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TMS and connecticity

Zejia Zheng, Xiang Wu, Juyang Weng
Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. In this paper, we improve DN-1 with several new mechanisms and presenta new emergent neural Turing Machine - Developmental Network 2 (DN-2). By neural, we mean that the control of the TM has neurons as basic computing elements...
November 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Ghazaleh Darmani, Til O Bergmann, Carl Zipser, David Baur, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are emergent noninvasive markers of neuronal excitability and effective connectivity in humans. However, the underlying physiology of these TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) is still heavily underexplored, impeding a broad application of TEPs to study pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the effects of a single oral dose of three antiepileptic drugs with specific modes of action (carbamazepine, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker; brivaracetam, a ligand to the presynaptic vesicle protein VSA2; tiagabine, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake inhibitor) on TEP amplitudes in 15 healthy adults in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled crossover design...
December 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Pierpaolo Busan, Giovanni Del Ben, Lucia Roberta Russo, Simona Bernardini, Giulia Natarelli, Giorgio Arcara, Paolo Manganotti, Piero Paolo Battaglini
OBJECTIVE: Brain dynamics in developmental stuttering (DS) are not well understood. The supplementary motor area (SMA) plays a crucial role, since it communicates with regions related to planning/execution of movements, and with sub-cortical regions involved in paced/voluntary acts (such as speech). We used TMS combined with EEG to shed light on connections in DS, stimulating the SMA. METHODS: TMS/EEG was recorded in adult DS and fluent speakers (FS), stimulating the SMA during rest...
November 10, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
M Prabhavi N Perera, Neil W Bailey, Sally E Herring, Paul B Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease that causes significant decline in the quality of life of those affected. Due to our limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of OCD, successful treatment remains elusive. Although many have studied the pathophysiology of OCD through electroencephalography (EEG), limited attempts have been made to synthesize and interpret their findings. To bridge this gap, we conducted a comprehensive literature review using Medline/PubMed and considered the 65 most relevant studies published before June 2018...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jui-Yang Chang, Matteo Fecchio, Andrea Pigorini, Marcello Massimini, Giulio Tononi, Barry D Van Veen
BACKGROUND: The basic mechanisms underlying the electroencephalograpy (EEG) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human cortex are not well understood. NEW METHOD: A state-space modeling methodology is developed to gain insight into the network nature of the TMS/EEG response. Cortical activity is modeled using a multivariariate autoregressive model with exogenous stimulation parameters representing the effect of TMS. An observation equation models EEG measurement of cortical activity...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Enrico De Martino, David A Seminowicz, Siobhan M Schabrun, Laura Petrini, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Based on reciprocal connections between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and basal-ganglia regions associated with sensorimotor cortical excitability, it was hypothesized that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left DLPFC would modulate sensorimotor cortical excitability induced by muscle pain. Muscle pain was provoked by injections of nerve growth factor (end of Day-0 and Day-2) into the right extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle in two groups of 15 healthy participants receiving 5 daily sessions (Day-0 to Day-4) of active or sham rTMS...
November 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Mikko Hurme, Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo, Henry Railo
The study of blindsight has revealed a seminal dissociation between conscious vision and visually guided behavior: some patients who are blind due to V1 lesions seem to be able to employ unconscious visual information in their behavior. The standard assumption is that these findings generalize to the neurologically healthy. We tested whether unconscious processing of motion is possible without the contribution of V1 in neurologically healthy participants by disturbing activity in V1 using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
October 23, 2018: NeuroImage
Maria-Ioanna Stefanou, Debora Desideri, Paolo Belardinelli, Christoph Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann
The theory of communication through coherence predicts that effective connectivity between nodes in a distributed oscillating neuronal network depends on their instantaneous excitability state and phase synchronicity (Fries, 2005). Here, we tested this prediction by using state-dependent millisecond-resolved real-time electroencephalography-triggered dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (EEG-TMS) (Zrenner et al., 2018) to target the EEG negative (high-excitability state) vs. positive peak (low-excitability state) of the sensorimotor μ-rhythm in the left (conditioning) and right (test) motor cortex (M1) of 16 healthy human subjects (9 female, 7 male)...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Virginia Conde, Leo Tomasevic, Irina Akopian, Konrad Stanek, Guilherme B Saturnino, Axel Thielscher, Til Ole Bergmann, Hartwig Roman Siebner
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) excites populations of neurons in the stimulated cortex, and the resulting activation may spread to connected brain regions. The distributed cortical response can be recorded with electroencephalography (EEG). Since TMS also stimulates peripheral sensory and motor axons and generates a loud "click" sound, the TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) reflect not only neural activity induced by transcranial neuronal excitation but also neural activity due to somatosensory and auditory processing...
October 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Lipeng Ning, Nikos Makris, Joan A Camprodon, Yogesh Rathi
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique with therapeutic applications for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The standard protocol uses high frequency stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) identified in a heuristic manner leading to moderate clinical efficacy. A proposed strategy to increase the anatomical precision in targeting, based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), identifies the subregion within the DLPFC having the strongest anticorrelated functional connectivity with the subgenual cortex (SGC) for each individual subject...
October 13, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Ellana Welsby, Michael Ridding, Susan Hillier, Brenton Hordacre
BACKGROUND: Stroke can have devastating consequences for an individual's quality of life. Interventions capable of enhancing response to therapy would be highly valuable to the field of neurological rehabilitation. One approach is to use noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation, to induce a neuroplastic response. When delivered in combination with rehabilitation exercises, there is some evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation is beneficial...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
R D Sanders, M I Banks, M Darracq, R Moran, J Sleigh, O Gosseries, V Bonhomme, J F Brichant, M Rosanova, A Raz, G Tononi, M Massimini, S Laureys, M Boly
BACKGROUND: Impaired consciousness has been associated with impaired cortical signal propagation after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We hypothesised that the reduced current propagation under propofol-induced unresponsiveness is associated with changes in both feedforward and feedback connectivity across the cortical hierarchy. METHODS: Eight subjects underwent left occipital TMS coupled with high-density EEG recordings during wakefulness and propofol-induced unconsciousness...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Haosu Zhang, Nico Sollmann, Gabriel Castrillón, Katarzyna Kurcyus, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Sandro M Krieg
PURPOSE: Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is routinely applied in neuroscience and clinical settings, not much is known about its effects on brain networks. Therefore, this pilot study was set up using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to explore frequency-dependent stimulation effects on an intranetwork and internetwork level. METHODS: Six healthy subjects (median age: 23...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Takenobu Murakami, Mitsunari Abe, Winnugroho Wiratman, Juri Fujiwara, Masahiro Okamoto, Tomomi Mizuochi-Endo, Toshiki Iwabuchi, Michiru Makuuchi, Akira Yamashita, Amanda Tiksnadi, Fang-Yu Chang, Hitoshi Kubo, Nozomu Matsuda, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Satoshi Eifuku, Yoshikazu Ugawa
Observing mouth movements has strikingly effects on the perception of speech. Any mismatch between sound and mouth movements will result in listeners perceiving illusory consonants (McGurk effect), whereas matching mouth movements assist with the correct recognition of speech sounds. Recent neuroimaging studies have yielded evidence that the motor areas are involved in speech processing, yet their contributions to multisensory illusion remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in an event-related design, we aimed to identify the functional roles of the motor network in the occurrence of multisensory illusion in female and male brains...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marco Zanon, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
Humans show exquisite abilities to perform versatile finger movements. The inferior frontal cortex (IFC) plays a pivotal role in the visual control of such movements through connections with other sensorimotor regions. Yet, the dynamics of IFC effective connectivity during action execution are still poorly understood. Using single-pulse TMS and simultaneous EEG recording (i.e., TMS-EEG coregistration), we stimulated the left posterior IFC at rest and during a visuomotor task. We recorded TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) to assess action-related changes in IFC connectivity and localized their sources using sLORETA...
August 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Alberto Benussi, Antonella Alberici, Clarissa Ferrari, Valentina Cantoni, Valentina Dell'Era, Rosanna Turrone, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Giuliano Binetti, Barbara Paghera, Giacomo Koch, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction is a key abnormality in Alzheimer disease (AD) that can be detected in vivo with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols. Although TMS has clearly demonstrated analytical validity, its clinical utility is still debated. In the present study, we evaluated the incremental diagnostic value, expressed in terms of diagnostic confidence of Alzheimer disease (DCAD; range 0-100), of TMS measures in addition to the routine clinical diagnostic assessment in patients evaluated for cognitive impairment as compared with validated biomarkers of amyloidosis...
September 18, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jennifer K E Steeves, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) modulates activity at local and regions distal to the site of simulation. TMS has also been found to modulate brain networks, and it has been hypothesized that functional connectivity may predict the neuronal changes at local and distal sites in response to a TMS pulse. However, a direct relationship between resting connectivity and change in TMS-induced brain activation has yet to be demonstrated. Concurrent TMS-fMRI is a technique to directly measure this spread activity following TMS in real time...
July 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Alessio Avenanti
Skillful goal-directed manual actions such as grasping and manipulating objects are supported by a large sensorimotor network. Within this network, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) transforms visual information about objects into motor commands that are conveyed to the primary motor cortex (M1), allowing fine control of finger movements. However, it is unknown whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of this PMv-to-M1 hierarchical pathway improves action performance. To fill in this gap, here, we used cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (ccPAS) with the aim of manipulating synaptic efficacy in the human PMv-to-M1 pathway...
September 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Elena M Marron, Raquel Viejo-Sobera, María Quintana, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Daniel Rodríguez, Maite Garolera
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease is a major health problem in our society. To date, pharmacological treatments have obtained poor results and there is a growing interest in finding non-pharmacological interventions for this disease. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that is able to induce changes in brain activity and long-term modifications in impaired neural networks, becoming a promising clinical intervention. Our goal is to study the benefit of individualized TMS targeting based on the patient's functional connectivity (personalized targeting), and short duration TMS protocol, instead of current non-individualized and longer session approaches...
September 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Pantelis Lioumis, Reza Zomorrodi, Itay Hadas, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method that produces neural excitation in the cortex by means of brief, time-varying magnetic field pulses. The initiation of cortical activation or its modulation depends on the background activation of the neurons of the cortical region activated, the characteristics of the coil, its position and its orientation with respect to the head. TMS combined with simultaneous electrocephalography (EEG) and neuronavigation (nTMS-EEG) allows for the assessment of cortico-cortical excitability and connectivity in almost all cortical areas in a reproducible manner...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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