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Sequential Fermentation

Eoin Byrne, Krisztina Kovacs, Ed W J van Niel, Karin Willquist, Sven-Erik Svensson, Emma Kreuger
Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne ( Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ling Li, Soo Jin Lee, Qiu Ping Yuan, Wan Taek Im, Sun Chang Kim, Nam Soo Han
Background: Ginsenoside Rg3(S) and compound K (C-K) are pharmacologically active components of ginseng that promote human health and improve quality of life. The aim of this study was to produce Rg3(S) and C-K from ginseng extract using recombinant Lactococcus lactis . Methods: L. lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 ( L. lactis NZ9000), which harbors β-glucosidase genes ( BglPm and BglBX10 ) from Paenibacillus mucilaginosus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae , respectively, was reacted with ginseng extract (protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside mixture)...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Małgorzata Lasik-Kurdyś, Małgorzata Majcher, Jacek Nowak
The effects of different malolactic bacteria fermentation techniques on the bioconversion of aromatic compounds in cool-climate grape wines were examined. During three wine seasons, red and white grape wines were produced using various malolactic fermentation induction techniques: Coinoculation, sequential inoculation, and spontaneous process. Volatile compounds (diacetyl and the products of its metabolism, and selected ethyl fatty acid esters) were extracted by solid phase microextraction. Compounds were identified with a multidimensional gas chromatograph-GC × GC-ToFMS with ZOEX cryogenic (N₂) modulator...
October 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hyunjin Kim, Byoung Seung Jeon, Ashok Pandey, Byoung-In Sang
In this study, a coculture bioprocess was developed with Clostridium strains producing butyric acid and Megasphaera hexanoica producing caproic acid from the butyric acid. The two bacterial strains were each cultivated in two submerged hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors (s-HF/MBRs), separately. Each fermentation broth was filtered through the membrane modules, and the filtered broth was either interchanged on another reactor or obtained sequentially through. Using s-HF/MBRs, the caproic acid concentration increased to 10...
September 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Chiara Nadai, Wilson José Fernandes Lemos, Francesco Favaron, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
The reduction of chemical fungicides in agriculture has led to the use of microorganisms as biocontrol agents. Starmerella bacillaris is a non-Saccharomyces yeast associated with overripe and botrytized grape berries microbiota. Its use has been proposed for wine fermentation because of yeast fructophilic character and high glycerol production. Recently, S. bacillaris has been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea on the grape. Penicillium expansum is the pathogen responsible for the blue mold rot, the most important postharvest disease of apples...
2018: PloS One
Kola Saheed Olorunnisola, Parveen Jamal, Md Zahangir Alam
Banana peel (BP) is a major waste produced by fruit processing industries. Pre-treatment of BP at different temperatures led to 40% reduction in saponin at 100 °C (from 9.5 to 5.7 mg/g). Sequential mixed culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ( P. chrysosporium ) and Candida utilis ( C. utilis ) gave highest protein enrichment (88.93 mg/g). There is 26% increase in protein synthesis (from 88.93 to 111.78 mg/g) after media screening. Inclusion of KH2 PO4 , FeSO4 ·7H2 O, wheat flour and sucrose in the media contributed positively to protein synthesis, while elevated concentration of urea, peptone, K2 HPO4 , KCl, NH4 H2 PO4, and MgSO4 ...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Geferson A Gonçalves, Rúbia C G Corrêa, Lillian Barros, Maria Inês Dias, Ricardo C Calhelha, Vanesa G Correa, Adelar Bracht, Rosane M Peralta, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The potential phytochemical losses occurring throughout the sequential steps of in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation of a rosemary aqueous extract were investigated. Crude (CE), digested (DE) and fermented (FE) extracts were characterized in terms of their phenolic profile and biological activities. Rosmarinic acid was the phytochemical that underwent the most significate transformation during digestion and fermentation, which amounted to 60% compared to the 26% degradation of the total phenolics...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Carlos Escott, Antonio Morata, Jorge M Ricardo-da-Silva, María Jesús Callejo, María Del Carmen González, José Antonio Suarez-Lepe
Anthocyanins in red grape musts may evolve during the winemaking process and wine aging for several different reasons; colour stability and evolution is a complex process that may depend on grape variety, winemaking technology, fermentative yeast selection, co-pigmentation phenomena and polymerization. The condensation of flavanols with anthocyanins may occur either with the flavylium ion or with the hemiacetal formation in order to produce oligomers and polymers. The kinetics of the reaction are enhanced by the presence of metabolic acetaldehyde, promoting the formation of pyranoanthocyanin-type dimers or flavanol-ethyl-anthocyanin structures...
September 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pinaki Dey, Joginder Singh, Jismole Scaria, Athira P Anand
Experimental investigations were carried out to develop economic production process of cellulase using coconut mesocarp as an inexpensive lignocellulosic inducer while replacing commercial cellulose. Cellulase production was initially investigated from commercial cellulose in different submerged conditions using Trichoderma reesei (MTCC 164). Maximum enzyme production was achieved 6.3 g/l with activity level 37 FPU/ml in the condition where cellulose to water content ratio was maintained at 5:35 (W/V). To achieve similar maximum production of cellulase from coconut mesocarp, response surface methodology was implemented to optimize most influencing parameters...
September 2018: 3 Biotech
Lucinda Mulko, Jesica Y Pereyra, Claudia R Rivarola, Cesar A Barbero, Diego F Acevedo
Alpha-amylase was immobilized inside three different polymeric matrices: polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAm), polyacrylamide-graphene oxide nanocomposite (PAAm-GO) and alginate in order to study and compare the effect of the matrix on the catalytic performance. The morphology, swelling, mechanical properties, retention efficiency, and the catalytic behavior of these newly supported biocatalysts were studied. Nanocomposite made of PAAm-GO matrix incorporated 98% of the enzyme, likely through a cooperative effect, while alginate gels incorporated only 30%...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Y Paola Maturano, M Victoria Mestre, Benjamín Kuchen, M Eugenia Toro, Laura A Mercado, Fabio Vazquez, Mariana Combina
Current consumer preferences are determined by well-structured, full-bodied wines with a rich flavor and with reduced alcohol levels. One of the strategies for obtaining wines with reduced ethanol content is sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. However, different factors affect the production of metabolites like ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid by inoculated yeasts. In order to obtain low alcohol wines without quality loss, the aims of our study were: i) to determine optimum conditions (fermentation temperature and time of permanence and initial inoculum size of the non-Saccharomyces population at the beginning of the process, prior to inoculation with S...
August 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Qing-Shan Meng, Chen-Guang Liu, Xin-Qing Zhao, Feng-Wu Bai
Cellulose hydrolysis is a synergetic process performed sequentially by different cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases and glucosidases. Trichoderma reesei has been acknowledged as the best cellulase producer, but cellulase production by T. reesei through submerged fermentation is costly due to intensive energy consumption associated with the process for mixing and aeration, since non-Newtonian fluid properties are developed with mycelial growth. Therefore, engineering the ratio of cellulolytic enzymes in the cocktail for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis is an alternative strategy for reducing cellulase dosage and thus saving cost in enzyme consumption for cellulose hydrolysis...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Julia D Hofmann, Andreas Otto, Mareike Berges, Rebekka Biedendieck, Annika-Marisa Michel, Dörte Becher, Dieter Jahn, Meina Neumann-Schaal
The obligate anaerobe, spore forming bacterium Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile ) causes nosocomial and community acquired diarrhea often associated with antibiotic therapy. Major virulence factors of the bacterium are the two large clostridial toxins TcdA and TcdB. The production of both toxins was found strongly connected to the metabolism and the nutritional status of the growth environment. Here, we systematically investigated the changes of the gene regulatory, proteomic and metabolic networks of C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xu-Ping Shentu, Zhen-Yan Cao, Yin Xiao, Gu Tang, Kozo Ochi, Xiao-Ping Yu
Toyocamycin is a member of the nucleoside antibiotic family and has been recognized as a promising fungicide for the control of plant diseases. However, low productivity of toyocamycin remains an important bottleneck in its industrial production. Therefore, dramatic improvements of strains for overproduction of toyocamycin are of great interest in applied microbiology research. In this study, we sequentially selected for mutations for multiple drug resistance to promote the overproduction of toyocamycin by Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628...
2018: PloS One
Cristian Varela, Simon A Schmidt, Anthony R Borneman, Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Jens O Krömerx, Alamgir Khan, Xiaomin Song, Mark P Hodson, Mark Solomon, Christine M Mayr, Wade Hines, Isak S Pretorius, Mark S Baker, Ute Roessner, Meagan Mercurio, Paul A Henschke, Marc R Wilkins, Paul J Chambers
Metabolic engineering has been vital to the development of industrial microbes such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, sequential rounds of modification are often needed to achieve particular industrial design targets. Systems biology approaches can aid in identifying genetic targets for modification through providing an integrated view of cellular physiology. Recently, research into the generation of commercial yeasts that can produce reduced-ethanol wines has resulted in metabolically-engineered strains of S...
August 20, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Rocío Escribano-Viana, Lucía González-Arenzana, Javier Portu, Patrocinio Garijo, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana Rosa Gutiérrez
Nine non-Saccharomyces yeasts belonging to 6 species (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Lachancea thermotolerans, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Williopsis pratensis and Candida zeylanoides) and two mixed inoculum of T. delbrueckii and L. thermotolerans were screened for aroma formation and fermentative behaviour in sequential inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main differences in aromatic composition within wines were detected in the first stages of vinification between S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces species, but not within the latter species...
October 2018: Food Research International
Pilar Fernandez-Pacheco Rodríguez, María Arévalo-Villena, Isabel Zaparoli Rosa, Ana Briones Pérez
Due to healthcare is increasing in nowadays, the use of the commercial probiotics is in progress and each day they are more demanded. The challenge of this study is to identify yeast species for using as probiotic organisms. Thus, the research applied a step-by-step approach, to study the probiotic potential of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains. The 215 yeasts were isolated from different environments such as wineries, oil mills, brines cheeses, fermented vegetables and distilleries in previous works and were identified to strain level by RAPD-PCR technique resulting 108 different strains...
October 2018: Food Research International
Felipe Senne de Oliveira Lino, Thiago Olitta Basso, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer
Background: Developing novel microbial cell factories requires careful testing of candidates under industrially relevant conditions. However, this frequently occurs late during the strain development process. The availability of laboratory media that simulate industrial-like conditions might improve cell factory development, as they allow for strain construction and testing in the laboratory under more relevant conditions. While sugarcane molasses is one of the most important substrates for the production of biofuels and other bioprocess-based commodities, there are no defined media that faithfully simulate it...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Niklas Tenhaef, Christian Brüsseler, Andreas Radek, René Hilmes, Pornkamol Unrean, Jan Marienhagen, Stephan Noack
It was found that Corynebacterium glutamicum ΔiolR devoid of the transcriptional regulator IolR accumulates high amounts of d-xylonate when cultivated in the presence of d-xylose. Detailed analyses of constructed deletion mutants revealed that the putative myo-inositol 2-dehydrogenase IolG also acts as d-xylose dehydrogenase and is mainly responsible for d-xylonate oxidation in this organism. Process development for d-xylonate production was initiated by cultivating C. glutamicum ΔiolR on defined d-xylose/d-glucose mixtures under batch and fed-batch conditions...
November 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mahdy Elsayed, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Ping Ai, Dianlong Wang, Hamed M El-Mashad, Yanlin Zhang
Three routes; namely R1 representing direct anaerobic digestion (AD), R2 representing enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation, distillation, then AD, and R3 representing AD of fermentation broth without distillation; of alkali pretreated rice straw were investigated. Results showed that sequential fermentation and AD effectively enhanced fibers degradation with significant changes in the composition. Fermentation through R2 resulted in ethanol yield of 87.4 g kg-1 dry straw. Maximum biogas yields of 286...
November 2018: Bioresource Technology
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