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Claire Humphries, Suganthi Jaganathan, Jeemon Panniyammakal, Sanjeev Singh, Shifalika Goenka, Prabhakaran Dorairaj, Paramjit Gill, Sheila Greenfield, Richard Lilford, Semira Manaseki-Holland
OBJECTIVES: Research concentrating on continuity of care for chronic, non-communicable disease (NCD) patients in resource-constrained settings is currently limited and focusses on inpatients. Outpatient care requires attention as this is where NCD patients often seek treatment and optimal handover of information is essential. We investigated handover, healthcare communication and barriers to continuity of care for chronic NCD outpatients in India. We also explored potential interventions for improving storage and exchange of healthcare information...
2018: PloS One
Suzanne Spijkers, Annemieke S Littooij, Paul D Humphries, Marnix G E H Lam, Rutger A J Nievelstein
Detecting extranodal disease in paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma is of great importance for both treatment and prognosis. Different imaging techniques can be used to identify these extranodal sites. This pictorial essay provides an overview of imaging features of extranodal disease manifestation in paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma.
December 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Laura Beaton, Isobel Anderson, Gerry Humphris, Andrea Rodriguez, Ruth Freeman
Smile4life is an intervention aimed at improving the oral health of people experiencing homelessness in Scotland. The purpose of this research was to determine how this intervention was being translated from guidance into action. Data concerning Smile4life working practices were collected in three NHS Boards using participant observation. Fieldnotes taken during these observations were analysed using content analysis. This analysis revealed that there were working alliances between the oral health practitioner, the Third Sector staff, and the homeless service users, and that these alliances were affected by various barriers and enablers...
December 1, 2018: Dentistry journal
Rebecca Chessum, Nathan Humphries, Rob Fenwick
Distal forearm fractures are a common presentation in UK emergency departments (EDs). However, despite the frequency of this presentation there is considerable variation in management, which may reflect the lack of definitive evidence to support one method. This article provides a narrative review of the literature on these injuries and provides an evidence-based approach to how they can be managed by ED clinicians. The review was prompted by a case-based critical reflection and Driscoll's (2007) model what, so what, now what, is used to structure the article and learning...
December 4, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Nora Franceschini, Claudia Giambartolomei, Paul S de Vries, Chris Finan, Joshua C Bis, Rachael P Huntley, Ruth C Lovering, Salman M Tajuddin, Thomas W Winkler, Misa Graff, Maryam Kavousi, Caroline Dale, Albert V Smith, Edith Hofer, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Ilja M Nolte, Lingyi Lu, Markus Scholz, Muralidharan Sargurupremraj, Niina Pitkänen, Oscar Franzén, Peter K Joshi, Raymond Noordam, Riccardo E Marioni, Shih-Jen Hwang, Solomon K Musani, Ulf Schminke, Walter Palmas, Aaron Isaacs, Adolfo Correa, Alan B Zonderman, Albert Hofman, Alexander Teumer, Amanda J Cox, André G Uitterlinden, Andrew Wong, Andries J Smit, Anne B Newman, Annie Britton, Arno Ruusalepp, Bengt Sennblad, Bo Hedblad, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Brenda W Penninx, Carl D Langefeld, Christina L Wassel, Christophe Tzourio, Cristiano Fava, Damiano Baldassarre, Daniel H O'Leary, Daniel Teupser, Diana Kuh, Elena Tremoli, Elmo Mannarino, Enzo Grossi, Eric Boerwinkle, Eric E Schadt, Erik Ingelsson, Fabrizio Veglia, Fernando Rivadeneira, Frank Beutner, Ganesh Chauhan, Gerardo Heiss, Harold Snieder, Harry Campbell, Henry Völzke, Hugh S Markus, Ian J Deary, J Wouter Jukema, Jacqueline de Graaf, Jacqueline Price, Janne Pott, Jemma C Hopewell, Jingjing Liang, Joachim Thiery, Jorgen Engmann, Karl Gertow, Kenneth Rice, Kent D Taylor, Klodian Dhana, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Lars Lind, Laura M Raffield, Lenore J Launer, Lesca M Holdt, Marcus Dörr, Martin Dichgans, Matthew Traylor, Matthias Sitzer, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimaki, Mike A Nalls, Olle Melander, Olli Raitakari, Oscar H Franco, Oscar L Rueda-Ochoa, Panos Roussos, Peter H Whincup, Philippe Amouyel, Philippe Giral, Pramod Anugu, Quenna Wong, Rainer Malik, Rainer Rauramaa, Ralph Burkhardt, Rebecca Hardy, Reinhold Schmidt, Renée de Mutsert, Richard W Morris, Rona J Strawbridge, S Goya Wannamethee, Sara Hägg, Sonia Shah, Stela McLachlan, Stella Trompet, Sudha Seshadri, Sudhir Kurl, Susan R Heckbert, Susan Ring, Tamara B Harris, Terho Lehtimäki, Tessel E Galesloot, Tina Shah, Ulf de Faire, Vincent Plagnol, Wayne D Rosamond, Wendy Post, Xiaofeng Zhu, Xiaoling Zhang, Xiuqing Guo, Yasaman Saba, Abbas Dehghan, Adrie Seldenrijk, Alanna C Morrison, Anders Hamsten, Bruce M Psaty, Cornelia M van Duijn, Deborah A Lawlor, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Donald W Bowden, Helena Schmidt, James F Wilson, James G Wilson, Jerome I Rotter, Joanna M Wardlaw, John Deanfield, Julian Halcox, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Markus Loeffler, Michele K Evans, Stéphanie Debette, Steve E Humphries, Uwe Völker, Vilmundur Gudnason, Aroon D Hingorani, Johan L M Björkegren, Juan P Casas, Christopher J O'Donnell
Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4...
December 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Sean N Porter, Marc S Humphries, Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Michael H Schleyer
Coral reefs support rich levels of biodiversity, but are globally threatened by a multitude of factors, including land-sourced pollutants. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three species of coral reef invertebrate at five sites along the Maputaland coast, South Africa were quantified. We aimed to assess spatial and interspecies variations in pesticide accumulation. Markedly high levels of a range of OCP residues were detected within tissues, with total concentrations (ng g-1 ww) ranging from 460 to 1200 (Sarcophyton glaucum), 1100-3000 (Sinularia gravis) and 450-1500 (Theonella swinhoei), respectively...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Bing Ma, Elias McComb, Pawel Gajer, Hongqiu Yang, Mike Humphrys, Adora C Okogbule-Wonodi, Alessio Fasano, Jacques Ravel, Rose M Viscardi
Intestinal barrier immaturity, or "leaky gut," is the proximate cause of susceptibility to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. However, the impact of intestinal microbiota development on intestinal mucosal barrier maturation has not been evaluated in this population. In this study, we investigated a longitudinally sampled cohort of 38 preterm infants < 33 weeks gestation monitored for intestinal permeability (IP) and fecal microbiota during the first 2 weeks of life. Rapid decrease in IP indicating intestinal barrier function maturation correlated with significant increase in community diversity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jason R Guertin, Brittany Humphries, David Feeny, Jean-Éric Tarride
BACKGROUND: Utility scores are frequently used as preference weights when estimating quality-adjusted life years within cost-utility analyses or health-adjusted life expectancies. Though previous Canadian estimates for specific chronic conditions have been produced, these may no longer reflect current patient populations. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the 2013 and 2014 Canadian Community Health Survey were used to provide Canadian utility score norms for 17 chronic conditions...
November 21, 2018: Health Reports
A A Conti, G M Humphris
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the link between perceived dimensions of patient centred care and the satisfaction of adolescents and young adults within the UK, USA, Australian, Italian, and Chinese healthcare systems. METHODS: One thousand and thirty-four participants (212 from China,206 from Australia,208 from UK, 202 from USA, and 206 from Italy) answered a self-report questionnaire assessing the perceived dimensions of patient centred care...
November 19, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Andrea E Wishart, Cory T Williams, Andrew G McAdam, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M Humphries, David W Coltman, Jeffrey E Lane
Fisher's principle explains that population sex ratio in sexually reproducing organisms is maintained at 1 : 1 owing to negative frequency-dependent selection, such that individuals of the rare sex realize greater reproductive opportunity than individuals of the more common sex until equilibrium is reached. If biasing offspring sex ratio towards the rare sex is adaptive, individuals that do so should have more grandoffspring. In a wild population of North American red squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) that experiences fluctuations in resource abundance and population density, we show that overall across 26 years, the secondary sex ratio was 1 : 1; however, stretches of years during which adult sex ratio was biased did not yield offspring sex ratios biased towards the rare sex...
November 21, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Michael J Satlin
Polymyxins are relied upon for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections, but polymyxin resistance is increasing. Only broth microdilution is recommended for polymyxin susceptibility testing, a method that is impractical for most clinical microbiology laboratories. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (P. J. Simner, Y. Bergman, M. Trejo, A. A. Roberts, R. Marayan, T. Tekle, S. Campeau, A. Kazmi, D. Bell, S. Lewis, P. D. Tamma, R. Humphries, J. A. Hindler, J Clin Microbiol, 57:e01163-18, 2018, https://doi...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Steve E Humphries, Jackie A Cooper, Nigel Capps, Paul N Durrington, Ben Jones, Ian F W McDowell, Handrean Soran, Andrew H W Neil
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) has proposed that patients with "severe" FH (SFH) would warrant early and more aggressive cholesterol-lowering treatment such as with PCSK9 inhibitors. SFH is diagnosed if LDL-cholesterol (LDLC) > 10 mmol/L, or LDLC >8.0 mmol/L plus one high-risk feature, or LDLC >5 mmol/L plus two high-risk features. Here we compare CHD mortality in SFH and non-SFH (NSFH) patients in the UK prospective Simon Broome Register since 1991, when statin use became routine...
November 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
K E Kliem, D J Humphries, A S Grandison, R Morgan, K M Livingstone, D I Givens, C K Reynolds
Isoenergetic replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Supplementing dairy cow diets with plant oils lowers milk fat SFA concentrations. However, this feeding strategy can also increase milk fat trans fatty acids (FA) and negatively affect rumen fermentation. Protection of oil supplements from the rumen environment is therefore needed. In the present study a whey protein gel (WPG) of rapeseed oil (RO) was produced for feeding to dairy cows, in 2 experiments...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mark Quigg, Nicholas M Barbaro, Mariann M Ward, Edward F Chang, Donna K Broshek, John T Langfitt, Guofen Yan, Kenneth D Laxer, Andrew J Cole, Penny K Sneed, Christopher P Hess, Wei Yu, Steven A Newman, Susanne Mueller, Manjari Tripathi, Christiaanne N Heck, John W Miller, Paul A Garcia, Andrew McEvoy, Nathan B Fountain, Vincenta Salanova, Robert C Knowlton, Anto Bagić, Thomas Henry, Siddharth Kapoor, Guy McKhann, Adriana E Palade, Markus Reuber, Evelyn Tecoma
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be an alternative to anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Visual field defects (VFD) occur in 9-100% of patients following open surgery for MTLE. Postoperative VFD after minimally invasive versus open surgery may differ. METHODS: This prospective trial randomized patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and concordant video-EEG findings to SRS versus ATL. Humphries perimetry was obtained at 24 m after surgery...
October 31, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Vineet Joag, Onyango Obila, Pawel Gajer, Milcah Carol Scott, Sara Dizzell, Michael Humphrys, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Sanja Huibner, Brett Shannon, Wangari Tharao, Marianne Mureithi, Julius Oyugi, Joshua Kimani, Charu Kaushic, Jacques Ravel, Omu Anzala, Rupert Kaul
Background: Genital immunology is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility. Both factors are modulated by bacterial vaginosis (BV) and, to some extent, by Lactobacillus iners, the genital Lactobacillus spp. that predominates in African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) women. We conducted a clinical trial to assess the impact of oral metronidazole treatment on the genital immune parameters of HIV acquisition risks in Kenyan women with BV. Methods: The primary endpoint was ex vivo cervical CD4+ T-cell HIV susceptibility after 1 month; secondary endpoints included genital cytokine/chemokine levels, cervical immune cell populations, and the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing...
September 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Cole John Cook, Gyujoon Hwang, Jedidiah Mathis, Veena A Nair, Lisa Conant, Linda Allen, Dace N Almane, Rasmus Birn, Edgar DeYoe, Elizabeth Felton, Courtney Forseth, Colin Humphries, Peter Kraegel, Andrew Nencka, Onyekachi Nwoke, Manoj Raghavan, Charlene Rivera-Bonet, Megan Rozman, Neelima Tellapragada, Candida Ustine, Doug Ward, Aaron Struck, Rama Maganti, Bruce Hermann, Vivek Prabhakaran, Jeff Binder, Mary E Meyerand
The Epilepsy Connectome Project examines the differences in connectomes between temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and healthy controls. Using this data, the effective connectivity of the default mode network in patients with left TLE compared to healthy controls was investigated using spectral dynamic causal modeling of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Group comparisons were made using two parametric empirical Bayes (PEB) models. The first level of each PEB model consisted of each participant's spectral dynamic causal modeling...
November 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Matthew V Cannon, Haikel Bogale, Lindsay Rutt, Michael Humphrys, Poonum Korpe, Priya Duggal, Jacques Ravel, David Serre
BACKGROUND: Several of the most devastating human diseases are caused by eukaryotic parasites transmitted by arthropod vectors or through food and water contamination. These pathogens only represent a fraction of all unicellular eukaryotes and helminths that are present in the environment and many uncharacterized organisms might have subtle but pervasive effects on health, including by modifying the microbiome where they reside. Unfortunately, while we have modern molecular tools to characterize bacterial and, to a lesser extent, fungal communities, we lack suitable methods to comprehensively investigate and characterize most unicellular eukaryotes and helminths: the detection of these organisms often relies on microscopy that cannot differentiate related organisms, while molecular assays can only detect the pathogens specifically tested...
October 29, 2018: Microbiome
John G Lock, Matthew C Jones, Janet A Askari, Xiaowei Gong, Anna Oddone, Helene Olofsson, Sara Göransson, Melike Lakadamyali, Martin J Humphries, Staffan Strömblad
Adhesion to the extracellular matrix persists during mitosis in most cell types. However, while classical adhesion complexes, such as focal adhesions, do and must disassemble to enable mitotic rounding, the mechanisms of residual mitotic cell-extracellular matrix adhesion remain undefined. Here, we identify 'reticular adhesions', a class of adhesion complex that is mediated by integrin αvβ5, formed during interphase, and preserved at cell-extracellular matrix attachment sites throughout cell division. Consistent with this role, integrin β5 depletion perturbs mitosis and disrupts spatial memory transmission between cell generations...
November 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Nicola J Humphry, Sally P Wheatley
Survivin expression is pivotal to life and death at the cellular level. For the past decade its pro-survival activity has been attributed to its essential role in cell proliferation and its ability to inhibit apoptosis. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may also contribute to cell viability through an as yet undefined role in autophagy. We report that survivin overexpression in osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells is associated with increased LC3-II expression, smaller autophagosomes, enlarged lysosomes and reduced autophagic flux...
October 22, 2018: Biology Open
James J Heckman, John Eric Humphries, Gregory Veramendi
This paper estimates returns to education using a dynamic model of educational choice that synthesizes approaches in the structural dynamic discrete choice literature with approaches used in the reduced form treatment effect literature. It is an empirically robust middle ground between the two approaches which estimates economically interpretable and policy-relevant dynamic treatment effects that account for heterogeneity in cognitive and non-cognitive skills and the continuation values of educational choices...
October 2018: Journal of Political Economy
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