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kaposi's sarcoma

Sanaz Javadi, Christine O Menias, Niloofar Karbasian, Akram Shaaban, Komal Shah, Adam Osman, Corey T Jensen, Meghan G Lubner, Ayman H Gaballah, Khaled M Elsayes
The risk of developing malignancy is higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than in non-HIV-infected patients. Several factors including immunosuppression, viral coinfection, and high-risk lifestyle choices lead to higher rates of cancer in the HIV-infected population. A subset of HIV-related malignancies are considered to be acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies, as their presence confirms the diagnosis of AIDS in an HIV-infected patient. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant drop in the rate of AIDS-defining malignancies, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and invasive cervical carcinoma...
October 19, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Ivanka Temelkova, Michael Tronnier, Ivan Terziev, Uwe Wollina, Ilia Lozev, Mohamad Goldust, Georgi Tchernev
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma was first described in 1872 by Moritz Kaposi. To date, it is considered a malignant disease is originating from the endothelial cells of the lymphatic vessels believed to be infected with HHV-8. The current classification defines four major epidemiological forms of Kaposi's sarcoma: classical, endemic, AIDS-associated, and iatrogenic. CASE REPORT: A 90-year-old male is presented with multiple plaques- and tumour-shaped brown-violet formations located on an erythematous-livid base in the area of both feet and both shanks...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Douglas G Widman, Savanna Gornisiewicz, Sharon Shacham, Sharon Tamir
Infection of immunocompromised individuals with normally benign opportunistic viruses is a major health burden globally. Infections with viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Kaposi's sarcoma virus (KSHV), adenoviruses (AdV), BK virus (BKPyV), John Cunningham virus (JCPyV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) are significant concerns for the immunocompromised, including when these viruses exist as a co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These viral infections are more complicated in patients with a weakened immune system, and often manifest as malignancies resulting in significant morbidity and mortality...
2018: PloS One
Lihua Liu, Diana J Moke, Kai-Ya Tsai, Amie Hwang, David R Freyer, Ann S Hamilton, Juanjuan Zhang, Myles Cockburn, Dennis Deapen
Background: Cancer survival among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) was previously reported as showing little or no improvement compared to younger or older counterparts. The role of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the AYA survival deficit has not been evaluated. Methods: Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER 9), we examined sex-specific 5-year relative survival trends for children (0-14 years old), AYAs (15-39 years old), and older adults (40 years and older) diagnosed with cancer during 1973-2009 and followed through the end of 2014...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Aaron S Mendez, Carolin Vogt, Jens Bohne, Britt A Glaunsinger
A number of viruses remodel the cellular gene expression landscape by globally accelerating messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation. Unlike the mammalian basal mRNA decay enzymes, which largely target mRNA from the 5' and 3' end, viruses instead use endonucleases that cleave their targets internally. This is hypothesized to more rapidly inactivate mRNA while maintaining selective power, potentially though the use of a targeting motif(s). Yet, how mRNA endonuclease specificity is achieved in mammalian cells remains largely unresolved...
October 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
H Jebali, M Saihi, M Omrane, R Kheder, I Chelly, S Haouet, S Beji, L Raïs, I Mami, M Krid, W Smaoui, F Ben Hmida, L Ben Fatma, M K Zouaghi
INTRODUCTION: Iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma is widely reported after transplantation. Less commonly, it occurs in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for ANCA associated vasculitis. We report here the rare association of Kaposi's sarcoma, prurigo nodularis and ANCA associated vasculitis in a hemodialysis patient. CASE REPORT: We describe a 58-year-old woman who presented granulomatosis with polyangeiitis with alveolar hemorrhage and renal failure requiring hemodialysis...
October 10, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Chun-Shuang Guan, Xue-Mei Wang, Zhi-Bin Lv, Shuo Yan, Lei Sun, Ru-Ming Xie
RATIONALE: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignant tumor in HIV-infected people and occurs mainly in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymph nodes. Approximately 33% of the initial skin manifestations of AIDS and approximately 35% to 79% of KS occur during disease progression. Otherwise, AIDS-related facial KS that was simultaneously examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: This case was a 30-year-old male homosexual, with left facial nodule for 14 months, and HIV infection was diagnosed 1 month previously...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gianluca Nazzaro, Giovanni Genovese, Athanasia Tourlaki, Emanuela Passoni, Emilio Berti, Lucia Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Intralesional vincristine is an effective treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) nodules on the skin, but there is little evidence of its action through imaging techniques. Ultrasonography can be an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis and management of KS skin lesions, but data in the literature are few. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients with classic KS nodules were treated with intralesional vincristine. Ultrasonographic and color Doppler assessment were performed during vincristine injection and monitoring was repeated 1 and 3 months after the procedure...
October 12, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Alejandra Suares, Cinthya Tapia, Verónica González-Pardo
The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor (KSHV/vGPCR) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. In endothelial cells, tumor maintenance and NF-κB activation depends on vGPCR constitutive expression and activity. We have previously demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)2 D3 induces apoptosis in a VDR dependent manner, inhibits vGPCR cell growth and NF-κB activity. In this study, we developed a method to obtain multicellular spheroids (MCS) from endothelial cells expressing vGPCR in order to test whether MCS have a similar response to 2D-cultures after 1α,25(OH)2 D3 treatment...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Angelica F Castañeda, Britt A Glaunsinger
In the beta- and gammaherpesviruses, a specialized complex of viral transcriptional activators (vTAs) coordinate to direct expression of virus-encoded late genes, which are critical for viral assembly and whose transcription initiates only after the onset of viral DNA replication. The vTAs in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are ORF18, ORF24, ORF30, ORF31, ORF34, and ORF66. While the general organization of the vTA complex has been mapped, the individual roles of these proteins, and how they coordinate to activate late gene promoters, remains largely unknown...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Emine Guven-Maiorov, Chung-Jung Tsai, Buyong Ma, Ruth Nussinov
About 20% of the cancer incidences worldwide have been estimated to be associated with infections. However, the molecular mechanisms of exactly how they contribute to host tumorigenesis are still unknown. To evade host defense, pathogens hijack host proteins at different levels: sequence, structure, motif, and binding surface, i.e., interface. Interface similarity allows pathogen proteins to compete with host counterparts to bind to a target protein, rewire physiological signaling, and result in persistent infections, as well as cancer...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Daniel S Mytelka, Saurabh P Nagar, Yulia D'yachkova, Elizabeth M La, James A Kaye, Sean D Candrilli, Bernd Kasper, Jose Antonio Lopez-Martin, Maria Lorenzo
Objective: To describe health care resource utilization and costs for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, Germany, and France. Methods: Physicians abstracted data for adult patients with a diagnosis of advanced STS (other than Kaposi's sarcoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor) who received ≥1 lines of systemic therapy. Health care resource utilization related to advanced STS treatment was recorded; associated costs were estimated by applying unit costs...
2018: Sarcoma
N Z Ikeri, A O Akinjo, O O Ajayi, A A Banjo
Background: : The effective management of patients with cancer is predicated on the right diagnoses and other relevant parameters included in the pathology report. This is particularly important in soft tissue pathology where arriving at the right diagnosis is often challenging. The aim of this study, therefore, was to perform an audit of sarcoma diagnosis and reporting in our institution. Methods: Slides of soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in our institution over a 5-year period were reviewed with specialist soft tissue pathologists...
October 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Nivedita Gaur, Tanvi Tikla, Rajeev Kaul
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and various lymphoproliferative diseases. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important step in the metastasis of cancer cells. Previous studies have shown an important role for EMT markers in B-cell malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the role of the KSHV latent protein LANA in the progression of EMT. Our data suggest that expression of LANA results in an increase in the migration and invasion potential of cancer cells, which is concurrent with modulation of transcriptional regulation and protein expression of several cellular genes associated with EMT...
October 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
Huangbo Yuan, Zhenqiu Liu, Xuefu Wu, Qiwen Fang, Jun Zheng, Yan Zeng, Tiejun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is endemic in Xinjiang, China and its prevalence varies considerably across ethnic groups. The present study explored the prevalence and correlates of KSHV infection among Han and Uygur populations in Xinjiang. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, including 282 Han ethnicity and 312 Uygur, was conducted in Xinjiang, China. All participants underwent face to face questionnaire interview. Plasma samples were collected and screened for KSHV infection using immunofluorescence assay...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
IrfanAli R Kugasia, Arun Kumar, Akshay Khatri, Faisal Saeed, Humayun Islam, Oleg Epelbaum
Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) is a rare mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising in body cavities and presenting with effusions. It has been described predominantly in patients with impaired immunity from the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is associated with the Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Seldom has PEL been diagnosed in persons negative for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and in such cases it has occurred primarily in the setting of post-transplant immunosuppression. We report an instructive case of a Caribbean-American HIV-negative orthotopic heart transplant recipient with a history of HHV8-associated Kaposi's Sarcoma who developed HHV-8 viremia and PEL of the pleural space early in the post-transplant course...
October 1, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Chloé Charpentier, Julie Delyon, Denis Glotz, Marie-Noelle Peraldi, Jean-Philippe Rerolle, Benoît Barrou, Emilie Ducroux, Audrey Coilly, Camille Legeai, Stéphane Barete, Céleste Lebbé
BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor related to herpesvirus-8 and is promoted by immunosuppression. For the last 15 years, HIV patients have had access to organ transplantation. The dual immunosuppression of HIV and immunosuppressive treatments might increase the risk and severity of Kaposi sarcoma. METHODS: We conducted a multicentric retrospective study by collecting cases from French databases and society members of transplanted patients, among which 7 HIV-infected patients who subsequently developed Kaposi sarcoma were included...
October 16, 2018: Transplantation
B Saka, W Gnassingbe, S Akakpo, G Mahamadou, J Teclessou, A Mouhari-Toure, K Kombaté, K Tchangaï-Walla, P Pitché
The aim of this study was to report the frequency of and reasons for dermatology admissions in Lomé (Togo) between 2005 and 2016. This retrospective study examined records from August 2005 to December 2016 from the dermatology departments of the two teaching hospitals in Lomé, Togo. During the study period, 454 (1.1%) of the 40,231 new patients who consulted in dermatology were hospitalized, with a total of 460 separate admissions (mean dermatology hospitalizations per year: 42). Patients' mean age was 43±17...
August 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Serkan Yazici, Ozge Zorlu, Emel Bulbul Baskan, Saduman Balaban Adim, Kenan Aydogan, Hayriye Saricaoglu
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative tumor involving primarily the skin. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, demographic, histopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcome of 91 KS patients, and compare them with other contemporary research. METHODS: Medical records of 91 KS patients followed between January 2005 and September 2017 were evaluated retrospectively...
September 28, 2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
Oliver Manners, James C Murphy, Alex Coleman, David J Hughes, Adrian Whitehouse
Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are the causative agents of several malignancies. Like all herpesviruses, KSHV and EBV undergo distinct latent and lytic replication programmes. The transition between these states allows the establishment of a lifelong persistent infection, dissemination to sites of disease and the spread to new hosts. Latency-associated viral proteins have been well characterised in transformation and tumourigenesis pathways; however, a number of studies have shown that abrogation of KSHV and EBV lytic gene expression impairs the oncogenesis of several cancers...
September 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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