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High Price Drugs

Lan-Ping Guo, Ze-Kun Zhang, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Guang Yang, Hai-Nan Wang, Lu-Qi Huang
This paper comprehensively analyses the background and meaning of The Technological Guiding Principle for Assessment of Chinese Medicine Resources enacted by the former CFDA ( China Food and Drug Administration), moreover, it also points out that the Chinese medicine resources assessment with the purpose of guaranteeing the sustainable supplying capacity of Chinese medicine resources is the premise of new drug development; the Chinese medicine resources assessment which takes quality guarantee as the core is a significant action to promote the fixing of place of origin and quality-management antedisplacement for the traditional Chinese medicine industry; in this regard, the Chinese medicine resources assessment which aims at realizing the whole-process traceability is the key to building the high-quality modern traditional Chinese medicine brand...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Javier Martínez Gorostiaga, Enrique Echevarría Orella, Begoña Calvo Hernáez
OBJECTIVE: The proton pump inhibitors (PPI) anti-ulcer drugs are one of the most prescribed pharmacological groups in primary care. The objective of the work was to know the prescription of PPI in a Primary Care Area, the Araba district of the Basque Health Service, to advise family doctors about its correct use, and encourage the prescription of the most efficient PPIs. METHODS: Descriptive study of 200 family doctors PPI prescription at the Araba district of the Basque Health Service...
August 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Manny Saltiel, Marvin Finnefrock
Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced competition, shortages in the manufacturing supply chain, very small markets, market consolidation, the Unapproved Drugs Initiative of 2006, and unanticipated manufacturing safety issues. In one survey, over 90% of hospital administrators reported that higher drug prices had a moderate or severe impact on their budgets...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Birendra Chaurasiya, Muye Zhou, Jiasheng Tu, Chunmeng Sun
Delivery of inhalational dry powders (DPs) to the lung of mice is pivotal for pre-clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations. Although several devices have been reported, their application is always limited by many factors, including complicated design, high price, commercially discontinued status, as well as requirement of special skills. Here, we have introduced a simple device for non-invasive and precise delivery of DPs in mice. We set up the self-made device using a 20 G cannula tube and a 1 mL syringe...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Christopher Robertson
Pharmaceuticals are consuming increasingly large portions of U.S. state budgets, and high prices are preventing patients from getting, and adhering to, essential medicines. In mid-May 2018, President Donald Trump announced a heavily hyped but relatively modest federal plan to bring down drug..
August 8, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Peter M Hawkey
The widespread use of antibacterial drugs over the last 70 years has brought immense benefits to human health at the price of increasing drug inefficacy. Antibacterial agents have a strong selective effect in both favouring resistant strains and allowing particular species and families of bacteria to prosper, especially in the healthcare setting. Whilst important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae caused concern over the last 20 years because of the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains, Enterobacteriaceae have become the biggest challenge...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lan He, Pei He, Xiaoying Luo, Muxiao Li, Long Yu, Jiaying Guo, Xueyan Zhan, Guan Zhu, Junlong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The apicomplexan parasite Babesia orientalis, the causative agent of water buffalo babesiosis in China, is widespread in central and south China, resulting in a huge economic loss annually. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or drug against this disease. Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum were reported to possess an apicoplast which contains the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway inhibitable by fosmidomycin, suggesting that the pathway could serve as a drug target for screening new drugs...
August 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Kamusheva, Manoela Manova, Alexandra T Savova, Guenka I Petrova, Konstantin Mitov, András Harsányi, Zoltán Kaló, Kristóf Márky, Pawel Kawalec, Bistra Angelovska, Dragana Lakić, Tomas Tesar, Pero Draganic, Mary Geitona, Magdalini Hatzikou, Marian S Paveliu, Agnes Männik
Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the access of patients with rare diseases (RDs) to biotechnological drugs in several Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs). We focused on the legislative pricing and reimbursement requirements, availability of biotechnological orphan medicinal products (BOMPs) for RDs, and reimbursement expenditures. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among experts from 10 CEECs: Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, and Macedonia...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mai Abozeid, Ayman Alsebaey, Eman Abdelsameea, Warda Othman, Mostafa Elhelbawy, Amr Rgab, Marwa Elfayomy, Tamer Samir Abdel-Ghafar, Mervat Abdelkareem, Alyaa Sabry, Marwa Fekry, Nashwa Shebl, Eman Rewisha, Imam Waked
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are highly effective for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) but brand products are priced beyond the means of most low and middle income countries (LMICs). Although a few DAAs are offered at reduced prices in access programs, yet are still beyond the affordability in limited resource settings with large HCV infected population. Cheap generics might fill this economic need, but studies comparing their clinical efficacy to original products are limited...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ngai Sze Wong, Tsz Ho Kwan, Owen T Y Tsang, Man Po Lee, Wing Cheong Yam, Wilson Lam, Wai Shing Leung, Jacky M C Chan, Kai Man Ho, Shui Shan Lee
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) targeting high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) has been shown to be a cost-effective HIV control measure. However, the approach could be a challenge in low HIV incidence places with a low proportion of high-risk MSM. To examine the impact of PrEP in such setting in Asia, we developed an epidemic model and conducted cost-effectiveness analysis using empirical multicentre clinical and HIV sequence data from HIV-infected MSM in Hong Kong, in conjunction with behavioural data of local MSM...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nick Scott, Ricardo Ataide, David P Wilson, Margaret Hellard, Ric N Price, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong Subregion, an area of relatively low transmission, but has yet to be reported in Africa. A population-based mathematical model was used to investigate the relationship between P. falciparum prevalence, exposure-acquired immunity and time-to-emergence of artemisinin resistance. The possible implication for the emergence of resistance across Africa was assessed. METHODS: The model included human and mosquito populations, two strains of malaria ("wild-type", "mutant"), three levels of human exposure-acquired immunity (none, low, high) with two types of immunity for each level (sporozoite/liver stage immunity and blood-stage/gametocyte immunity) and drug pressure based on per-capita treatment numbers...
August 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
Alex Cobb, Luciana Thornton
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a generically available and rapid-acting intravenous (IV) vasodilator that has been used clinically for decades. Prior to 2013, the cost of SNP was relatively low, and SNP was an affordable option for the treatment of acute hypertension. However, from 2013 to 2017, average wholesale prices for SNP rose to as high as $900 per vial, earning the drug its status as a "hyperinflation drug." Hyperinflation drugs such as SNP pose a significant challenge for pharmacy departments...
August 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
William V Padula, Jeromie Ballreich, Gerard F Anderson
In 2018, the Medicare Part D catastrophic threshold is $5000 in out-of-pocket total drug spending incurred by the beneficiary. Above this, Medicare pays 80%, prescription drug plans (PDPs) pay 15%, and beneficiaries pay a 5% copay. However, recent growth in catastrophic spending is caused by expensive specialty drugs. The 5% copay, on top of out-of-pocket spending, could result in beneficiaries not accessing specialty drugs. To assist beneficiaries, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) proposes to eliminate beneficiary catastrophic cost sharing, while PDPs pay 80% and Medicare pays 20%...
July 30, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Dzintars Gotham
Biologic drugs are notoriously expensive. Biosimilars, though priced lower, are also costly. Analysis of the cost of production of biologics suggests that the cost of manufacture is in many cases less than 10% of the price in high-income countries, and less than a third of the price of biosimilars in India. This in turn implies that the relatively high prices of biosimilars are largely due to the need to undertake laborious reverse-engineering and phase 3 trials to demonstrate clinical similarity. In this article, it is proposed that originators could be required to submit cell line stocks to regulators and disclose details of manufacturing processes...
2018: F1000Research
Jean-Hugues Salmon, Anne-Christine Rat, Isabelle Charlot-Lambrecht, Jean-Paul Eschard, Damien Jolly, Bruno Fautrel
BACKGROUND: The place of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) and intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) in the therapeutic arsenal for knee osteoarthritis (OA) remains uncertain. Indeed, these treatments have demonstrated symptomatic efficacy but no efficacy for disease modification. OBJECTIVE: This report reviews the cost effectiveness of IAHA and DMOADs used in the treatment of knee OA. METHODS: A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane databases was performed independently by two rheumatologists who used the same predefined eligibility criteria to identify relevant articles...
July 26, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Nur Sufiza Ahmad, Farida Islahudin
Background: The lack of price control in Malaysia has led to increased market competition, resulting in high medicine prices, notably in the private sector. This largely affects patients' out-of-pocket expenses in the private sector. Although generic medicines are preferred due to affordability, the prices are still notably high. Methods: This study compares innovator and generic medicine prices to estimate treatment affordability in the private sector. Private hospitals and community retail pharmacies were examined from 2011 to 2015...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Ori Liran, Judit Prus, Noa Gordon, Vered Almog, Tsipora Gruenewald, Daniel A Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: A recent theoretical economic model suggested that oversized vials of cancer drugs lead to $1.8 billion of drug wastage annually in the United States. It is currently unknown how precisely this theoretical model is consistent with the real world. We performed a real-world analysis to assess the economic impact of drug wastage. METHODS: We performed a systematic examination of the usage and wastage of all intravenous cancer drugs in the cancer center of a large tertiary care hospital in Israel...
July 12, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Xiaodong Guan, Ye Tian, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Chunxia Man, Luwen Shi
OBJECTIVES: The rapid growth of pharmaceutical costs is a major healthcare issue all over the world. The high prices of new drugs, especially those for cancer, are also a concern for stakeholders. Generic drugs are a major price-reducing opportunity and provide more societal value. The aim of this research is to analyse the impact of generic entry on the volume and cost of antineoplastic agents in China. METHODS: An interrupted time-series design examined monthly sales of three antineoplastic drugs (capecitabine, decitabine, imatinib) from 699 public hospitals during January 2011 to June 2016...
July 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Sarah L Berry, Hamza Hameed, Anna Thomason, Marissa L Maciej-Hulme, Somaia Saif Abou-Akkada, Paul Horrocks, Helen P Price
The protozoan parasite Leishmania causes leishmaniasis; a spectrum of diseases of which there are an estimated 1 million new cases each year. Current treatments are toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, and resistance to them is emerging. New therapeutics are urgently needed, however, screening the infective amastigote form of the parasite is challenging. Only certain species can be differentiated into axenic amastigotes, and compound activity against these does not always correlate with efficacy against the parasite in its intracellular niche...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Henry Waxman, Bill Corr, Kristi Martin, Sophia Duong
Issue: Prescription drug prices have been climbing, creating significant barriers for patients. Since becoming U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Commissioner, Scott Gottlieb announced an action plan and several policy changes to increase generic drug competition and transparency to address high prescription drug prices. Goal: This issue brief aims to explain the FDA's plan of action and assess its implementation to date. It also aims to assess whether FDA actions, if implemented, address the known problems leading to high drug pricing...
April 1, 2018: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
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