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TDCS and connectivity

Jennifer Saunders, Helen L Carlson, Filomeno Cortese, Bradley G Goodyear, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong disability, particularly hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are large, cortical, and subcortical injuries acquired near birth due to acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Periventricular venous infarctions (PVI) are smaller, subcortical strokes acquired prior to 34 weeks gestation involving injury to the periventricular white matter. Both stroke types can damage motor pathways, thus, we investigated resulting alterations in functional motor networks and probed function...
November 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Mengjiao Hu, Fang Ji, Zhongkang Lu, Weimin Huang, Reza Khosrowabadi, Ling Zhao, Kai Keng Ang, Kok Soon Phua, Fatima Ali Nasrallah, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Mary C Stephenson, John Totman, Xudong Jiang, Effie Chew, Cuntai Guan, Juan Zhou
Mapping the brain alterations post stroke and post intervention is important for rehabilitation therapy development. Previous work has shown changes in functional connectivity based on resting-state fMRI, structural connectivity derived from diffusion MRI and perfusion as a result of brain-computer interface-assisted motor imagery (MI-BCI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. Besides functional connectivity, regional amplitude of local low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) may provide complementary information on the underlying neural mechanism in disease...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Xin Wang, Wan-Wa Wong, Yuqi Fang, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Ka-Sing Wong, Raymond Kai-Yu Tong
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that serves as treatment tool to neurological disorders. However, the mechanism of how the stimulation modulates ongoing brain activity and connectivity is still not fully understood. Simultaneous acquisition of neuroimaging data together with brain stimulation could allow a noninvasive examination of the brain dynamic changes during the process. In this pilot study, concurrent tDCS and fMRI was conducted in a healthy subject...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Guo Dalong, Li Jiyuan, Zhang Ying, Zha Lei, Hou Yanhong, Shao Yongcong
Reductions in the alertness and information processing capacity of individuals due to sleep deprivation (SD) were previously thought to be related to dysfunction of the thalamocortical network. Previous studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can restore vigilance and information processing after SD. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms of tDCS following SD, by comparing changes in the brain network, especially the thalamocortical network, after tDCS and sham stimulation following 24 h of SD...
November 14, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lucia M Li, Ines R Violante, Rob Leech, Adam Hampshire, Alexander Opitz, David McArthur, David W Carmichael, David J Sharp
The Salience Network (SN) and its interactions are important for cognitive control. We have previously shown that structural damage to the SN is associated with abnormal functional connectivity between the SN and Default Mode Network (DMN), abnormal DMN deactivation, and impaired response inhibition, which is an important aspect of cognitive control. This suggests that stimulating the SN might enhance cognitive control. Here, we tested whether non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could be used to modulate activity within the SN and enhance cognitive control...
October 27, 2018: NeuroImage
Sarah Schäfer, Christian Frings
The processing of self-referential material is supposed to be located in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and in particular in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). A reliable method to assess effects of self-relevance is the so-called matching paradigm in which the prioritization of newly learned self-associations in comparison to non-self-relevant associations can be measured. To assess the connection of activation in the VMPFC and self-referential processing, we measured the self-prioritization effect (SPE) before and after experimentally manipulating activation in the VMPFC...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Mackenzie S Mills, Rachel K Spooner, Nathan M Coolidge, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive method for modulating human brain activity. Although there are several hypotheses about the net effects of tDCS on brain function, the field's understanding remains incomplete and this is especially true for neural oscillatory activity during cognitive task performance. In this study, we examined whether different polarities of occipital tDCS differentially alter flanker task performance and the underlying neural dynamics. To this end, 48 healthy adults underwent 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham occipital tDCS, and then completed a visual flanker task during high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Sangtae Ahn, Juliann M Mellin, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Morgan L Alexander, John H Gilmore, L Fredrik Jarskog, Flavio Fröhlich
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulates endogenous neural oscillations in healthy human participants by the application of a low-amplitude electrical current with a periodic stimulation waveform. Yet, it is unclear if tACS can modulate and restore neural oscillations that are reduced in patients with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Here, we asked if tACS modulates network oscillations in schizophrenia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial to contrast tACS with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and sham stimulation in 22 schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations...
October 24, 2018: NeuroImage
Alex I Wiesman, Mackenzie S Mills, Timothy J McDermott, Rachel K Spooner, Nathan M Coolidge, Tony W Wilson
The ability to preferentially deploy neural resources to the visual space is an important component of normative cognitive function, however, the population-level cortical dynamics that sub-serve this ability are not fully understood. Specifically, rhythmic activity in the occipital cortices (e.g., theta, alpha, and gamma oscillations) has been strongly implicated in this cognitive process, but these neural responses are difficult to non-invasively manipulate in a systematic manner. In this study, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) was used to modulate brain activity, while high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) was employed to quantify changes in rhythm-specific neural activity in the occipital cortices of 57 adults performing a visuospatial processing paradigm...
November 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Martin Ulrich, Johannes Niemann, Markus Boland, Thomas Kammer, Filip Niemann, Georg Grön
The experience of flow ensues when humans engage in a demanding task while task demands are balanced with the individual's level of skill or ability. Here, we further tested the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a causal role in mediating flow experience using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to interfere with MPFC's deactivation evoked by a flow paradigm and measured by magnetic resonance (MR)-based perfusion imaging. In a balanced, within-subjects repeated measure design, three treatments of tDCS (sham, anodal, cathodal) were applied in a sample of 22 healthy male participants...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Pantelis Lioumis, Reza Zomorrodi, Itay Hadas, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method that produces neural excitation in the cortex by means of brief, time-varying magnetic field pulses. The initiation of cortical activation or its modulation depends on the background activation of the neurons of the cortical region activated, the characteristics of the coil, its position and its orientation with respect to the head. TMS combined with simultaneous electrocephalography (EEG) and neuronavigation (nTMS-EEG) allows for the assessment of cortico-cortical excitability and connectivity in almost all cortical areas in a reproducible manner...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiaoyun Liu, Xi Yang, Zhenghua Hou, Ming Ma, Wenhao Jiang, Caiyun Wang, Yuqun Zhang, Yonggui Yuan
To explore the mechanism of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the improved performance of professional rowing athletes. Twelve male professional rowing athletes were randomly divided into two groups (low-stimulation group, 1 mA, n = 6; high-stimulation group, 2 mA, n = 6), and they accepted tDCS for two consecutive weeks while undergoing regular training (20 min each time, five times a week, totally ten times). The assessments of depression, anxiety, executive function, fatigue perception, lactate threshold power (LTP) and isokinetic muscle strength as well as the collection of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were performed at baseline and at follow-up (the end of the fourth week)...
August 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell'Era, Valentina Cantoni, Elisa Bonetta, Roberto Grasso, Rosa Manenti, Maria Cotelli, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a 2-week treatment with cerebellar anodal and spinal cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could reduce symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative ataxia and could modulate cerebello-motor connectivity at the short and long terms. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial with cerebello-spinal tDCS (5 d/wk for 2 weeks) in 20 patients with neurodegenerative ataxia. Each patient underwent a clinical evaluation before and after real tDCS or sham stimulation...
September 18, 2018: Neurology
Niranjan Khadka, Helen Borges, Adantchede L Zannou, Jongmin Jang, Byunggik Kim, Kiwon Lee, Marom Bikson
BACKGROUND: The adoption of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is encouraged by portability and ease-of-use. However, the preparation of tDCS electrodes remains the most cumbersome and error-prone step. Here, we validate the performance of the first "dry" electrodes for tDCS. A "dry electrode" excludes 1) any saline or other electrolytes, that are prone to spread and leaving a residue; 2) any adhesive at the skin interface; or 3) any electrode preparation steps except the connection to the stimulator...
September 2018: Brain Stimulation
Velicia Bachtiar, Ainslie Johnstone, Adam Berrington, Clark Lemke, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Uzay Emir, Charlotte J Stagg
Learning a novel motor skill is dependent both on regional changes within the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the active hand and also on modulation between and within anatomically distant but functionally connected brain regions. Interregional changes are particularly important in functional recovery after stroke, when critical plastic changes underpinning behavioral improvements are observed in both ipsilesional and contralesional M1s. It is increasingly understood that reduction in GABA in the contralateral M1 is necessary to allow learning of a motor task...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Valentina Fiori, Lisa Kunz, Philipp Kuhnke, Paola Marangolo, Gesa Hartwigsen
Recent studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) plays a key role in language learning. Facilitatory stimulation over this region by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate linguistic abilities in healthy individuals and improve language performance in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Neuroimaging studies in healthy participants have suggested that anodal tDCS decreases task-related activity at the stimulated site when applied during different language tasks, and changes resting-state connectivity in a larger network of areas associated with language processing...
July 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Bronte N Ficek, Zeyi Wang, Yi Zhao, Kimberly T Webster, John E Desmond, Argye E Hillis, Constantine Frangakis, Andreia Vasconcellos Faria, Brian Caffo, Kyrana Tsapkini
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an innovative technique recently shown to improve language outcomes even in neurodegenerative conditions such as primary progressive aphasia (PPA), but the underlying brain mechanisms are not known. The present study tested whether the additional language gains with repetitive tDCS (over sham) in PPA are caused by changes in functional connectivity between the stimulated area (the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)) and the rest of the language network. We scanned 24 PPA participants (11 female) before and after language intervention (written naming/spelling) with a resting-state fMRI sequence and compared changes before and after three weeks of tDCS or sham coupled with language therapy...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thomas Reed, Roi Cohen Kadosh
In this review, we describe transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques currently being used in neuroscientific research, including transcranial direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS) and random noise (tRNS) stimulation techniques. We explain how these techniques are used and summarise the proposed mechanisms of action for each technique. We continue by describing how each method has been used to alter endogenous neuronal oscillations and connectivity between brain regions, and we conclude by highlighting the varying effects of stimulation and discussing the future direction of these stimulation techniques in research...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Josefien Dedoncker, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Jonathan Remue, Sara De Witte, Guo-Rong Wu, Jill M Hooley, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
The mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) influences emotional processing - and whether this is related to individual vulnerability for psychopathology - are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate if one prefrontal tDCS session modulates mood and neural functional connectivity after being exposed to negative information differently in individuals low or high in perceived criticism (PC), which has been related to vulnerability for psychiatric illness. In a randomized cross-over design, one session of MRI-compatible prefrontal tDCS (neuronavigated placement of the anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital region; vs...
July 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Fabiola Paciello, Maria Vittoria Podda, Rolando Rolesi, Sara Cocco, Laura Petrosini, Diana Troiani, Anna Rita Fetoni, Gaetano Paludetti, Claudio Grassi
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool capable to modulate cortical functions by affecting neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS on auditory cortex (ACx) in normal-hearing rats and following a paradigm of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), that causes morphological alterations in ACx pyramidal neurons. METHODS: Male rats exposed to intense pure tone (10 kHz) were subsequently subjected to unilateral anodal tDCS of ACx and changes in dendritic morphology and spines were assessed by Golgi-Cox staining 30 days after the onset of the acoustic trauma...
September 2018: Brain Stimulation
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