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TMS and connecticity

Emiliano Santarnecchi, Davide Momi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Francesco Neri, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alessandro Rossi, Simone Rossi
Human cognitive abilities and behavior are linked to functional coupling of many brain regions organized in distinct networks. Gaining insights on the role those networks' dynamics play in cognition and pathology requires their selective, reliable, and reversible manipulation. Here we document the possibility to manipulate the interplay between two brain networks in a controlled manner, by means of a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol inducing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). Pairs of TMS pulses at specific inter-stimulus intervals, repeatedly delivered over two negatively correlated nodes of the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network (TPN) defined on the basis of individual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, induced a modulation of network-to-network connectivity, even reversing correlation from negative to slightly positive in 30% of cases...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jennifer Tübing, Bettina Gigla, Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Julius Verrel, Anne Weissbach, Christian Beste, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
The important role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the generation of tics and urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is underscored by an increased SMA-motor cortex (M1) connectivity. However, whether plasticity is also altered in SMA-M1 pathways is unclear. We explored whether SMA-M1 plasticity is altered in patients with Tourette syndrome. 15 patients with GTS (mean age of 33.4 years, SD = 9.9) and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated with a paired association stimulation (PAS) protocol using three transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils stimulating both M1 and the SMA...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giuseppe Cosentino, Salvatore Di Marco, Salvatore Ferlisi, Francesca Valentino, Walter M Capitano, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
INTRODUCTION: Connectivity within the primary motor cortex can be measured using the paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. This evaluates the effect of a first conditioning stimulus on the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by a second test stimulus when different interstimulus intervals are used. Aim of the present study was to provide, in patients suffering from migraine without aura (MwoA), additional information on intracortical facilitation (ICF), short intracortical inhibition (SICI), and long intracortical inhibition (LICI), using different intensities of the test stimulus (TS)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Cristina Simon-Martinez, Lisa Mailleux, Els Ortibus, Anna Fehrenbach, Giuseppina Sgandurra, Giovanni Cioni, Kaat Desloovere, Nicole Wenderoth, Philippe Demaerel, Stefan Sunaert, Guy Molenaers, Hilde Feys, Katrijn Klingels
BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) deficits in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP) have traditionally been targeted with motor execution treatment models, such as modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). However, new approaches based on a neurophysiological model such as Action-Observation Training (AOT) may provide new opportunities for enhanced motor learning. The aim of this study is to describe a randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocol investigating the effects of an intensive treatment model, combining mCIMT and AOT compared to mCIMT alone on UL function in children with uCP...
July 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jamila Andoh, Reiko Matsushita, Robert J Zatorre
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely used as a research tool to modulate cortical excitability of motor as well as non-motor areas, including auditory or language-related areas. NIBS, especially transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation, have also been used in clinical settings, with however variable therapeutic outcome, highlighting the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying NIBS techniques. TMS was initially used to address causality between specific brain areas and related behavior, such as language production, providing non-invasive alternatives to lesion studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Vesa Peltokorpi, Anthony C Hood
Transactive memory systems (TMS) theory has attracted considerable attention in the scholarly fields of cognitive, organizational, and social psychology; communication; information science; and management. A central theme underlying and connecting these scholarly fields has been the role of interpersonal communication in explaining how members of dyads, groups, and teams learn "who knows what," specialize in different information domains, and retrieve information from domain experts. However, because theoretical and empirical evidence is scattered across related, yet distinct scholarly fields, it is difficult to determine how and why communication influences TMS and related outcomes...
July 27, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Alessandro Padovani, Alberto Benussi, Valentina Cantoni, Valentina Dell'Era, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Salvatore Caratozzolo, Rosanna Turrone, Luca Rozzini, Antonella Alberici, Daniele Altomare, Alessandro Depari, Alessandra Flammini, Giovanni B Frisoni, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing evidence that disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) must be administered early in the disease course, the development of diagnostic tools capable of accurately identifying AD at early disease stages has become a crucial target. In this view, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become an effective tool to discriminate between different forms of neurodegenerative dementia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a TMS multi-paradigm approach can be used to correctly identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (AD MCI)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Marco Grados, Rachel Huselid, Laura Duque-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of impairing motor and vocal tics which often persists adolescent and adult years. In this older refractory group, standard treatments such as pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic interventions may only have limited effects. Based on electrical cortical dysregulation in individuals with TS, a novel approach has employed brain stimulation strategies to modulate the putative aberrant neural electrical activity in pathways that may underlie tics, such as insula-supplementary motor area (SMA) connectivity...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ting Liao, Liangzhi Kou, Aijun Du, Yuantong Gu, Ziqi Sun
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) combining the merits of both organic and inorganic functional building structures are fundamentally important and can meet the requirement of vast scientific and technological applications. Intrigued from the fact that transition metals (TMs) are widely embedded in the carbon sp2 network or strongly interact with a bare graphene edge, the single transition metal atom may work as a linker to connect carbon chains to build nanoarchitectures. A new MOF building structure, [Metal-Carbon-(Benzene) i -Chain] n ring abbreviated as [M-CB i C] n (M = Ti, V, and Cr), with increasing carbon chain length i (= 0, 1, 2, ···), was proposed as carbon chains CB i C connected by a single transition metal atom M to form a ring structure with multiedges n (= 2-6), based on advanced computational methods...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Therese M Gilligan, Robert D Rafal
A consensus has emerged that the cerebellum makes important contributions to a spectrum of linguistic processes, but that the psychobiology of these contributions remains enigmatic (Mariën et al., Cerebellum 13(3):386-410, 2014). One aspect of this enigma arises from the fact that, although the language-dominant left cerebral hemisphere is connected to the right cerebellum, distinctive contributions of the left cerebellar hemisphere have been documented (Murdoch and Whelan, Folia Phoniatr Logop 59:184-9, 2007), but remain poorly understood...
June 14, 2018: Cerebellum
Carl M Zipser, Isabella Premoli, Paolo Belardinelli, Nazareth Castellanos, Davide Rivolta, Tonio Heidegger, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
Evoked potentials (EPs) are well established in clinical practice for diagnosis and prognosis in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, their value is limited to the assessment of their respective functional systems. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coupled with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to investigate cortical excitability and spatiotemporal dynamics of TMS-evoked neural activity in MS patients. Thirteen patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) with a median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 1...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chun-Yu Tse, Long-Yin Yip, Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Xue-Zhen Xiao, Yang Wang, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Nathan Allen Parks, Sandra Sau-Man Chan, Sebastiaan Franciscus Wijnandus Neggers
Current theories of pre-attentive deviant detection postulate that before the Superior Temporal Cortex (STC) detects a change, the Inferior Frontal Cortex (IFC) engages in stimulus analysis, which is particularly critical for ambiguous deviations (e.g., deviant preceded by a short train of standards). These theories rest on the assumption that IFC and STC are functionally connected, which has only been supported by correlational brain imaging studies. We examined this functional connectivity assumption by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt IFC function, while measuring the later STC mismatch response with the event-related optical signal (EROS)...
October 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Arielle Tambini, Derek Evan Nee, Mark D'Esposito
The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memory, among other cognitive functions. However, few tools exist to causally manipulate hippocampal function in healthy human participants. Recent work has targeted hippocampal-cortical networks by performing TMS to a region interconnected with the hippocampus, posterior inferior parietal cortex (pIPC). Such hippocampal-targeted TMS enhances associative memory and influences hippocampal functional connectivity. However, it is currently unknown which stages of mnemonic processing (encoding or retrieval) are affected by hippocampal-targeted TMS...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Paolo A Grasso, Elisabetta Làdavas, Caterina Bertini, Serena Caltabiano, Gregor Thut, Stephanie Morand
Motion information can reach V5/MT through two parallel routes: one conveying information at early latencies through a direct subcortical route and the other reaching V5 later via recurrent projections through V1. Here, we tested the hypothesis that input via the faster direct pathway depends on motion characteristics. To this end, we presented motion stimuli to healthy human observers at different velocities (4.4°/sec vs. 23°/sec) with static stimuli as controls while applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses over V5 or V1...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Irena Balzekas, Charles P Lewis, Julia Shekunov, John D Port, Gregory A Worrell, Hang Joon Jo, Paul E Croarkin
Connectivity features based on resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) demonstrate great promise as biomarkers to guide diagnosis and treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is a pressing need for valid, reliable biomarkers closer to the bedside for clinical research and practice. This study directly compared RS-fMRI connectivity features with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) neurophysiological measures, long interval cortical inhibition (LICI) and cortical silent period (CSP), in female adolescents with MDD...
May 31, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Erica Varoli, Alberto Pisoni, Giulia C Mattavelli, Alessandra Vergallito, Alessia Gallucci, Lilia D Mauro, Mario Rosanova, Nadia Bolognini, Giuseppe Vallar, Leonor J Romero Lauro
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly used in both research and therapeutic settings, but its precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. At a neuronal level, tDCS modulates cortical excitability by shifting the resting membrane potential in a polarity-dependent way: anodal stimulation increases the spontaneous firing rate, while cathodal decreases it. However, the neurophysiological underpinnings of anodal/cathodal tDCS seem to be different, as well as their behavioral effect, in particular when high order areas are involved, compared to when motor or sensory brain areas are targeted...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alberto Pisoni, Leonor Josefina Romero Lauro, Alessandra Vergallito, Ottavia Maddaluno, Nadia Bolognini
Touch supports processes crucial to human social behaviour, adding a bodily dimension to the perception and understanding of others' feelings. Mirror cortical activity was proposed to underpin the interpersonal sharing of touch, allowing an automatic and unconscious simulation of others' somatic states. However, recent evidence questioned the existence of a tactile shared representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and the neural correlates of self-other distinction in the somatosensory system remains unknown...
September 2018: NeuroImage
Vlasios Karageorgos, Maria Venihaki, Stelios Sakellaris, Michail Pardalos, George Kontakis, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Achille Gravanis, Andreas Margioris, George Liapakis
Family B of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands play a central role in a number of homeostatic mechanisms in the endocrine, gastrointestinal, skeletal, immune, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Alterations in family B GPCR-regulated homeostatic mechanisms may cause a variety of potentially life-threatening conditions, signifying the necessity to develop novel ligands targeting these receptors. Obtaining structural and functional information on family B GPCRs will accelerate the development of novel drugs to target these receptors...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volker Arnd Coenen, Lena Valerie Schumacher, Christoph Kaller, Thomas Eduard Schlaepfer, Peter Christoph Reinacher, Karl Egger, Horst Urbach, Marco Reisert
Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB) - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
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