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S Klesse, R Weigt, K Treydte, M Saurer, L Schmid, R T W Siegwolf, D C Frank
Stable isotopes ratios in tree rings have become an important proxy for paleoclimatology, particularly in temperate regions. Yet, temperate forests are often characterized by heterogeneous stand structures, and the effects of stand dynamics on carbon (δ13 C) and oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) in tree rings are not well explored. In this study we investigated long-term trends and offsets in δ18 O and δ13 C of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in relation to tree age, size and distance to the upper canopy at seven temperate sites across Europe...
August 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mohammed Jaber, Christian Ewelt, Johannes Wölfer, Benjamin Brokinkel, Christian Thomas, Martin Hasselblatt, Oliver Grauer, Walter Stummer
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of low-grade gliomas (LGG) display visible protoporphyrin fluorescence during surgery after 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) administration. OBJECTIVE: To determine if fluorescence represents a prognostic marker in LGG. METHODS: Seventy-four consecutive patients with LGG (World Health Organization 2016) were operated on with 5-ALA. Fluorescent tissue was specifically biopsied. Tumor size, age, Karnofsky index, contrast-enhancement, fluorescence, and molecular factors (IDH1/IDH2-mutations, Ki67/MIB1 Index, 1p19q codeletions, ATRX, EGFR, p53 expression, and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promotor methylation), were related to progression-free survival (PFS), malignant transformation-free survival (MTFS) and overall survival (OS)...
August 9, 2018: Neurosurgery
Ron Flatau, Michal Segoli, Irina Khokhlova, Hadas Hawlena
Endosymbionts-microbes that live within and engage in prolonged and intimate associations with their hosts-are gaining recognition for their direct impact on plant and animal reproduction. Here we used the overlooked Wolbachia-flea system to explore the possibility that endosymbionts may also play a role as mediators in shaping the reproductive success of their hosts. We simultaneously quantified the Wolbachia density in field- and laboratory-originated fleas that fed and mated on rodents for either five or ten days and assessed their body size and current reproductive success...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Weiqing Ge, Brittany Hians, Alison Sfara
Background: Existing variation has been identified in the rehabilitation programs for patients following cardiac surgery. Sternal precautions are believed to be overly restrictive and detrimental to patient recovery both physically and psychologically. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the deformation of sternal skin during shoulder movements and upper extremity activities using a non-contact approach. Design: This study was a cross-sectional, nonexperimental observational study...
August 13, 2018: Physical Therapy
Abir T Asmar, Jean-François Collet
The discovery of Escherichia coli Lpp as the first protein with three acyl groups covalently attached to its N-terminal cysteine residue defined a new class of bacterial proteins, the lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are extracytoplasmic, globular proteins that are anchored to a membrane by a lipid moiety. Being anchored to the outer membrane, Lpp, which is also known as the Braun lipoprotein, is small (5.8 kDa) and folds into a trimeric helical structure. It is also the numerically most abundant protein in E. coli...
August 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Héloïse Proquin, Carolina Rodríguez-Ibarra, Carolyn Moonen, Ismael M Urrutia Ortega, Jacob J Briedé, Theo M de Kok, Henk van Loveren, Yolanda Irasema Chirino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Antal Martinecz, Pia Abel Zur Wiesch
Treatment of infectious diseases is often long and requires patients to take drugs even after they have seemingly recovered. This is because of a phenomenon called persistence, which allows small fractions of the bacterial population to survive treatment despite being genetically susceptible. The surviving subpopulation is often below detection limit and therefore is empirically inaccessible but can cause treatment failure when treatment is terminated prematurely. Mathematical models could aid in predicting bacterial survival and thereby determine sufficient treatment length...
August 9, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Stephanie J Wilson, Alex Woody, Avelina C Padin, Jue Lin, William B Malarkey, Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser
Background: Lonely people's heightened risks for chronic health conditions and early mortality may emerge in part through cellular aging. Lonelier people have more severe sympathetic responses to acute stress, increasing their risk for herpesvirus reactivation, a possible path to shorter telomeres. Parasympathetic function may modulate this risk. Purpose: The current study aimed to examine the associations among loneliness, herpesvirus reactivation, and telomere length, with parasympathetic activity as a moderator, in healthy middle-aged and older adults...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Nadine Shehata, Nikhil Mistry, Bruno R da Costa, Tiago V Pereira, Richard Whitlock, Gerard F Curley, David A Scott, Gregory M T Hare, Peter Jüni, C David Mazer
Aims: To determine whether a restrictive strategy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion at lower haemoglobin concentrations is inferior to a liberal strategy of RBC transfusion at higher haemoglobin concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods and results: We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of restrictive and liberal RBC transfusion strategies on mortality within 30 days of surgery as the primary outcome...
August 10, 2018: European Heart Journal
Jun Chen, Jingna Xun, Junyang Yang, Yongjia Ji, Li Liu, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Rosalie Ponte, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Hongzhou Lu
Background: Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that metabolises tryptophan to immunosuppressive kynurenines. We investigated whether IDO activity is associated with the size of HIV reservoirs. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, total HIV DNA in PBMCs from 127 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was quantified. Tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations, as well as microbial translocation markers were measured in plasma samples...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shujun Ou, Jinfeng Chen, Ning Jiang
Assembling a plant genome is challenging due to the abundance of repetitive sequences, yet no standard is available to evaluate the assembly of repeat space. LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the predominant interspersed repeat that is poorly assembled in draft genomes. Here, we propose a reference-free genome metric called LTR Assembly Index (LAI) that evaluates assembly continuity using LTR-RTs. After correcting for LTR-RT amplification dynamics, we show that LAI is independent of genome size, genomic LTR-RT content, and gene space evaluation metrics (i...
August 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Steven F Koch
We present a revised method for estimating equivalence scales. Such scales are used to adjust household welfare to account for the size of the household, and are used extensively in the application of the World Health Organization's (WHO) methodology for the evaluation of catastrophic health payments. Applications of the WHO method are underpinned by early estimates that do not control for household income, and, therefore, are likely to overstate equivalence. Thus, in addition to revising the method, we update the scale estimates for one country, South Africa, using more recent data...
August 10, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Chuan-Chia Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Che-Yi Chao, Chin-Bin Yeh, Hsin-An Chang
Background: The efficacy of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in treating auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and other psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia patients has been examined in a small number of clinical trials with limited sample sizes, but the results are mixed. Fronto-temporal tDCS has also been demonstrated to enhance patients' insight into their mental illness in an open-label pilot study. The current investigation aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fronto-temporal tDCS on the severity of AVHs, other schizophrenia symptoms and insight in a large double blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nikole K Bonacorsi, Andrew B Leslie
Background and Aims: Structures that simultaneously perform many functional roles are likely to show a variety of morphological solutions to these demands, and thus probably exhibit high morphological disparity. In contrast, specialization for a few simple functions should result in a more limited suite of morphologies. We explore this idea using lycopsid reproductive structures, which, throughout their history, have performed a limited set of functional roles compared with the reproductive structures of other plant groups such as seed plants...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Tong Cao, Jing Pan, Xiulian Li, Yanli He, Yifei Jiang, Yajing Chang, Qi Zhang, Ying Lan, Hua Wang, Wenjie Jiao, Zibin Tian, Lijuan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The up-regulation of hepatocyte growth factor/receptor, HGF/Met, signal transduction is observed in most of human cancers. Specific heparan sulfate structures enhance the HGF/Met signaling at both cell and animal-based model systems. Biochemical studies indicate that heparan sulfate interacts with HGF and a natural occurring splicing variant NK1 of HGF with similar affinity. However, it is currently unknown if cell surface heparan sulfate binds to Met at physiological conditions and if specific cell surface heparan sulfate structures are required for effective HGF/Met or NK1/Met signaling...
August 14, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mark Laske, Niek J M Opdam, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Jozé C C Braspenning, Wil J M van der Sanden, Marie Charlotte D N J M Huysmans, Josef J Bruers
Contemporary minimally invasive treatment concepts for restorative treatment of primary caries lesions include both delayed intervention and smaller-sized preparations restricted to removal of carious tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these concepts have resulted in a trend towards a more conservative choice made by dentists regarding treatment thresholds and restorative techniques. The results from previously conducted, precoded questionnaires developed by Espelid and Tveit, as well as from a recent Dutch questionnaire, were collected and analysed...
August 14, 2018: Caries Research
Quyen Nguyen, Sophia Sommer, Brandon Greene, Christine Wrenzycki, Uwe Wagner, Volker Ziller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of incubator door openings by the sensitive measurement of morphokinetics using time-lapse imaging. STUDY DESIGN: To mimic lab practice and to evaluate minimal changes in culture conditions a randomized parallel group study with mouse embryos was designed. 249 murine zygotes derived from 31 mice were randomly distributed into two groups. Embryos of the control group were non-invasively monitored with a Primovision time-lapse system (Vitrolife) in the incubator that was completely closed for 5 days, while the conditions for the embryos in the treatment group were interrupted by two door openings per day of 10 s each...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mark Sinyor, Marissa Williams, Sue Belo, Beverley Orser, Margaret Vincent, Linda Mah, Carlos Zarate, Saulo Castel, Anthony J Levitt, Ayal Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is known to rapidly reduce depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation (SI) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but evidence is limited for its acceptability and effectiveness in "real-world" settings. This case series examines serial ketamine infusions in reducing SI and depression scores in adults with MDD admitted to a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Five inpatients with MDD and SI admitted to hospital in Toronto, Canada received six infusions of 0...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yongbo Ding, Qinlu Lin, Jianquan Kan
Retrograded starch (RS III) decreased into nanoscale particles through high-speed shearing emulsification, and the unknown effects of shear speed and shear time on their particle size were explored in this study. The in vitro digestibility, structure properties, stability, and adsorption property of these nanoparticles were also determined. The prepared RS III nanoparticles showed notches and grooves on the surface, and measured an average size of approximately 300 nm with high luminosity. Resistant starch contents decreased, while in vitro digestibility results suggested that these nanoparticles still exhibited high resistance to digestion, indicating that RS III nanoparticles were suitable for colon-specific drug delivery as an encapsulating agent...
August 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Zhen Zhang, Zhaosheng Hou, Congde Qiao, Cong Zhu, Kejun Zhou, Xinhai Xu, Tianduo Li, Jing Xu
Understanding the assembly mechanisms of supramolecular architectures in nature is essential for the design and synthesis of novel biomaterials. In the work, self-assembly of gelatin-mono epoxy terminated polydimethylsiloxane polymer (PGG) controlled by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated in suit. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to reveal the structure evolution of PGG at a molecular level with the increment of SDS concentration, including micro-sized sphere, core-shell and multi-layer structure...
August 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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