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Aimee Grant, Melanie Morgan, Dunla Gallagher, Dawn Mannay
BACKGROUND: Moral judgements are commonly directed towards mothers through reference to health behaviour in pregnancy, and working-class mothers are particularly subject to this moral gaze. AIM: To gain an in-depth understanding of the health issues affecting 10 low income pregnant women from deprived areas of south Wales, UK. METHODS: Participants completed visual activities (timelines, collaging or thought bubbles and dyad sandboxing) prior to each interview...
December 12, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Houra Haghpanahan, Jim Lewsey, Daniel F Mackay, Emma McIntosh, Jill Pell, Andy Jones, Niamh Fitzgerald, Mark Robinson
BACKGROUND: Drink driving is an important risk factor for road traffic accidents (RTAs), which cause high levels of morbidity and mortality globally. Lowering the permitted blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for drivers is a common public health intervention that is enacted in countries and jurisdictions across the world. In Scotland, on Dec 5, 2014, the BAC limit for drivers was reduced from 0·08 g/dL to 0·05 g/dL. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effects of this change on RTAs and alcohol consumption...
December 12, 2018: Lancet
David Ferreira, Eswari Vilayur, Michael Gao, Christy Sankoorikal, Cino Bendinelli
BACKGROUND: Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) is one of the most serious complications following parathyroidectomy for severe hyperparathyroidism. There is a lack of literature informing the treatment and risk factors for this condition and the ideal pre-operative strategy for prevention. AIMS: The primary aims of this study were to examine the incidence of HBS with pre-operative calcitriol loading for 10 days and to determine the risk factors for HBS. The secondary aims were to determine the rate of intravenous calcium replacement in those with HBS and to assess whether cinacalcet removal has increased rates of parathyroidectomy in the ESKD population...
December 15, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Grace Joshy, Emily Banks, Anthony Lowe, Rory Wolfe, Leonie Tickle, Bruce Armstrong, Mark Clements
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a prediction model for short-term mortality in Australian men aged ≥45years, using age and self-reported health variables, for use when implementing the Australian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing and Early Management of Test-Detected Prostate Cancer. Implementation of one of the Guideline recommendations requires an estimate of 7-year mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study using questionnaire data linked to mortality data...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
S Pulley, A Goubet, I Moser, S Browning, A L Collins
The Freshwater Pearl Mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is an endangered organism across its entire range. It has a complex life cycle and stringent habitat requirements and is therefore an indicator species for the general ecosystem health of host rivers. Whereas historical intensive pearl fishing contributed to population declines, excess nutrient and sediment loss associated with current land use pressures in host river catchments, including modern intensive farming practices, are now highlighted as primary contributory factors...
November 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christophe Vaillant, Stuart C Althorpe, David J Wales
The energy landscape for a discretised path integral representation of the water dimer is characterized in terms of the localised (classical) and delocalised minima and transition states. The transition states are finite-temperature approximations to the exact instanton path, and are typically used to calculate the tunneling splittings or reaction rates. The features of the path integral landscape are explored, thus elucidating procedures that could usefully be automated when searching for instantons in larger systems...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Jennifer Tocher, Daniel Kelly, Barbara Neades, Graeme D Smith
AIMS: To explore the role that Donor Transplant Co-ordinators have played, and the future potential of Specialist Nurses for Organ Donation (SN-ODs), within organ donation strategies in the UK and other countries. BACKGROUND: Organ donation and transplantation rates vary extensively around the world. However, there is a universal shortage of deceased donors, prompting different approaches to increase transplantation rates. Within the UK the Clinical Lead for Organ Donation and Specialist Nurse for Organ Donation undertake a key role in the implementation of the Organ Donation Strategy...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Nasir Wabe, Maria R Dahm, Ling Li, Robert Lindeman, Alex Eigenstetter, Johanna I Westbrook, Andrew Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: To determine variation in pathology test ordering practices and identify associated factors for adult patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) with chest pain and subsequently admitted with ischemic heart disease. METHODS: A retrospective study across six hospital EDs in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 6,769 patient presentations between January 2014 and December 2017 met the inclusion criteria. Ordered pathology tests were grouped into three categories based on Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia recommendations: category I (no restriction in ordering), category II (can be ordered after consulting a supervisor) and category III (not for routine ordering in ED)...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
F J T Burke, P S K Lucarotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: British Dental Journal
Logan Kistler, S Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio de Souza, Natalia A S Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M Thomas P Gilbert, Fabio de Oliveira Freitas, Robin G Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9000 years before the present (yr B.P.), traversed Central America by ~7500 yr B.P., and spread into South America by ~6500 yr B.P. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then evolved within South America out of this partially domesticated progenitor population...
December 14, 2018: Science
Sarah Wadd, Maureen Dutton
BACKGROUND: Whilst alcohol misuse is decreasing amongst younger adults in many countries, it is increasing in older adults. Residential rehabilitation (rehab) is a vital component of the alcohol treatment system, particularly for those with relatively complex needs and entrenched alcohol problems. In this study, we sought to find out to what extent rehabs in England have upper age limits that exclude older adults, whether rehabs are responsive to older adults' age-related needs and how older adults experience these services...
December 13, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Evy Verbueken, Chloé Bars, Jonathan S Ball, Jelena Periz-Stanacev, Waleed F A Marei, Anna Tochwin, Isabelle J Gabriëls, Ellen D G Michiels, Evelyn Stinckens, Lucia Vergauwen, Dries Knapen, Chris J Van Ginneken, Steven J Van Cruchten
The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) embryo is currently explored as an alternative for developmental toxicity testing. As maternal metabolism is lacking in this model, knowledge of the disposition of xenobiotics during zebrafish organogenesis is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in zebrafish embryos and larvae until 14 d post-fertilization (dpf) by using a non-specific CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR) and a CYP1-specific substrate, i...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maja Kopczynska, Ben Sharif, Sian Cleaver, Naomi Spencer, Amit Kurani, Camilla Lee, Jessica Davis, Carys Durie, Jude Joseph-Gubral, Angelica Sharma, Lucy Allen, Billie Atkins, Alex Gordon, Llewelyn Jones, Amy Noble, Matthew Bradley, Henry Atkinson, Joy Inns, Harriet Penney, Carys Gilbert, Rebecca Walford, Louise Pike, Ross Edwards, Robyn Howcroft, Hazel Preston, Jennifer Gee, Nicholas Doyle, Charlotte Maden, Claire Smith, Nik Syakirah Nik Azis, Navrhinaa Vadivale, Ceri Battle, Ronan Lyons, Paul Morgan, Richard Pugh, Tamas Szakmany
Controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic and screening tool for sepsis outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score has been shown to be superior to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, however, the performance of "Red Flag sepsis criteria" has not been tested formally.The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of Red Flag sepsis criteria to identify the patients at high risk of sepsis-related death in comparison to SOFA based sepsis criteria...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nasir Wabe, Ling Li, Robert Lindeman, Ruth Yimsung, Maria R Dahm, Susan McLennan, Kate Clezy, Johanna I Westbrook, Andrew Georgiou
Background : A standard multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers comprehensive testing for respiratory viruses. However, traditionally it has been performed in a referral laboratory with a lengthy turnaround time which can reduce patient flow through the hospital. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of a rapid PCR, but with limited targets (Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC), was associated with improved outcomes for adults hospitalised with respiratory illness. Methods : A controlled quasi-experimental study across three hospitals in New South Wales, Australia...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Liz de Rome, Julie Brown, Matthew Baldock, Michael Fitzharris
OBJECTIVE: Crash and injury surveillance studies have identified a range of rider-related factors, including age, sex, licensure, training and experience, as being associated with motorcycle crash risk. The aim of this study was to establish whether these previously identified factors were associated with crash involvement in an Australian-based population. METHODS: Data obtained from motorcyclists recruited from road authority licensing offices in a population-based survey design were analyzed...
December 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Brandon Bear, Dale Halliday, Jeanne Ellard, Dean Murphy, Johann Kolstee, John de Wit
Using repeated, national, online, cross-sectional surveys of Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM), we analysed trends related to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Specifically, we analysed trends in PrEP use, willingness to use PrEP, and concern about using PrEP during 2011-2017. We assessed support for GBM using PrEP and willingness to have sex with men taking PrEP between 2015 and 2017. For time-based analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression, controlling for sampling variations over time. We constructed new scales assessing reduced concern about HIV among PrEP users and non-users in 2017, and used multivariate logistic regression to identify independent correlates of PrEP use (vs...
December 11, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Khushbakht Tanveer, Immad Attique, Waleed Sadiq, Arsalan Ahmad
Background In multiple studies around the globe, non-motor symptoms (NMS) have been identified as a source of immense disability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is a scarcity of data from Asia. This is the first study of the Pakistani population to assess the impact of NMS in PD on patients. Objectives To determine the frequency of NMS of PD in the Pakistani population and compare it with existing data. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, patient demographics were retrospectively collected from a tertiary care hospital neurology database...
October 4, 2018: Curēus
Yousry Esam-Eldin Abo-Amer, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Hazim Eldosoky, Amira K ELShenawy, Shereen Awny, Waleed Elagawy, Mohamed El Abgeegy, Heba Fadl Elsergany, Heba Elashry, Manal Saad Negm
Background and aims: Egypt is considered to have the highest rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence worldwide. However, HCV prevalence is currently declining due to the improvement of health education programs, improved environmental sanitation, and the introduction of novel treatment regimens. The aim of this work was to determine the HCV seroprevalence among Menoufia University students. Methods: The current study included 48,972 students from Menoufia University, Egypt...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Kristoffer Halvorsrud, James Nazroo, Michaela Otis, Eva Brown Hajdukova, Kamaldeep Bhui
BACKGROUND: As part of a national programme to tackle ethnic inequalities, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on ethnic inequalities in pathways to care for adults with psychosis living in England and/or Wales. METHODS: Nine databases were searched from inception to 03.07.17 for previous systematic reviews, including forward and backward citation tracking and a PROSPERO search to identify ongoing reviews. We then carried forward relevant primary studies from included reviews (with the latest meta-analyses reporting on research up to 2012), supplemented by a search on 18...
December 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
Jerelle Aurelia Joseph, Debayan Chakraborty, David J Wales
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of bacterial regulatory protein RfaH undergoes a dramatic structural rearrangement from an α-helical hairpin to a β-barrel. We employ a quasi-continuous interpolation scheme and geometry optimisation techniques to construct a kinetic transition network for this process. Our computed free energy landscape at 310 K is multifunnelled, and the predicted free energy ensembles are in good agreement with experiment and other simulation studies. We find that rearrangement from the α-helical conformer to the β-sheet proceeds via an essentially unstructured state...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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