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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508854/-opportunistic-infections-what-s-new
#1
Christoph Boesecke, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Jan Thoden
Guidelines from 3 clinical societies and peer-reviewed publications have been reviewed for recent changes in the management of opportunistic infections. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazol administered intravenously is an option to treat cerebral toxoplasmosis if oral therapy is not feasible. CD4 T cell cut-off for starting prophylaxis with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is now 200/µl. For prophylaxis and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole still are recommended. Liposomal amphotericin B + fluconazole is a new treatment option for cryptococcosis...
December 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500301/nanomedicine-for-cutaneous-tumors-lessons-since-the-successful-treatment-of-the-kaposi-sarcoma
#2
João Paulo F Longo, Carolina M Lucci, Luís A Muehlmann, Ricardo B Azevedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497679/cutaneous-sarcomas
#3
REVIEW
Mehul D Bhatt, Vinod E Nambudiri
Cutaneous sarcomas are rare malignancies that may present with a variety of clinical manifestations. This article focuses on 4 of the most common cutaneous sarcomas (Kaposi sarcoma, cutaneous angiosarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma) and reviews clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of these rare skin malignancies.
February 2019: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487992/disseminated-aids-related-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#4
Andy Sing Ong Tang, Yeon Chiat Teh, Chin Yung Chea, Siaw Tze Yeo, Hock Hin Chua
We present a case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma with both cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement in an HIV-infected patient with a relatively high CD4 count of 369 cell/mm3 . He developed chronic diarrhea, constitutional symptoms, worsening bilateral pleural effusion with respiratory distress, and progression of skin lesions distributed over his chest and extremities. The temporal relationship between rapid clinical progression and initiation of HAART suggested the possibility of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which eventually resulted in the death of this patient...
December 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483091/primary-gastrointestinal-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#5
Martin Ignacio Zapata Laguado, Jorge Enrique Aponte Monsalve, Jorge Hernan Santos, Javier Preciado, Andres Mosquera Zamudio, Cristina Garza Acosta
Gastrointestinal bleeding in HIV patients secondary to coinfection by HHV8 and development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare complication even if no skin lesions are detected on physical examination. This article indicates which patients might develop this type of clinical sign and also tries to recall that absence of skin lesions never rules out the presence of KS, especially if gastrointestinal involvement is documented. Gastrointestinal bleeding in terms of hematemesis has rarely been reported in the literature...
September 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463977/oncogenic-kshv-upregulates-argininosuccinate-synthase-1-a-rate-limiting-enzyme-of-the-citrulline-nitric-oxide-cycle-to-activate-the-stat3-pathway-and-promote-growth-transformation
#6
Tingting Li, Ying Zhu, Fan Cheng, Chu Lu, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
Cancer cells are required to rewire existing metabolic pathways to support their abnormal proliferation. We have previously shown that, unlike glucose-addicted cancers, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-transformed cells depend on glutamine rather than glucose for energy production, and amino acid and nucleotide syntheses. High-level consumption of glutamine is tightly regulated and often coupled with the citrulline-nitric oxide (NO) cycle. We have found that KSHV infection accelerates the nitrogen efflux by upregulating the expression of argininosuccinate synthase 1 ( ASS1 ), a key enzyme in the citrulline-NO cycle...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462297/structural-identification-of-conserved-rna-binding-sites-in-herpesvirus-orf57-homologs-implications-for-pan-rna-recognition
#7
Richard B Tunnicliffe, Colin Levy, Hilda D Ruiz Nivia, Rozanne M Sandri-Goldin, Alexander P Golovanov
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transcribes a long noncoding polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA, which promotes the latent to lytic transition by repressing host genes involved in antiviral responses as well as viral proteins that support the latent state. KSHV also expresses several early proteins including ORF57 (Mta), a member of the conserved multifunctional ICP27 protein family, which is essential for productive replication. ORF57/Mta interacts with PAN RNA via a region termed the Mta responsive element (MRE), stabilizing the transcript and supporting nuclear accumulation...
November 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460985/a-retrospective-review-of-patients-with-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-botswana
#8
Christa Slaught, Victoria Williams, Surbhi Grover, Elizabeth Bigger, Mukendi Kayembe, Sebathu Chiyapo, Nicholas J Jackson, Scott Dryden-Peterson, Carrie L Kovarik, Karolyn A Wanat
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread antiretroviral coverage in Botswana, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains among the most common malignancies. To date, adult KS in Botswana is not well characterized. The diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion that is often confirmed by histopathology given the implications of treatment; however, this poses a significant resource burden. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the cohort of patients biopsied for possible KS at Princess Marina Hospital, the main dermatology referral site in Botswana, from September 2008 through June 2015 to describe the demographics, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) characteristics, and clinical presentations of these patients...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457563/acroangiodermatitis-of-mali-pseudo-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-with-chronic-venous-insufficiency-and-obesity-a-case-report
#9
Hani M Badahdah, Khalid M Edrees, Lujain Alnasr, Enaam Junainah
INTRODUCTION: Acroangiodermatitis, also known as psesudo-Kapsoi sarcoma, is a rare and benign angioproliferative malady. It presents clinically as purple-colored plaques, patches, or nodules resembling Kaposi sarcoma and is often related to chronic venous insufficiency, arteriovenous malformation of the legs, paralyzed limbs, and residual limbs. Obesity is a risk factor for venous insufficiency and could be related to acroangiodermatitis. CASE REPORT: The authors report a case of acroangiodermatitis of the bilateral legs that was misdiagnosed for 3 years...
November 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455728/endemic-kaposi-sarcoma-in-hiv-negative-children-and-adolescents-an-evaluation-of-overlapping-and-distinct-clinical-features-in-comparison-with-hiv-related-disease
#10
Nader Kim El-Mallawany, Jimmy Villiera, William Kamiyango, Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Michael E Scheurer, Carl E Allen, Casey L McAtee, Alejandra Legarreta, Dirk P Dittmer, Carrie L Kovarik, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Stephen C Martin, Nmazuo W Ozuah, Parth S Mehta, Peter N Kazembe
Background: Endemic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was first described in African children over fifty years ago, but has recently been overshadowed by HIV-related disease. We aimed to evaluate the similarities and differences between endemic HIV-negative and epidemic HIV-positive pediatric KS in a KS-associated herpesvirus-endemic region of Africa. Methods: We describe clinical characteristics of 20 HIV-negative children with endemic KS over a six-year period and compare findings with a historical control-an HIV-related pediatric KS cohort from Lilongwe, Malawi...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455306/discovery-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-herpesvirus-encoded-circular-rnas-and-a-human-antiviral-circular-rna
#11
Takanobu Tagawa, Shaojian Gao, Vishal N Koparde, Mileidy Gonzalez, John L Spouge, Anna P Serquiña, Kathryn Lurain, Ramya Ramaswami, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
Noncoding RNAs have substantial effects in host-virus interactions. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel single-stranded noncoding RNAs which can decoy other RNAs or RNA-binding proteins to inhibit their functions. The role of circRNAs is largely unknown in the context of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). We hypothesized that circRNAs influence viral infection by inhibiting host and/or viral factors. Transcriptome analysis of KSHV-infected primary endothelial cells and a B cell line identified human circRNAs that are differentially regulated upon infection...
November 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452681/similar-immunological-profiles-between-african-endemic-and-hiv1-associated-epidemic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-patients-reveal-the-primary-role-of-kshv-in-ks-pathogenesis
#12
Salum J Lidenge, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, John R Ngowi, Yasaman Mortazavi, Eun Hee Kwon, Danielle M Shea, Veenu Minhas, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T West
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically linked to all KS forms but mechanisms underlying KS development are unclear. The high incidence of KS in HIV-1 + individuals, implicates immune dysregulation in co-infection; however, the lack of in-depth characterization of KSHV immune responses in African endemic-KS makes the pathogenetic role of HIV-1 unclear. The study objective was to investigate the HIV-1 and KSHV roles in viral-nucleic-acid detection, antibody and cytokine responses in PCR confirmed epidemic-KS and endemic-KS patients, and non-cancer controls from sub-Saharan Africa...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452634/high-cancer-burden-among-antiretroviral-therapy-users-in-malawi-a-record-linkage-study-of-observational-hiv-cohorts-and-cancer-registry-data
#13
Marie-Josèphe Horner, Steady Chasimpha, Adrian Spoerri, Jessie Edwards, Julia Bohlius, Hannock Tweya, Petros Tembo, Franklin Nkhambule, Eddie Moffo Phiri, William C Miller, Kennedy Malisita, Sam Phiri, Charles Dzamalala, Andrew F Olshan, Satish Gopal
Background: With antiretroviral therapy (ART), AIDS-defining cancer incidence has declined and non-AIDS defining cancers are now more frequent among HIV-infected populations in high-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, limited epidemiological data describe cancer burden among ART users. Methods: We used probabilistic algorithms to link cases from the population-based cancer registry with electronic medical records supporting ART delivery in the Malawi's two largest HIV cohorts, Lighthouse Trust (LT; 2007-2010) and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH; 2000-2010)...
November 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30451863/rig-i-like-receptor-sensing-of-host-rnas-facilitates-the-cell-intrinsic-immune-response-to-kshv-infection
#14
Yang Zhao, Xiang Ye, William Dunker, Yu Song, John Karijolich
The RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and MDA5 are cytosolic RNA helicases best characterized as restriction factors for RNA viruses. However, evidence suggests RLRs participate in innate immune recognition of other pathogens, including DNA viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Here, we demonstrate that RLRs restrict KSHV lytic reactivation and we demonstrate that restriction is facilitated by the recognition of host-derived RNAs...
November 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444879/experimental-co-transmission-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-and-the-macaque-homologs-of-the-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-kshv-and-epstein-barr-virus-ebv
#15
A Gregory Bruce, Serge Barcy, Jeannette Staheli, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Minako Ikoma, Kellie Howard, Timothy M Rose
Macaque RFHV and LCV are close homologs of human KSHV and EBV, respectively. No experimental model of RFHV has been developed due to the lack of a source of culturable infectious virus. Screening of macaques at the Washington National Primate Research Center detected RFHV in saliva of SIV-infected macaques from previous vaccine studies. A pilot experimental infection of two naïve juvenile pig-tailed macaques was initiated by inoculation of saliva from SIV-infected pig-tailed and cynomolgus macaque donors, which contained high levels of DNA (> 106 genomes/ml) of the respective species-specific RFHV strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443370/structure-based-mechanism-of-action-of-a-viral-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-interacting-protein-facilitating-virus-replication
#16
Woo-Chang Chung, Junsoo Kim, Byung Chul Kim, Hye-Ri Kang, JongHyeon Son, Hosam Ki, Kwang Yeon Hwang, Moon Jung Song
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that modifies nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, regulates various cellular activities and restricts the lytic replication of oncogenic gammaherpesviruses by inhibiting the function of replication and transcription activator (RTA), a key switch molecule of the viral life cycle. A viral PARP-1-interacting protein (vPIP) encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) orf49 facilitates lytic replication by disrupting interactions between PARP-1 and RTA...
November 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429335/the-endosomal-toll-like-receptors-7-and-9-cooperate-in-detection-of-mhv68-infection
#17
Kendra A Bussey, Sripriya Murthy, Elisa Reimer, Baca Chan, Bastian Hatesuer, Klaus Schughart, Britt Glaunsinger, Heiko Adler, Melanie M Brinkmann
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is an amenable small animal model for study of the human pathogens Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Here, we have characterized the roles of the endosomal TLR escort protein UNC93B, endosomal TLR7, 9, and 13, and cell surface TLR2 in MHV68 detection. We found that the interferon α (IFNα) response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) to MHV68 was reduced in Tlr9-/- cells compared to wildtype (WT), but not completely lost. Tlr7-/- pDC responded similarly to WT...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429324/epstein-barr-virus-enhances-genome-maintenance-of-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#18
Rachele Bigi, Justin T Landis, Hyowon An, Carolina Caro-Vegas, Nancy Raab-Traub, Dirk P Dittmer
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a B cell lymphoma that is always associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and in many cases also with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); however, the requirement for EBV coinfection is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that adding exogenous EBV to KSHV+ single-positive PEL leads to increased KSHV genome maintenance and KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) expression. To show that EBV was necessary for naturally coinfected PEL, we nucleofected KSHV+ /EBV+ PEL cell lines with an EBV-specific CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid to delete EBV and observed a dramatic decrease in cell viability, KSHV genome copy number, and LANA expression...
November 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428290/prednisone-for-the-prevention-of-paradoxical-tuberculosis-associated-iris
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Graeme Meintjes, Cari Stek, Lisette Blumenthal, Friedrich Thienemann, Charlotte Schutz, Jozefien Buyze, Raffaella Ravinetto, Harry van Loen, Amy Nair, Amanda Jackson, Robert Colebunders, Gary Maartens, Robert J Wilkinson, Lutgarde Lynen
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who have tuberculosis reduces mortality among patients with low CD4 counts, but it increases the risk of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). METHODS: We conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether prophylactic prednisone can safely reduce the incidence of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated IRIS in patients at high risk for the syndrome...
November 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424002/contemporary-ribonomics-methods-for-viral-microrna-target-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Lauren A Gay, Peter C Turner, Rolf Renne
Numerous cellular processes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), both cellular and viral. Elucidating the targets of miRNAs has become an active area of research. An important method in this field is cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), where cultured cells or tissues are UV-irradiated to cross-link protein and nucleic acid, the RNA binding protein of interest is immunoprecipitated, and the RNAs pulled down with the protein are isolated, reverse-transcribed, and analyzed by sequencing. CLIP using antibody against Argonaute (Ago), which binds to both miRNA and mRNA as they interact in RISC, has allowed researchers to uncover a large number of miRNA targets...
November 9, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
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