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Norbert Babai, Kaspar Gierke, Tanja Müller, Hanna Regus-Leidig, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Andreas Feigenspan
AIM: A key feature of the mammalian retina is the segregation of visual information in parallel pathways, starting at the photoreceptor terminals. Cone photoreceptors establish synaptic contacts with On bipolar and horizontal cells at invaginating, ribbon-containing synaptic sites, whereas Off bipolar cells form flat, non-ribbon-containing contacts. The cytomatrix protein Bassoon anchors ribbons at the active zone, and its absence induces detachment of ribbons from the active zone. In this study we investigate the impact of a missing Bassoon on synaptic transmission at the first synapse of the visual system...
December 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Gerrit Angst, Kevin E Mueller, David M Eissenstat, Susan Trumbore, Katherine H Freeman, Sarah E Hobbie, Jon Chorover, Jacek Oleksyn, Peter B Reich, Carsten W Mueller
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40-year-old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and 17 ecological factors (including tree tissue chemistry, magnitude of organic matter inputs and their turnover, microbial community descriptors, and soil physico-chemical properties)...
December 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
E M Dogan-Guner, H Mohamed, N Orbey, N Goodyear
AIMS: Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) disinfection applications are limited by its rapid inactivation. The aims of this study were to 1) microencapsulate H2 O2 in silica hydrogels to obtain controlled release up to 72 hours, 2) test hydrogel antimicrobial activity against four common pathogens, and 3) assess H2 O2 release kinetics and antimicrobial activity in 35 - 65% relative humidity and 37°C to approximate bandaged wound conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hydrogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption porosimetry, Brunauer Emmet Teller analysis, and the Barret - Joyner - Halenda method...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kaylah Curtis, Christopher J Stewart, Meghan Robinson, David L Molfese, Savannah N Gosnell, Thomas R Kosten, Joseph F Petrosino, Richard De La Garza, Ramiro Salas
The gut microbiota has recently gained attention as a possible modulator of brain activity. A number of reports suggest that the microbiota may be associated with neuropsychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder, autism, and anxiety. The gut microbiota is thought to influence the brain via vagus nerve signaling, among other possible mechanisms. The insula processes and integrates these vagal signals. To determine if microbiota diversity and structure modulate brain activity, we collected fecal samples and examined insular function using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC)...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jianbo Li, Weihua Fan, Yu Lu, Dongying Xuan, Ziqiang Liu, Shaohong Huang, Jincai Zhang
BACKGROUND: Erosive tooth wear (ETW) has become a crucial oral health problem over the decades in China. OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence and risk indicators of ETW among adolescents in Guangzhou, south China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 720 participants was conducted in Guangzhou, using an equal-sized, stratified, multistage random sampling approach. The participants were from two different age groups(12- and 15-year-olds), 360 per group...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Loriann C Garcia, Micky D Eubanks
Not all herbivory is detrimental to plants. In some cases, plants can compensate for herbivory and maintain growth and fitness following damage or even overcompensate for herbivory and perform better than if left undamaged. Examples of overcompensation to vertebrate herbivory are well known, but here we review the literature for examples of reproductive overcompensation (i.e., increased production of traits associated with fitness) and increased vegetative growth (i.e., vegetative overcompensation) following insect herbivory...
December 16, 2018: Ecology
Alireza Akhbardeh, Hersh Sagreiya, Ahmed El Kaffas, Jürgen K Willmann, Daniel L Rubin
PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) has expanded the diagnostic potential of ultrasound by enabling real-time imaging and quantification of tissue perfusion. Several perfusion models and curve fitting methods have been developed to quantify the temporal behavior of tracer signal and standardize perfusion quantification. While the least-squares approach has traditionally been applied for curve-fitting, it can be inadequate for noisy and complex data. Moreover, previous research suggests that certain perfusion models may be more relevant depending on the organ or tissue imaged...
December 16, 2018: Medical Physics
D Young, D Klepacka, M McGarvey, W B Schoolcraft, M G Katz-Jaffe
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of an inter-chromosomal effect (ICE) in blastocyst-stage embryos from carriers of balanced chromosome inversions. METHODS: Infertility patients (n = 52) with balanced inversions (n = 66 cycles), and maternal age-matched controls that concurrently cycled (n = 66), consented to an IVF cycle with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Blastocyst-stage embryos underwent trophectoderm biopsy for PGT-A with only euploid blastocysts transferred in a subsequent frozen embryo transfer...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Wen Yu, Guangjun Jin, Jiancheng Zhang, Wei Wei
The administration of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist has been reported to produce a cardioprotective effect against the pathogenesis and progression of myocardial infarction (MI). Here in this study, we investigated the specific mechanism related to inflammatory suppression. JWH-133 was used for the activation of CB2R. MI mice models and cardiomyocytes under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) challenge were used for the in vivo and in vitro studies, respectively. Detection of cardiac infarct size and levels of myocardial enzymes as well as echocardiographic examination were applied to assess MI severity and cardiac function...
December 15, 2018: Inflammation
Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Kevin R Cloonan, Fernando Sanchez-Pedraza, Yucheng Zhou, M Monica Giusti, Betty Benrey
Highbush blueberry is a crop native to the northeast USA that has been domesticated for about 100 years. This study compared the susceptibility of wild and domesticated/cultivated highbush blueberries to an invasive frugivorous pest, the spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii). We hypothesized that: 1) cultivated fruits are preferred by D. suzukii for oviposition and better hosts for its offspring than wild fruits; and, 2) wild and cultivated fruits differ in physico-chemical traits. Fruits from wild and cultivated blueberries were collected from June through August of 2015 and 2016 from 10 to 12 sites in New Jersey (USA); with each site having wild and cultivated blueberries growing in close proximity...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
A Oleszkiewicz, V A Schriever, I Croy, A Hähner, Thomas Hummel
PURPOSE: To provide up-to-date and detailed normative data based on a large-scale sample, increasing diagnostic validity by reference to narrow age groups as previous normative values were based upon smaller sample sizes-especially in the group of older subjects. METHOD: Data were obtained from 9139 healthy subjects (4928 females aged 5-96 years and 4211 males aged 5-91 years). The standard "Sniffin' Sticks" test was applied, comprising threshold (T), discrimination (D) and identification (I) subtests, and yielding a TDI sum score...
December 15, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Chitra Joseph, Maariya Arshad, Sasagu Kurozomi, Maryam Althobiti, Islam M Miligy, Sara Al-Izzi, Michael S Toss, Fang Qin Goh, Simon J Johnston, Stewart G Martin, Ian O Ellis, Nigel P Mongan, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha
PURPOSE: CD133/ prominin 1 is a cancer stem cell marker associated with cancer progression and patient outcome in a variety of solid tumours, but its role in invasive breast cancer (BC) remains obscure. The current study aims to assess the prognostic value of CD133 expression in early invasive BC. METHODS: CD133 mRNA was assessed in the METABRIC cohort and at the proteomic level using immunohistochemistry utilising a large well-characterised BC cohort. Association with clinicopathological characteristics, expression of other stem cell markers and patient outcome were evaluated...
December 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Noboru Yatagai, Tsuyoshi Saito, Yoichi Akazawa, Takuo Hayashi, Yuka Yanai, Sho Tsuyama, Hiroya Ueyama, Takashi Murakami, Sumio Watanabe, Akihito Nagahara, Takashi Yao
Gastric adenocarcinoma with enteroblastic differentiation (GAED) is a rare variant of aggressive adenocarcinoma. We demonstrated previously that GAED is genetically characterized by frequent TP53 mutation. In this study, we aimed to further clarify the mechanism of inactivation of TP53 in GAED in the light of promoter methylation of TP53, and expression of methylation-associated proteins such as Ten-eleven translocation (TET) 1 and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmc) in addition to ATM mutations. We analyzed 51 cases of GAED...
December 15, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Victoria Rodway, Bethany Tatham, Kun Guo
Research has indicated that Caucasian women gaze more often at waist-hip and chest regions than other local body areas when assessing female body attractiveness and body size, and this stereotypical gaze distribution is further modulated by their own body satisfaction and body composition. However, little is known whether the model race and viewing perspective could affect women's body-viewing gaze behaviour and body perception. Here, we presented female body images of Caucasian, Asian and African avatars in a continuum of common dress sizes in full frontal, mid-profile and rear view, and asked young Caucasian women to rate the perceived body attractiveness and body size...
December 15, 2018: Psychological Research
Melissa A Napolitano, Sarah Beth Lynch, Cassandra A Stanton
OBJECTIVE: With the rise in electronic cigarette (ENDS) use among US young adults, more research is needed on expectations for use and perceptions related to body image, weight control, and stress relief. METHODS: College students (N = 230; modal age 21 years; 68% female) completed an online survey assessing cigarette smoking and ENDS, dieting and body image, perceptions about flavors, stress, weight gain prevention, and appetite regulation. SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS: Dual use (cigarette and ENDS) was reported by n = 69 (30...
December 15, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Nan Jiang, Huan Liu, Peng Wang, Jing Huang, Hui Han, Qinfu Wang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant animal morbidity and mortality and economic losses worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), mucosa, and feces in cecum of the PRRSV-challenged pigs using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform, to investigate the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis and development of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Quantitative insights into microbial ecology analyses indicated that the dominant bacterial groups in the lung from the PRRSV-challenged pigs were Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, with a relative abundance of 35-48% and 27-41%, respectively...
December 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Lü Weiwei, Yao Xin, Shao Keqiang, Zhang Baohua, Gao Guang
Organic matter (OM), a complex entity with diverse functional groups and molecular sizes, has important effects on aquatic systems. We studied the optical compositions and sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) in Lake Taihu, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake in China. Significant differences in optical compositions and sources occurred between the POM and DOM. The temporal-spatial distribution of the fluorescence indices suggested that the POM in Lake Taihu was mainly from autochthonous sources, but more exogenous characteristics were shown in POM in the river mouths compared with other regions...
December 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Priyadarshini Deka, Gunajit Goswami, Pompi Das, Trishnamoni Gautom, Naimisha Chowdhury, Robin Chandra Boro, Madhumita Barooah
In this paper we report the isolation and taxonomic characterization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bacteria followed by the role of EPS in conferring acid tolerance to the soil bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens p16. The role of EPS in promoting soil aggregation is also presented. A total of 75 isolates were tested for acid tolerance and biofilm production under acid stress of which, 54 isolates were further tested for EPS production. Out of the 54 isolates, 28 isolates produced EPS in the range of (67...
December 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Anna Lena Fisse, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Jeremias Motte, Donata Gamber, Antonios Kerasnoudis, Ralf Gold, Min-Suk Yoon
OBJECTIVE: HRUS is increasingly being used in the diagnosis and evaluation of autoimmune neuropathies such as CIDP. Recently, studies focused not only on changes of nerves size, but also the fascicular structure and the echogenicity changes in CIDP. However, little is known about the alterations of echogenicity in the long-term course in CIDP. The aim of this study was to evaluate echogenicity in CIDP patients in a long-term follow-up period and to analyze the benefit of the evaluation of echogenicity compared to nerve size...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Neurology
M Panunzio, R Caporizzi, E P Cela, A Antoniciello, V Di Martino, L R Ferguson
BACKGROUND: The intervention "Med-Anticancer Food Program" has proven to be effective in promoting the Mediterranean Diet, significantly increasing the Mediterranean Adequacy Index in healthy subjects. There are no studies that have investigated the effectiveness of this intervention in individuals who have had a diagnosis of cancer. OBJECTIVE: To perform a pilot study to assess the opportunity of employing the methodology of the Med-Anticancer Food Program in order to encourage "long-term cancer survivors" to adhere to the Mediterranean Diet, as well as healthy people, and this in order to apply the program to larger groups...
January 2019: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
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