is considered angiogenesis-dependent during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We have recently reported that our standardized 50% methanolic extract (ME) of Phyllanthus niruri (50% ME of P. niruri ) has alleviated NAFLD in Sprague⁻Dawley rats. This study aimed to assess the molecular mechanisms of action, and to further evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of this extract . NAFLD was induced by eight weeks of high-fat diet, and treatment was applied for four weeks. Antiangiogenic activity was assessed by aortic ring assay and by in vitro tests...
August 9, 2018: Nutrients
Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Nasser Mousa, Walaa Shabana, Mohamed Refaey, Rasha Elzehery, Rania Elhelaly, Khaled Zalata, Mostafa Abdelsalam, Ahmed A Eldeeb, Mahmoud Awad, Ayman Elgamal, Ahmed Attia, Niveen El-Wakeel, Waleed Eldars
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may include increased insulin resistance, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and BMI. Rifaximin is a minimally absorbable antibiotic that might act against a broad spectrum of gut bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rifaximin on NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty participants with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were registered in this multicentric, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Joshua Wales, Sarina R Isenberg, Pete Wegier, Jennifer Shapiro, Victor Cellarius, Sandy Buchman, Amna Husain, Narges Khoshnood
BACKGROUND: Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) was legalized in Canada in June 2016. There are no documented experiences of MAiD provision within a home palliative care program. The majority of palliative care physicians in Canada object to MAiD. As one of the largest home-based palliative care providers in Canada, the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care (TLCPC) developed processes to implement MAiD provision within a home palliative care team with diverse attitudes toward MAiD. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of providing MAiD within a home palliative care setting and describe the population that received MAiD in the first year of legalization...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Jon Quach, Janet Clinton, Georgia Dawson, Libby Smith, Tanya Serry, Sharon Goldfeld
Introduction: Literacy is fundamental for educational achievement, and in the longer term contributes substantially to a range of life skills. Literacy difficulties during the early years of school are associated with long-term impacts on academic success, with differences in academic achievement sustained through children's schooling. Therefore, addressing literacy difficulties during the early years of school is essential in reducing the risk of children progressing onto negative academic, psychosocial and vocational trajectories...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Kerrie-Anne Chen, Michelle Farrar, Michael Cardamone, Deepak Gill, Robert Smith, Christopher T Cowell, Linda Truong, John A Lawson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability and safety of cannabidiol for treating drug-resistant epilepsy in children, and to describe adverse events associated with such treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, open label cohort study. SETTING: Three tertiary NSW referral centres with paediatric neurology services. PARTICIPANTS: First 40 children enrolled in the NSW Compassionate Access Scheme for children with drug-resistant epilepsy and uncountable daily seizures...
August 13, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
N Levy, G M Hall
The seventh National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) 2017 was published in March 2018, NaDIA is the annual snapshot audit of diabetes inpatient care in England and Wales. NaDIA 2017 found that 18% of hospital beds were occupied by a person with diabetes, an absolute increase of 3% from 2011. Moreover, the report identified that 4% of people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus developed the serious and preventable disorder of hospital-acquired diabetic ketoacidosis. Medication errors were common: 31% of people had at least one medication error, and this increased to 40% in those receiving insulin...
August 9, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Jens Kandt, Paul A Longley
This paper examines the association between given and family names and self-ascribed ethnicity as classified by the 2011 Census of Population for England and Wales. Using Census data in an innovative way under the new Office for National Statistics (ONS) Secure Research Service (SRS; previously the ONS Virtual Microdata Laboratory, VML), we investigate how bearers of a full range of given and family names assigned themselves to 2011 Census categories, using a names classification tool previously described in this journal...
2018: PloS One
Joanne M Stubbs, Hassan Assareh, Helen M Achat, Bin Jalaludin
BACKGROUND: Palliative care can benefit all patients with life limiting diseases. AIMS: Describe hospital use in the final year of life, timing of palliative care, and variations by age and disease for patients receiving inpatient palliative care. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all New South Wales residents aged 50 years and older who died (decedents) between July 2010 and June 2015 in hospital or within 30 days of discharge. Care type and diagnosis codes identified decedents who received inpatient palliative care...
August 8, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Aila Nica Bandong, Andrew Leaver, Martin Mackey, Rodney Ingram, Samantha Shearman, Christen Chan, Ian D Cameron, Niamh Moloney, Rebecca Mitchell, Eoin Doyle, Emma Leyten, Trudy Rebbeck
BACKGROUND: In Australia, the New South Wales (NSW) State Insurance Regulatory Authority has been continuously developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines to address the health and economic burden from whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite this, it is uncertain the extent to which the guidelines are followed. This study aimed to determine insurer and health professional compliance with recommendations of the 2014 NSW clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute WAD; and explore factors related to adherence...
August 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Nicola Creighton, Stuart Purdie, Matthew Soeberg, Richard Walton, Deborah Baker, Jane Young
BACKGROUND: In contrast to aetiological associations, there is little empirical evidence for generalising health service use associations from cohort studies. We compared the health service use of cohort study participants diagnosed with bowel or lung cancer to the source population of people diagnosed with these cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia to assess the representativeness of health service use of the cohort study participants. METHODS: Population-based cancer registry data for NSW residents aged ≥45 years at diagnosis of bowel or lung cancer were linked to the 45 and Up Study, a NSW population-based cohort study (N~ 267,000)...
August 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Sanjiv K Jha, Michael Roth, Guido Todde, J Paige Buchanan, Robert D Moser, Manoj K Shukla, Gopinath Subramanian
We investigate computationally the role of Stone-Wales (SW) defects on the interfacial interactions among graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and Nylon 6 using density functional theory (DFT) and the empirical force-field. Our first-principles DFT calculations were performed using the Quantum ESPRESSO electronic structure code with the highly accurate van der Waals functional (vdW-DF2). Both pristine and SW-defected carbon nanomaterials were investigated. The computed results show that the presence of SW defects on CNTs weakens the CNT-graphene interactions...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Waleed A Hassanain, Arumugam Sivanesan, Emad L Izake, Godwin A Ayoko
A label free electrochemical detection method for the rapid detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) has been developed. In this method, we modified the rhuEPO structure for its direct sensing without using a complex signal amplification strategy. The protein was selectively extracted from blood plasma sample using target-specific magnetic beads. After releasing rhuEPO from the magnetic beads, its disulfide bonds were electrochemically reduced and the protein was spontaneously assembled onto a nanostructured gold electrode via Au-S bonds formation...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Sibylle Mohr, Michael Deason, Mikhail Churakov, Thomas Doherty, Rowland R Kao
The movements of livestock between premises and markets can be characterised as a dynamic network where the structure of the network itself can critically impact the transmission dynamics of many infectious diseases. As evidenced by the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the UK, this can involve transmission over large geographical distances and can result in major economic loss. One consequence of the FMD epidemic was the introduction of mandatory livestock movement restrictions: a 13-day standstill in Scotland for cattle and sheep after moving livestock onto a farm (allowing many exemptions) and a 6-day standstill for cattle and sheep in England and Wales (with minor exemptions, e...
September 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Heather J Baldwin, Becky Freeman, Bridget Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether social media and online behaviours are associated with unhealthy food and beverage consumption in children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional online survey was used to assess Internet and social media use, including engagement with food and beverage brand content, and frequency of consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between online behaviours, including engagement with food and beverage brand content, and consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages, adjusting for age, sex and socio-economic status...
August 8, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Helen A Vidgen, Penelope V Love, Sonia E Wutzke, Lynne A Daniels, Chris E Rissel, Christine Innes-Hughes, Louise A Baur
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity poses an urgent global challenge. The World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity recommends the provision of appropriate family-based, lifestyle weight management services through universal health care to support families of children with overweight or obesity; however, there are few examples of their implementation 'at scale'. The purpose of this research was to compare and contrast the impact of system and organisational factors on the implementation of childhood obesity management services within two Australian States (New South Wales and Queensland) to comprehensively describe their influence on the achievement of the WHO recommendation...
August 7, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
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