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Manoj G Kulkarni, Kannan R R Rengasamy, Srinivasa C Pendota, Jiří Gruz, Lenka Plačková, Ondřej Novák, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
Bioactive compounds such as karrikinolide (KAR1 from smoke) and eckol (from the seaweed Ecklonia maxima) show promising effects on several important crop plants. These plant growth-stimulating organic biomolecules, along with crude extracts (smoke-water and Kelpak® product prepared from Ecklonia maxima), were tested on spinach plants. Eckol sprayed at 10-6 M significantly increased all the growth and biochemical parameters examined compared to control spinach plants. All tested plant growth biostimulants significantly increased total chlorophyll, carotenoids and protein content of spinach leaves...
August 8, 2018: New Biotechnology
E Peverelli, E Giardino, F Mangili, D Treppiedi, R Catalano, E Ferrante, E Sala, M Locatelli, A G Lania, M Arosio, A Spada, G Mantovani
An efficient intracellular response to somatostatin analogs (SSA) in pituitary tumors requires filamin A (FLNA). Since cAMP pathway plays an important role in GH-secreting pituitary tumors pathogenesis and FLNA is phosphorylated by PKA on S2152, aim of this study was to investigate in tumoral somatotrophs the impact of cAMP pathway activation and SSA stimulation on FLNA phosphorylation and the consequences on SST2 function. We found a PKA-mediated increase (2-fold) and SST2 agonist-induced decrease (-50%) of FLNA phosphorylation in GH3, GH4C1 and primary somatotroph tumor cells...
August 8, 2018: Cancer Letters
David F Carrageta, Tânia R Dias, Ivana Jarak, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, Mietha M Van der Walt, Gisella Terre'Blanche, Mariana P Monteiro, Branca M Silva
Caffeine is one of the most worldwide consumed methylxanthines. It is well-known for its thermogenic and cell metabolism modulating effects. Based on methylxanthines' chemical structure, 8-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3,7-triethylxanthine (PTX) is a novel adenosine antagonist with higher receptor affinity than caffeine. Therefore, we hypothesized that PTX metabolic effects could be stronger than those of caffeine. For that purpose, murine 3 T3-L1 cells were cultured in the presence of increasing doses of PTX or caffeine (0...
August 8, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Rui Liu, Lin Dai, Zhufan Zou, Chuanling Si
We report a new drug-loaded film for blending poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) with lignin-based functional filler, which enhanced stability and sustained release of trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV). In addition, trans-RSV loaded PLLA/lignin films showed good antioxidant and anticancer effects. Incorporation of the optimized amount of lignin-based filler to PLLA matrix was key to achieve these desired functions. The lignin-based filler (LG-g-PDLA) was synthesized via ring-opening polymerization on alklin lignin with D-lactide...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mark A Terry, Anthony J Aldave, Loretta B Szczotka-Flynn, Wendi Liang, Allison R Ayala, Maureen G Maguire, Christopher Croasdale, Yassine J Daoud, Steven P Dunn, Caroline K Hoover, Marian S Macsai, Thomas F Mauger, Sudeep Pramanik, George Od Rosenwasser, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer, R Doyle Stulting, Alan Sugar, Elmer Y Tu, David D Verdier, Sonia H Yoo, Jonathan H Lass
PURPOSE: To associate donor, recipient, and operative factors with graft success 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). DESIGN: Cohort study within a multi-center, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: 1,090 individuals (1,330 study eyes), median age 70 years, undergoing DSAEK for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (94% of eyes) or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (PACE, 6% of eyes)...
August 8, 2018: Ophthalmology
Michael G Watson, Helen M Byrne, Charlie Macaskill, Mary R Myerscough
Atherosclerotic plaque growth is characterised by chronic, non-resolving inflammation that promotes the accumulation of cellular debris and extracellular fat in the inner artery wall. This material is highly thrombogenic, and plaque rupture can lead to the formation of blood clots that occlude major arteries and cause myocardial infarction or stroke. In advanced plaques, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are recruited from deeper in the artery wall to synthesise a cap of fibrous tissue that stabilises the plaque and sequesters the thrombogenic plaque content from the bloodstream...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Yuxi Zhao, Kok P M van Kessel, Carla J C de Haas, Malbert R C Rogers, Jos A G van Strijp, Pieter-Jan A Haas
Staphylococcal Superantigen-Like (SSL) proteins, one of the major virulence factor families produced by Staphylococcus aureus, were previously demonstrated to be immune evasion molecules that interfere with a variety of innate immune defenses. However, in contrast to characterized SSLs, that inhibit immune functions, we show that SSL13 is a strong activator of neutrophils via the formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). Moreover, our data show that SSL13 acts as a chemoattractant, induces degranulation and oxidative burst in neutrophils...
August 11, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Rachel Waller, Mark Murphy, Claire J Garwood, Luke Jennings, Paul R Heath, Annabelle Chambers, Fiona E Matthews, Carol Brayne, Paul G Ince, Stephen B Wharton, Julie E Simpson
Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are early features of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD), occurring before the formation of classical AD neuropathology, and resulting from an imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidants. Astrocytes play a major neuroprotective role, producing high levels of anti-oxidants including metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II). In the present study we characterized the immunoreactive profile of MT-I/II in the temporal cortex of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) aging population-representative neuropathology cohort, and examined H2 O2 -modulation of MT transcription by human astrocytes...
August 10, 2018: Glia
R J Collins, L D Morgan, S Owen, F Ruge, W G Jiang, A J Sanders
EPLIN is frequently downregulated or lost in various cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of EPLIN in prostate cancer progression, with particular focus on the mechanistic implications to elucidate EPLIN's tumour suppressive function in cancer. EPLIN expression was evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues. PC-3 and LNCaP EPLINα overexpression models were generated through transfection with EPLINα sequence and EPLIN knockdown was achieved using shRNA in CA-HPV-10 cells...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
R Anderson, S Rust, J Ashworth, J Clayton-Smith, R L Taylor, P T Clayton, A A M Morris
Lathosterolosis is a rare defect of cholesterol synthesis. Only four previous cases have been reported, two of whom were siblings. We report a fifth patient, with a relatively mild phenotype. He presented at 5 years of age with bilateral posterior cataracts, which were managed with lensectomies and intraocular lens implants. He also had learning difficulties, with a full-scale IQ of 64 at 11 years of age. His head circumference is between the 0.4th and 2nd centiles, and he has mild hypotonia and subtle dysmorphism (a high-arched palate, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum and clinodactyly of toes)...
August 11, 2018: JIMD Reports
J P Dean Goldring, Robert G E Krause
Proteins separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis need to be stained with organic dyes to be visualized. Once stained the intensity of each stained protein band can be used to compare the differences in protein concentration and to measure the relative concentration of any protein band. The most popular standard protein staining is with Coomassie Blue R-250 which takes an hour to stain proteins to saturation and several hours to remove background staining. Direct Red 81 and Amido Black stain proteins within 2...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
R Reale, A Tumminia, L Romeo, N La Spina, R Baratta, G Padova, L Tomaselli, L Frittitta
PURPOSE: The aim of this randomized study was to examine the efficacy of two high intensity educational programs: the conversation maps-based (CM™) education and the individual education (IE), compared to usual care (UC) in a cohort of type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Ninety T2DM outpatients (30 per group) were randomized and 79 finished the study and were analyzed. The CM™ and IE groups received four educational sessions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks, while the UC group received two brief individual sessions at 0 and 12 weeks...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Tamene Milkessa Jiru, Laurinda Steyn, Carolina Pohl, Dawit Abate
BACKGROUND: Single cell oil has long been considered an alternative to conventional oil sources. The oil produced can also be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Oleaginous yeasts have relatively high growth and lipid production rates, can utilize a wide variety of cheap agro-industrial wastes such as molasses, and can accumulate lipids above 20% of their biomass when they are grown in a bioreactor under conditions of controlled excess carbon and nitrogen limitation. RESULTS: In this study, Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89 was cultivated in a nitrogen-limited medium containing cane molasses as a carbon source...
August 10, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Daniela F Passos, Viviane M Bernardes, Jean L G da Silva, Maria R C Schetinger, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has devastating effects on the host immune system. HIV entry into host cells and subsequent viral replication induce a proinflammatory response, hyperactivating immune cells and leading them to death, disfunction, and exhaustion. Adenosine is an immunomodulatory molecule that suppresses immune cell function to protect tissue integrity. The anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine modulate the chronic inflammation and immune activation caused by HIV...
August 10, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
F Dewi, R J Egan, T Abdelrahman, C Morris, M J Stechman, W G Lewis
AIMS: Post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and independent mortality risk factor carrying high clinical and economic cost. This study aimed to establish the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy (EL), to determine patients' risk profile and consequent mortality. METHODS: Consecutive 239 patients of median age 68 (IQR 51-76) years, undergoing EL in a UK tertiary hospital, were studied. Primary outcome measure was AKI and in-hospital operative mortality...
August 10, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Katherine L French, Christopher J Hein, Negar Haghipour, Lukas Wacker, Hermann R Kudrass, Timothy I Eglinton, Valier Galy
The abundance of organic carbon (OC) in vegetation and soils (~2,600 PgC) compared to carbon in the atmosphere (~830 PgC) highlights the importance of terrestrial OC in global carbon budgets. The residence time of OC in continental reservoirs, which sets the rates of carbon exchange between land and atmosphere, represents a key uncertainty in global carbon cycle dynamics. Retention of terrestrial OC can also distort bulk OC- and biomarker-based paleorecords, yet continental storage timescales remain poorly quantified...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth T Niezen, Rudolf R M Bos, Baucke van Minnen, Uwe Eckelt, Frank Tavassol, Pieter U Dijkstra
PURPOSE: To explore differences in patient, fracture, accident and treatment characteristics between patients treated for a mandibular condyle fracture in the University Centres of Dresden and Groningen, as an explanation for differences treatment results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients' fracture, accident and treatment characteristics were obtained from the medical records of Dresden and Groningen from January 1, 2008, to August 31, 2011, and were analysed using logistic regression analysis...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Philip T Cherian, Martin N Cheramie, Ravi K R Marreddy, Dinesh M Fernando, Julian G Hurdle, Richard E Lee
β-Lactams are the most important class of antibiotics, for which the emergence of resistance threatens their utility. As such, we explored the extent to which the tetramic acid motif, frequently found in naturally occurring antibiotics, can be used to generate novel β-lactam antibiotics with improved antibacterial activity. We synthesized new ampicillin - tetramic acid, cephalosporin - tetramic acid, and cephamycin - tetramic acid analogs and evaluated their activities against problematic Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens...
July 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Qingjie Liu, Douglas G Batt, Charu Chaudhry, Jonathan S Lippy, Mark A Pattoli, Neha Surti, Songmei Xu, Percy H Carter, James R Burke, Joseph A Tino
Incorporation of a suitably-placed electrophilic group transformed a series of reversible BTK inhibitors based on carbazole-1-carboxamide and tetrahydrocarbazole-1-carboxamide into potent, irreversible inhibitors. Removal of one ring from the core of these compounds provided a potent irreversible series of 2,3-dimethylindole-7-carboxamides having excellent potency and improved selectivity, with the additional advantages of reduced lipophilicity and molecular weight.
July 30, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Willem A Kernkamp, Nathan H Varady, Jing-Sheng Li, Peter D Asnis, Ewoud R A van Arkel, Rob G H H Nelissen, Samuel K Van de Velde, Guoan Li
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ACL deficiency on the in vivo changes in end-to-end distances and to determine appropriate graft fixation angles for commonly used tunnel positions in contemporary ACL reconstruction techniques. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with unilateral ACL-deficient and intact contralateral knees were included. Each knee was studied using a combined magnetic resonance and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique while the patients performed a dynamic step-up motion (~50° of flexion to extension)...
August 7, 2018: Knee
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