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TMS and connecticity

Takenobu Murakami, Mitsunari Abe, Winnugroho Wiratman, Juri Fujiwara, Masahiro Okamoto, Tomomi Mizuochi-Endo, Toshiki Iwabuchi, Michiru Makuuchi, Akira Yamashita, Amanda Tiksnadi, Fang-Yu Chang, Hitoshi Kubo, Nozomu Matsuda, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Satoshi Eifuku, Yoshikazu Ugawa
Observing mouth movements has strikingly effects on the perception of speech. Any mismatch between sound and mouth movements will result in listeners perceiving illusory consonants (McGurk effect), whereas matching mouth movements assist with the correct recognition of speech sounds. Recent neuroimaging studies have yielded evidence that the motor areas are involved in speech processing, yet their contributions to multisensory illusion remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in an event-related design, we aimed to identify the functional roles of the motor network in the occurrence of multisensory illusion in female and male brains...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marco Zanon, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
Humans show exquisite abilities to perform versatile finger movements. The inferior frontal cortex (IFC) plays a pivotal role in the visual control of such movements through connections with other sensorimotor regions. Yet, the dynamics of IFC effective connectivity during action execution are still poorly understood. Using single-pulse TMS and simultaneous EEG recording (i.e., TMS-EEG coregistration), we stimulated the left posterior IFC at rest and during a visuomotor task. We recorded TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) to assess action-related changes in IFC connectivity and localized their sources using sLORETA...
August 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Alberto Benussi, Antonella Alberici, Clarissa Ferrari, Valentina Cantoni, Valentina Dell'Era, Rosanna Turrone, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Giuliano Binetti, Barbara Paghera, Giacomo Koch, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction is a key abnormality in Alzheimer disease (AD) that can be detected in vivo with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols. Although TMS has clearly demonstrated analytical validity, its clinical utility is still debated. In the present study, we evaluated the incremental diagnostic value, expressed in terms of diagnostic confidence of Alzheimer disease (DCAD; range 0-100), of TMS measures in addition to the routine clinical diagnostic assessment in patients evaluated for cognitive impairment as compared with validated biomarkers of amyloidosis...
September 18, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jennifer K E Steeves, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) modulates activity at local and regions distal to the site of simulation. TMS has also been found to modulate brain networks, and it has been hypothesized that functional connectivity may predict the neuronal changes at local and distal sites in response to a TMS pulse. However, a direct relationship between resting connectivity and change in TMS-induced brain activation has yet to be demonstrated. Concurrent TMS-fMRI is a technique to directly measure this spread activity following TMS in real time...
July 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Alessio Avenanti
Skillful goal-directed manual actions such as grasping and manipulating objects are supported by a large sensorimotor network. Within this network, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) transforms visual information about objects into motor commands that are conveyed to the primary motor cortex (M1), allowing fine control of finger movements. However, it is unknown whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of this PMv-to-M1 hierarchical pathway improves action performance. To fill in this gap, here, we used cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (ccPAS) with the aim of manipulating synaptic efficacy in the human PMv-to-M1 pathway...
September 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Elena M Marron, Raquel Viejo-Sobera, María Quintana, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Daniel Rodríguez, Maite Garolera
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease is a major health problem in our society. To date, pharmacological treatments have obtained poor results and there is a growing interest in finding non-pharmacological interventions for this disease. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that is able to induce changes in brain activity and long-term modifications in impaired neural networks, becoming a promising clinical intervention. Our goal is to study the benefit of individualized TMS targeting based on the patient's functional connectivity (personalized targeting), and short duration TMS protocol, instead of current non-individualized and longer session approaches...
September 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Pantelis Lioumis, Reza Zomorrodi, Itay Hadas, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method that produces neural excitation in the cortex by means of brief, time-varying magnetic field pulses. The initiation of cortical activation or its modulation depends on the background activation of the neurons of the cortical region activated, the characteristics of the coil, its position and its orientation with respect to the head. TMS combined with simultaneous electrocephalography (EEG) and neuronavigation (nTMS-EEG) allows for the assessment of cortico-cortical excitability and connectivity in almost all cortical areas in a reproducible manner...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rachel Marie E Salas, Aadi Kalloo, Christopher J Earley, Pablo Celnik, Tiana E Cruz, Keyana Foster, Gabriela Cantarero, Richard P Allen
We assessed corticomotor excitability in the primary motor cortex (M1) of participants with moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in relation to the clinical and sleep aspects of the disease. Thirty-five participants (20 F; mean age: 59.23 ± 1.66 years; range: 42-78 years) affected by primary RLS (off medications) and 31 age-matched controls (19 F; mean age: 57.90 ± 1.50 years; range: 43-79 years) underwent TMS following two nights of polysomnography (PSG)...
September 2018: Sleep Medicine
Karita Suvi-Tuuli Salo, Selja M Vaalto, Tuomas P Mutanen, Matti Stenroos, Risto J Ilmoniemi
BACKGROUND: The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) enables one to study effective connectivity and activation order in neuronal networks. OBJECTIVE: To characterize effective connectivity originating from the primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor area (PMd), and supplementary motor area (SMA). METHODS: Three right-handed volunteers (2 males, aged 25-30) participated in a navigated TMS-EEG experiment...
August 28, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Andrew D Legarreta, Steve H Monk, Paul W Kirby, Benjamin L Brett, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Aashim Bhatia, Gary S Solomon, Scott L Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: Lasting neuroimaging changes after participation in American football are an increasing public health concern. The clinical relevance of imaging findings remains unknown. METHODS: A systematic review was performed with the following inclusion criteria: football players, brain imaging ≥2 years from previous concussion or retirement, and sample size ≥5. Studies were assessed for 1) methodology (control selection, type I error, and recall bias), 2) imaging outcomes, and 3) number of significant statistical comparisons...
August 23, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Wei-Chun Wang, Erik A Wing, David L K Murphy, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby, Roberto Cabeza, Simon W Davis
Brain stimulation technologies have seen increasing application in basic science investigations, specifically toward the goal of improving memory function. However, proposals concerning the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement often rely on simplified notions of excitation. As a result, most applications examining the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on functional neuroimaging measures have been limited to univariate analyses of brain activity. We present here analyses using representational similarity analysis (RSA) and encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) analysis to quantify the effect of TMS on memory representations...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Michael Vesia, Jody C Culham, Gaayathiri Jegatheeswaran, Reina Isayama, Ada Le, Marco Davare, Robert Chen
Recent findings suggest that the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial pathway, is involved in grasp control. It is unclear, however, whether human PMd transfers grasp-related information to the primary motor cortex hand area (M1HAND) during action preparation. The present study tested whether ipsilateral cortico-cortical connections between PMd and M1HAND in the left hemisphere are modulated during grasp preparation. Ten participants performed object-directed grasps and reaches with the right hand...
November 7, 2018: Neuroreport
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Davide Momi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Francesco Neri, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alessandro Rossi, Simone Rossi
Human cognitive abilities and behavior are linked to functional coupling of many brain regions organized in distinct networks. Gaining insights on the role those networks' dynamics play in cognition and pathology requires their selective, reliable, and reversible manipulation. Here we document the possibility to manipulate the interplay between two brain networks in a controlled manner, by means of a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol inducing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). Pairs of TMS pulses at specific inter-stimulus intervals, repeatedly delivered over two negatively correlated nodes of the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network (TPN) defined on the basis of individual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, induced a modulation of network-to-network connectivity, even reversing correlation from negative to slightly positive in 30% of cases...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jennifer Tübing, Bettina Gigla, Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Julius Verrel, Anne Weissbach, Christian Beste, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
The important role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the generation of tics and urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is underscored by an increased SMA-motor cortex (M1) connectivity. However, whether plasticity is also altered in SMA-M1 pathways is unclear. We explored whether SMA-M1 plasticity is altered in patients with Tourette syndrome. 15 patients with GTS (mean age of 33.4 years, SD = 9.9) and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated with a paired association stimulation (PAS) protocol using three transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils stimulating both M1 and the SMA...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giuseppe Cosentino, Salvatore Di Marco, Salvatore Ferlisi, Francesca Valentino, Walter M Capitano, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
INTRODUCTION: Connectivity within the primary motor cortex can be measured using the paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. This evaluates the effect of a first conditioning stimulus on the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by a second test stimulus when different interstimulus intervals are used. Aim of the present study was to provide, in patients suffering from migraine without aura (MwoA), additional information on intracortical facilitation (ICF), short intracortical inhibition (SICI), and long intracortical inhibition (LICI), using different intensities of the test stimulus (TS)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Cristina Simon-Martinez, Lisa Mailleux, Els Ortibus, Anna Fehrenbach, Giuseppina Sgandurra, Giovanni Cioni, Kaat Desloovere, Nicole Wenderoth, Philippe Demaerel, Stefan Sunaert, Guy Molenaers, Hilde Feys, Katrijn Klingels
BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) deficits in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP) have traditionally been targeted with motor execution treatment models, such as modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). However, new approaches based on a neurophysiological model such as Action-Observation Training (AOT) may provide new opportunities for enhanced motor learning. The aim of this study is to describe a randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocol investigating the effects of an intensive treatment model, combining mCIMT and AOT compared to mCIMT alone on UL function in children with uCP...
July 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jamila Andoh, Reiko Matsushita, Robert J Zatorre
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely used as a research tool to modulate cortical excitability of motor as well as non-motor areas, including auditory or language-related areas. NIBS, especially transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation, have also been used in clinical settings, with however variable therapeutic outcome, highlighting the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying NIBS techniques. TMS was initially used to address causality between specific brain areas and related behavior, such as language production, providing non-invasive alternatives to lesion studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Vesa Peltokorpi, Anthony C Hood
Transactive memory systems (TMS) theory has attracted considerable attention in the scholarly fields of cognitive, organizational, and social psychology; communication; information science; and management. A central theme underlying and connecting these scholarly fields has been the role of interpersonal communication in explaining how members of dyads, groups, and teams learn "who knows what," specialize in different information domains, and retrieve information from domain experts. However, because theoretical and empirical evidence is scattered across related, yet distinct scholarly fields, it is difficult to determine how and why communication influences TMS and related outcomes...
July 27, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Alessandro Padovani, Alberto Benussi, Valentina Cantoni, Valentina Dell'Era, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Salvatore Caratozzolo, Rosanna Turrone, Luca Rozzini, Antonella Alberici, Daniele Altomare, Alessandro Depari, Alessandra Flammini, Giovanni B Frisoni, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing evidence that disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) must be administered early in the disease course, the development of diagnostic tools capable of accurately identifying AD at early disease stages has become a crucial target. In this view, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become an effective tool to discriminate between different forms of neurodegenerative dementia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a TMS multi-paradigm approach can be used to correctly identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (AD MCI)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Marco Grados, Rachel Huselid, Laura Duque-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of impairing motor and vocal tics which often persists adolescent and adult years. In this older refractory group, standard treatments such as pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic interventions may only have limited effects. Based on electrical cortical dysregulation in individuals with TS, a novel approach has employed brain stimulation strategies to modulate the putative aberrant neural electrical activity in pathways that may underlie tics, such as insula-supplementary motor area (SMA) connectivity...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
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