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Binh Nguyen, Adrian Bauman, Ding Ding
This study aimed to examine the association between individual and combined lifestyle risk factors and the incidence of hypertension 1) in middle-aged and older Australians, and 2) to compare findings in men and women. A sample of 32,393 adults aged ≥45 years from New South Wales completed baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Self-reported incident hypertension was defined as not having physician-diagnosed hypertension nor taking antihypertensive medications at baseline and reporting a diagnosis/treatment of hypertension at follow-up...
October 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jean-Yves Pirçon, Carla A Talarico, Kaatje Bollaerts, William P Hausdorff, Christopher J Clarke
BACKGROUND: Estimation of the magnitude of the herd effect on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is important when evaluating health benefits and cost-effectiveness of paediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes and may influence policy makers' decisions on PCV use. Several epidemiological, programmatic, and immunological factors can affect the magnitude of the PCV herd effect. We investigated to what extent the choice of analytical methodology may also influence herd effect estimates...
October 10, 2018: Vaccine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: Veterinary Record
Pablo Alarcon, Francisco Marco-Jimenez, Mark Arnold, Alyssa Wolf, Brenda Rajanayagam, Kim B Stevens, Amie Adkin
Certain genotypes of sheep have been identified to increase their susceptibility (the VRQ allele) or resistance (the ARR allele) to classical scrapie. This study's aim was to assess the spatio-temporal pattern of the ARR and VRQ alleles in Great Britain (GB) and to explore the risk factors associated to their presence. Data was collected from the GB scrapie active surveillance program, the sheep and goat inventory survey (GB census survey) and the agricultural survey for the period 2002-2015. Spatio-temporal trends of genotypes were assessed through the use of choropleth maps, spatial cluster and linear regression analyses...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Waleed M Alshawafi, Musab Aldhahri, Yaaser Q Almulaiky, Numan Salah, Said S Moselhy, Ibrahim H Ibrahim, Reda M El-Shishtawy, Saleh A Mohamed
In the present study, nanodiamond (ND) was blended with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and then electrospun into nanofibers (nfPMMA-ND) for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The maximum immobilization efficiency of HRP (96%) was detected at 10% ND and pH 7.0. ATR-FTIR, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the immobilized enzyme. The immobilized enzyme retained 60% of its initial activity after ten reuses. The pH was shifted from 7.0 for soluble HRP to 7.5 for the immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, whereas this temperature was shifted to 40 °C for the immobilized enzyme...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
RÜdiger Wagner
Queenslandomyia cannula gen. nov. et sp. nov. from Queensland, and Theischingerus imbricatus gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Diptera, Psychodidae) from New South Wales, are described and figured. Queenslandomyia is characterized by the shape of the basal 4 flagellomeres with digitate lateral extensions, and an afferent sclerotized thin channel to flagellomere 4; parameres connate to a large central sclerite with apical setae. Theischingerus is conspicuous by the unusual furcation of the Radius sector vein in R2 and R3+4 so that between radial and medial forks only a single vein (R5) occurs...
August 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Chris A M Reid, Kindi Smith, Max Beatson
The genus Lamprima Latreille, 1804 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lampriminae: Lamprimini), is revised. Five species are recognised: one in New Guinea (L. adolphinae (Gestro, 1875)), two on isolated western Pacific islands (L. aenea Fabricius, 1792: Norfolk Island; L. insularis W.J. Macleay, 1885: Lord Howe Island), one in northeastern New South Wales (L. imberbis Carter, 1926) and a common widespread species in eastern and southern Australia, L. aurata Latreille, 1817.                   Lamprima aurata varies considerably morphologically and many of the different forms encompassed by this variation have been described as species...
July 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Hannelore Paxton
Two new species of Mooreonuphis, a genus best known from the coasts of the Americas, are described from Australia, bringing the number of recognized Mooreonuphis species to 23. Mooreonuphis ariasi n. sp. was collected from off Sydney to Wollongong, New South Wales in sandy sediments, in depths of 25-50 m and M. wilsoni n. sp. in the Bass Strait and Tasmania, in 89-130 m. The two new Australian species are among the smallest and the only known abranchiate species in the genus. The summer collections of M. ariasi n...
September 30, 2018: Zootaxa
Adam Broadley, Ellen Kauschke, Werner Mohrig
Male sciarids collected in Australia from inside post-entry quarantine and domestic greenhouses and from vegetable gardens and various plants, were slide mounted and identified. Specimens intercepted during on-arrival biosecurity inspections of imported nursery stock plants were also examined, and the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries collection of slide-mounted Sciaridae was reviewed. Plant and mushroom pest species that are present in Australia are Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen), B. ocellaris (Comstock), Lycoriella agraria (Felt), L...
April 30, 2018: Zootaxa
Harry Smit
The following fifteen new species are described of the water mite family Aturidae from Australia: Austraturus cavatus n. sp., A. denticulatus n. sp., A. dilatipalpis n. sp., A. extendens n. sp., A. sagittalis n. sp., A. triprojectus n. sp., A. villosus n. sp. and Axonopsella bipartita n. sp., A. carnarvon n. sp., A. curtiseta n. sp., A. elongata n. sp., A. kakadu n. sp., A. magniseta n. sp., A. purpurea n. sp. and A. rosea n. sp.. New records are given for Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, Northern Territory and Western Australia...
May 29, 2018: Zootaxa
Owen D Seeman, Maria Minor, Michelle R Baker, David Evans Walter
The discovery of a new genus of Heatherellidae in New Zealand has led us to revise this enigmatic family and its constituent genera. Aheatherella n. gen., based on A. mira n. sp. from the North Island of New Zealand, lacks some of the derived character states that link the Australian Heatherella, most notably the lack of sexual dimorphism in the dorsal shields and in the presence of peritremes in adult Aheatherella. Heatherella osleri n. sp. is described from New South Wales, extending the distribution of this genus beyond Queensland...
June 18, 2018: Zootaxa
E Daniel, M J Whitaker, B Keevil, J Wales, R J Ross
OBJECTIVE: Hydrocortisone via nasogastric (NG) tube is used in sick children with adrenal insufficiency; however, there is no licensed formulation for NG administration. METHODS: We investigated hydrocortisone recovery after passage through NG tubes in vitro for 3 formulations: liquid suspension, crushed tablets mixed with water, and hydrocortisone granules designed for oral administration to children. Cortisol was measured by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Hydrocortisone content was variable and recovery low after preparation in syringe and prior to passage through NG tubes...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Jane Son, Deborah Debono, Robert Leitner, Rhoshel Lenroot, Julie Johnson
AIM: Youth with both intellectual disability (ID) and mental health (MH) disorders (dual diagnosis) have complex physical and MH needs that can make providing integrated care for this complex group challenging. We conducted a mixed methods needs assessment to identify gaps and challenges in care delivery, identify bridges for these and identify what works well in existing services. METHODS: Our research team recruited service providers (n = 126) caring for youth aged 14-24 years with a dual diagnosis in the Illawarra Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia, to participate in focus group interviews...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Wartini Ng, Budiman Minasny, Brendan Malone, Patrick Filippi
Background: The use of visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy for rapid soil characterisation has gained a lot of interest in recent times. Soil spectra absorbance from the visible-infrared range can be calibrated using regression models to predict a set of soil properties. The accuracy of these regression models relies heavily on the calibration set. The optimum sample size and the overall sample representativeness of the dataset could further improve the model performance. However, there is no guideline on which sampling method should be used under different size of datasets...
2018: PeerJ
Karen Glaser, Rachel Stuchbury, Debora Price, Giorgio Di Gessa, Eloi Ribe, Anthea Tinker
Research from the United States has shown significant increases in the prevalence of three-generation households and in households consisting solely of grandparents and grandchildren. Such shifts in household composition, which are associated with socio-economic disadvantage, may reflect the activation of grandparents as a latent network of support in response to social and demographic changes such as rising partnership disruption. However, to date, little is known in Europe about trends in grandparent households or whether these households are also likely to be disadvantaged...
September 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Shannon Pike, Natasha A Lannin, Kylie Wales, Anne Cusick
BACKGROUND/AIM: The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) measures upper limb activity limitations in people with acquired brain injuries. Evidence relating to the use of this test in neurorehabilitation is scattered. This review identifies, rates and synthesises evidence on the original 1981 ARAT use within neurorehabilitation. Psychometric properties are reviewed, including specific examination of participants with upper limb spasticity. METHODS: Systematic review of published articles describing psychometric properties and/or use of the original version of the ARAT in neurorehabilitation...
October 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Keith Hindell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)" and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are global health burden. Medication adherence in people living with HIV (PLWH) is a key element in reducing morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of research activity helps identify research gaps as well as efforts implemented to improve adherence behaviors in PLWH. The aim of the current study was to assess and analyze literature on HIV/AIDS-related medication adherence using bibliometric methods...
October 10, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Justine E Rogers, Morris S Odell, Jason R Schreiber
When treating unconscious patients believed to have been victims of sexual assault, forensic physicians must decide whether to conduct physical examinations in order to collect evidence while patients are unconscious and cannot consent. The choice is urgent: potential evidence may be lost before the patient regains the ability to consent. The physician's choice affects not only the patient's bodily integrity, but also their ability to pursue criminal and potentially civil justice remedies if they were assaulted...
October 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Pascale Guitera, Helena Collgros, Christine M Madronio, Christopher Goumas, Graham J Mann, Caroline G Watts, Amanda R Pereira, Bruce K Armstrong, Martin Drummond, Rachael L Morton, Richard A Scolyer, Scott W Menzies, John F Thompson, Anne E Cust
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are limited population-based data documenting the incidence and management of lentigo maligna (LM) and invasive lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM). We report the data on occurrence and management of LM and LMM in an Australian population. METHODS: Prospective collection of incidence and clinician-reported management of melanoma in situ (MIS; n = 450, capped) and localised invasive melanoma (n = 3251) notified to the New South Wales Cancer Registry over 12-months in 2006-2007...
October 9, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
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