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Ji-Hong Chen, Sean P Parsons, Mitra Shokrollahi, Andrew Wan, Alexander D Vincent, Yuhong Yuan, Maham Pervez, Wu Lan Chen, Mai Xue, Kailai K Zhang, Arshia Eshtiaghi, David Armstrong, Premsyl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi, Eric Greenwald, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Jan D Huizinga
Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) in manometry recordings of the human colon have been associated with gas expulsion. Our hypothesis was that the SPW might be a critical component of most colonic motor functions, and hence might act as a biomarker for healthy colon motility. To that end, we performed high-resolution colonic manometry (HRCM), for the first time using an 84-sensor (1 cm spaced) water-perfused catheter, in 17 healthy volunteers. Intraluminal pressure patterns were recorded during baseline, proximal and rectal balloon distention, after a meal and following proximal and rectal luminal bisacodyl administration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhou Yang, Guo Chunhua, Yuan Huayan, Yang Jianguo, Cheng Yong
BACKGROUND: Low rectal cancer surgery without anus conservation needs permanent ileostomy or colostomy which seriously affects the quality of life of patients. Therefore, low rectal cancer surgery not only pays attention to the safety of surgical treatment but also to the anus conservation. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients suffering from low rectal cancer had undergone laparoscopic surgery which was analyzed through retrospective study. They were divided into the anus-conserving and non-anus-conserving groups...
October 5, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Yi-Ming Su, Yan Lin, Shu-Qiang Chen, Hong-Yi Yang, Guo-Rong Lv, Jin-Rong Lin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the applicability and value of ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of anorectal atresia. METHODS: Between January 2008 and January 2016, we prospectively evaluated 63,101 fetuses (gestational age, 20-38 weeks), including low- and high-risk populations using 2-dimensional US scans. An abnormal imaging finding was defined as an anal canal diameter of less than the 95% confidence interval (small anal canal) of the normal range or the absence of an anal canal and rectum...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ali Konan, Mehmet Ruhi Onur, Mustafa Nasuh Özmen
PURPOSE: Anal fistula is an abnormal tract or cavity between the anal canal and perianal skin. Surgical treatment of anal fistulas requires the identification of the course of the primary and secondary tracts and their relation with the sphincter musculature in order to appropriately manage them and drain any abscess. Physical examination alone is not as accurate as imaging modalities in detecting these features of the fistula, and recurrences are usually due to missed or inadequately managed infective components...
September 28, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Zhenyu Shu, Songhua Fang, Zhongxiang Ding, Dewang Mao, Peipei Pang, Xiangyang Gong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of texture analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) in predicting the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(nCRT) for rectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 34 rectal cancer patients who were hospitalized at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from February 2015 to April 2017 were prospectively enrolled and received 3.0T MRI examination at pre-nCRT (1 day before nCRT), early stage (at 10-day after nCRT) and middle stage (at 20-day after nCRT)...
September 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Thomas Fitzpatrick, Kali Zhou, Yu Cheng, Po-Lin Chan, Fuqiang Cui, Weiming Tang, Katie R Mollan, Wilson Guo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends all men who have sex with men (MSM) receive Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) testing. MSM in China are a high-risk group for HBV and HCV infection, but test uptake is low. Crowdsourcing invites a large group to solve a problem and then shares the solution with the public. This nationwide online randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a crowdsourced intervention to increase HBV and HCV testing among MSM in China...
September 29, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ismaheel O Lawal, Alfred O Ankrah, Kgomotso M G Mokoala, Gbenga O Popoola, Chimbabantu A Kaoma, Alex Maes, Neo P Mokgoro, Christophe Van de Wiele, Mike M Sathekge
AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of F-18 FDG PET metabolic parameters in patients with anal carcinoma with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). METHODS: Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean ), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained on F-18 FDG PET/CT images of treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASSC). We compared patients' characteristics and F-18 FDG PET metabolic metrics between the HIV-infected patients and the HIV-uninfected patients...
September 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Shannon P Sheedy, David J Bartlett, Amy L Lightner, Steven W Trenkner, David H Bruining, Jeff L Fidler, Wendaline M VanBuren, Christine O Menias, Joshua D Reber, Joel G Fletcher
Restorative total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the surgery of choice for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis with high-grade dysplasia or multi-focal low-grade dysplasia, and for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The natural history of the surgery is favorable, and patients generally experience improved quality of life and acceptable long-term functional outcome. However, some patients experience significant long-term morbidity from early and/or late pouch-related complications...
September 27, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ali Zifan, Catherine Sun, Guillaume Gourcerol, Anne M Leroi, Ravinder K Mittal
BACKGROUND: How much anal sphincter dysfunction contributes to fecal incontinence (FI) is not clear. High-definition anorectal manometry (HDAM) and functional luminal imaging probe (Endoflip) are two new techniques to study anal sphincter function. AIMS: The goal was to compare the diagnostic utility of HDAM and Endoflip using optimal feature(s) in each modality for FI diagnosis. METHODS: Blinded classification was carried out on 70 female subjects (32 FI & 38 controls), using 3 prominent machine-learning clustering techniques, with 3 distance metrics...
September 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Takeshi Uozumi, Tetsuya Sumiyoshi, Hitoshi Kondo, Takeyoshi Minagawa, Ryoji Fujii, Masahiro Yosida, Kaho Tokuchi, Takuya Mizukami, Koutarou Morita, Hideyuki Ihara, Yutaka Okagawa, Toshizo Takayama, Shutaro Ooiwa, Michiaki Hirayama, Yumiko Oyamada
A 66-year-old man underwent follow-up colonoscopy after colon polypectomy. The retroflexed view of the anal canal with white-light imaging revealed a whitish, slightly elevated lesion on the dentate line and an ill-defined flat lesion. A biopsy of the whitish elevation revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was planned. The lateral margin of the SCC was identified by spraying with Lugol's iodine, and the tumor was resected en bloc with no complications. The pathological findings were SCC in situ with parakeratosis in the whitish elevation and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the ill-defined flat lesion, which exhibited a wide iodine-unstained area by chromoendoscopy...
September 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Terufumi Kawamoto, Kei Ito, Takuya Shimizuguchi, Satoshi Kito, Keiji Nihei, Keisuke Sasai, Katsuyuki Karasawa
Due to recent advancements in diagnostic techniques, the incidence of multiple primary cancer has increased; however, synchronous cancer of the anal canal and cervix (SCACC) is rare, and no previous studies have investigated the treatment of this disease. The present study reports a case in which intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was used to treat a 64-year-old female with SCACC, inguinal lymphadenopathy and anal pain. The patient was diagnosed with cT3N3M0 stage IIIb anal canal squamous cell carcinoma and cT1b1N0M0 stage Ib1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma, based on biopsy and imaging study data...
October 2018: Oncology Letters
Constanze Heinze, Jazan Omari, Max Othmer, Peter Hass, Max Seidensticker, Robert Damm, Jens Ricke, Maciej Pech, Maciej J Powerski
BACKGROUND/AIM: Interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) has been shown to provide high tumor control rates in metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Our aim was to evaluate efficacy and safety of IBT in patients with metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma (mASCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven patients with a total of 38 unresectable ASCC metastases (28 liver, nine lung, one nodal metastases) were treated with computed tomographic or open magnetic resonance imaging-guided IBT using an iridium-192 source...
September 2018: Anticancer Research
Kamonwon Cattapan, Thitinan Chulroek, Dearada Wancharoenrung, Hamed Kordbacheh, Mukesh Harisinghani
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of pelvic MR imaging in differentiating between low rectal and anal cancers using the pathological results as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, retrospective analysis of 100 patients with a history of low rectal (n = 50) or anal (n = 50) cancers who underwent staging pelvic MR imaging before treatment was performed. The following parameters were analyzed: distance from the anal verge to the tumor, percentage of tumor above puborectalis muscle, tumor size, T2W signal intensity, sphincter/levator muscles invasion, organ invasion, and MRI diagnosis...
August 31, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Lori Jeanne Tuttle, Ali Zifan, Catherine Sun, Jessica Swartz, Sophia Roalkvam, Ravinder K Mittal
Functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) has been used to measure the distensibility of the anal canal. We hypothesized that with increasing distension of the anal canal with FLIP there will be an increase in length of the anal sphincter muscle allowing measurement of the length-tension function of anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles (PRM). We studied 14 healthy nulliparous women. A custom designed FLIP bag (30mm diameter) was placed in the vagina and then in the anal canal, distended in 10ml steps with volumes ranging from 30-90ml...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Edgar González Fernández, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba, Julio Hernandez-Castro
Existence of mobile devices with high performance cameras and powerful image processing applications eases the alteration of digital images for malicious purposes. This work presents a new approach to detect digital image tamper detection technique based on CFA artifacts arising from the differences in the distribution of acquired and interpolated pixels. The experimental evidence supports the capabilities of the proposed method for detecting a broad range of manipulations, e.g., copy-move, resizing, rotation, filtering and colorization...
August 25, 2018: Sensors
I Masson, G Delpon, V Vendrely
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is recommended in anal squamous cell carcinoma treatment and is increasingly used in rectal cancer. It adapts the dose to target volumes, with a high doses gradient. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy allows to reduce toxicity to critical normal structures and to consider dose-escalation studies or systemic treatment intensification. Image-guided radiation therapy is a warrant of quality for intensity-modulated radiation therapy, especially for successful delivery of the dose as planned...
October 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Valeria Meier, Jürgen Besserer, Malgorzata Roos, Carla Rohrer Bley
Previous trials showed the importance of administering radiation therapy (RT) with small doses per fraction in canine pelvic tumours to maintain acceptable toxicity levels. With increased accuracy/precision of RT, namely intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), this approach might be challenged. Theoretical toxicity calculations for a new definitive-intent moderately hypofractionated RT protocol for canine anal sac adenocarcinomas (ASAC) were performed, focussing on the risk of toxicity in pelvic organs at risk (OAR)...
August 22, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Lucas Raynaud, Diane Mege, Magaly Zappa, Nathalie Guedj, Valérie Vilgrain, Yves Panis
PURPOSE: Very few data are available about the clinical relevance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in preoperative evaluation of rectal villous adenoma. The aim is to evaluate the impact of MR imaging for the surgical management of rectal villous adenoma treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). METHODS: All patients with histologically proven rectal villous tumours operated by TEM who had a preoperative MR imaging between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed...
August 22, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Takahiro Hosokawa, Yoshitake Yamada, Mayumi Hsokawa, Shunsuke Kikuchi, Kenji Ohira, Yutaka Tanami, Yumiko Sato, Eiji Oguma
Anorectal malformation (ARM) is classified as low, intermediate, or high; accurate diagnosis of the type during the early neonatal period is important to determine the appropriate initial surgical approach. This review assesses the role of ultrasound examination in the classification of ARM during the neonatal period, with a focus on landmarks on the sonogram, the approach used for sonography, and the optimal examination timing. The following three factors on the sonogram are used for the classification: location of the fistula, the distance between the distal rectal pouch and the anal dimple (perineum) (P-P distance), and the relationship between the puborectalis muscle and the distal rectal pouch...
October 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Jordana Greenblatt
Analyzing two harm reduction comics campaigns-one early in the AIDS crisis (the Gay Men's Health Crisis' [GMHC] 1980s Safer Sex Comix) and one more recent (Fabrice Neaud and Thierry Robberecht's 2008 Alex et la vie d'après), I explore tensions between queer safer sexual erotics and national discourses of sexual norms/deviation raised by Cindy Patton and William Haver at the height of AIDS discourse theory in 1996, approximately halfway between the comics. Using these theorists' reflections on the history of AIDS activism/representation as a hinge, I explore the manifestation/transformation a decade later of the ethical, educational, and erotic issues they raise...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
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