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Jeonghoon Han, Jun Chul Park, Atsushi Hagiwara, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a large gene superfamily that are found in all living organisms. CYPs have a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals. Although aquatic invertebrate CYPs and their detoxification mechanisms have been reported, little is known about interspecific comparison of CYPs and their detoxification mechanism in the rotifer Brachionus spp. The aim of this study was to identify the entire CYPs in the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis (B. rotundiformis) and compare B...
December 4, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Chloe A Teasdale, Katharine Yuengling, Peter Preko, Maureen Syowai, Felix Ndagije, Miriam Rabkin, Elaine J Abrams, Wafaa M El-Sadr
INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing focus on test and treat strategies for people living with HIV (PLHIV), many continue to enrol late in care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they have advanced HIV disease. METHODS: We analyzed PLHIV ≥15 years of age starting ART in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania from 2005 to 2015 based on CD4+ groups at ART initiation (≥200, 100 to 199, 50 to 99 and <50 cells/mm3 ) to examine attrition (loss to follow-up (LTF) and death) using Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox proportional hazards models...
December 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Brett R Blackwell, Gerald T Ankley, Paul M Bradley, Keith A Houck, Sergei S Makarov, Alexander V Medvedev, Joe Swintek, Daniel L Villeneuve
While chemical analysis of contaminant mixtures remains an essential component of environmental monitoring, bioactivity-based assessments using in vitro systems increasingly are used in the detection of biological effects. Historically, in vitro assessments focused on a few biological pathways, e.g., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or estrogen receptor (ER) activities. High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies have greatly increased the number of biological targets and processes that can be rapidly assessed...
December 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
David W Bearl, Debra A Dodd, Cary Thurm, Matt Hall, Jonathan H Soslow, Brian Feingold, Justin Godown
Right ventricular (RV) failure is a potentially fatal complication following heart transplantation (HTx). Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator that is used to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance immediately post-HTx to reduce the risk of RV failure. The aim of this study was to describe utilization patterns, costs, and outcomes associated with post-transplant iNO use in children. All pediatric HTx recipients (2002-2016) were identified from a unique linked PHIS/SRTR dataset. Post-HTx iNO use was determined based on hospital billing data...
December 13, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Richard L Amdur, Harold I Feldman, Elizabeth A Dominic, Amanda H Anderson, Srinivasan Beddhu, Mahboob Rahman, Myles Wolf, Muredach Reilly, Akinlolu Ojo, Raymond R Townsend, Alan S Go, Jiang He, Dawei Xie, Sally Thompson, Matthew Budoff, Scott Kasner, Paul L Kimmel, John W Kusek, Dominic S Raj
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Traditional risk estimates for atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) and death may not perform optimally in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine whether the addition of measures of inflammation and kidney function to traditional estimation tools improves prediction of these events in a diverse cohort of patients with CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 2,399 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at study entry...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Yun-Ho Hwang, Su-Jin Kim, Hangun Kim, Sung-Tae Yee
Asthma is an inflammatory disease caused by an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells. In general, asthma is characterized by a stronger Th2 response. Most conventional asthma treatment focuses on improving airway flow or suppression of airway inflammation. To reduce the side effects of currently used asthma medicines, we have conducted studies on natural products that have no side effects. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG), the main compound of Polygonum multiflorum (PM), has various biological activities, including anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activities...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Deborah Gérard, Florian Schmidt, Aurélien Ginolhac, Martine Schmitz, Rashi Halder, Peter Ebert, Marcel H Schulz, Thomas Sauter, Lasse Sinkkonen
Temporal data on gene expression and context-specific open chromatin states can improve identification of key transcription factors (TFs) and the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) controlling cellular differentiation. However, their integration remains challenging. Here, we delineate a general approach for data-driven and unbiased identification of key TFs and dynamic GRNs, called EPIC-DREM. We generated time-series transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles during differentiation of mouse multipotent bone marrow stromal cell line (ST2) toward adipocytes and osteoblasts...
December 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jiahui Qian, Anita Elizabeth Heywood, Surendra Karki, Emily Banks, Kristine Macartney, Lorraine Chantrill, Bette Liu
Background: Information on the risks of herpes zoster (zoster) preceding a cancer diagnosis and the role of cancer treatment on risk is limited. Methods: This was a prospective cohort of 241497 adults, with mean age 62.0 years at recruitment (2006-2009), linked to health datasets from 2006 to 2015. The relation between cancer diagnosis, treatment, and zoster risk was analyzed using time-varying proportional hazards models. Results:  Over 1760 481 person-years of follow-up, 20286 new cancer diagnoses and 16350 zoster events occurred...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Cecile Dinh, Paul Livingston, Yeuk-Mui Lee, Shabir Lakhi, Debi Boeras, Htee Khu Naw, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Tyronza Sharkey, Rachel Parker, Erin Shutes, Amanda Tichacek, W Evan Secor, Susan Allen
BACKGROUND: We examined relationships between schistosome infection, HIV transmission or acquisition, and all-cause death. METHODS: We retrospectively tested baseline sera from a heterosexual HIV-discordant couple cohort in Lusaka, Zambia with follow-up from 1994-2012 in a nested case-control design. Schistosome-specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Associations between baseline antibody response to schistosome antigens and incident HIV transmission, acquisition, and all-cause death stratified by gender and HIV status were assessed...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jing Zhai, Michael Insel, Kenneth J Addison, Debra A Stern, William Pederson, Alane Dy, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, Caroline A Owen, Duane L Sherrill, Wayne Morgan, Anne L Wright, Marilyn Halonen, Fernando Martinez, Monica Kraft, Stefano Guerra, Julie G Ledford
RATIONALE: Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16), a member of the secretoglobin family, is one of the most abundant proteins in normal airway secretions and has been described as a serum biomarker for obstructive lung diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low CC16 is a marker for airway pathology or is implicated in the pathophysiology of progressive airway damage in these conditions. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: Using human data from the birth cohort of the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (TCRS), we examined the relation of circulating CC16 levels with pulmonary function and responses to bronchial methacholine challenge from childhood up to age 32 years...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Samson Okello, Fardous Charles Abeya, Boniface Amanee Elias Lumori, Suzan Joan Akello, Christopher Charles Moore, Brian H Annex, Andrew J Buda
BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important treatment goal that could serve as low-cost prognostication tool in resource poor settings. We sought to validate the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and evaluate its use as a predictor of 3 months all-cause mortality among heart failure participants in rural Uganda. METHODS: The Mbarara Heart Failure Registry Cohort study observes heart failure patients during hospital stay and in the community in rural Uganda...
December 12, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Wei Wu, Yinfang Li, Zelin Jiao, Li Zhang, Xiaohua Wang, Rui Qin
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic airway immunoinflammatory disorder characterized by airway remodeling. Phyllanthus amarus has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. AIM: To evaluate the possible mechanism of action of isolated phytoconstituents from P. amarus (PA) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were isolated and characterized (HPLC) from the methanolic extract of PA...
December 12, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Ping Meng, Zhuang-Gui Chen, Tian-Tuo Zhang, Zhuo-Zheng Liang, Xiao-Ling Zou, Hai-Ling Yang, Hong-Tao Li
Interleukin (IL)-37 has been described as a negative regulator of immune responses and is critical for asthma pathogenesis, but the mechanisms behind the protective role of IL-37 against allergic asthma are less well understood. We show here that IL-37 administered intranasally (i.n.) inhibited house dust mite (HDM)-induced chronic airway eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, peribronchial collagen deposition and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. In contrast to a weakened Th2 response in the lung that was characterized by the downregulation of Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines in IL-37-treated mice, IL-37 has no effect on relevant markers of systemic Th2 immune including serum immunoglobulins expression and in vitro production of Th2-associated cytokines by splenocytes on HDM recall...
December 11, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Lenny Kamelia, Sylvia Brugman, Laura de Haan, Hans B Ketelslegers, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Peter J Boogaard
The present study evaluates the applicability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) to assess prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) potency of the DMSO-extracts of 9 petroleum substances (PS), with variable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, and 2 gas-to-liquid (GTL) products, without any PAHs but otherwise similar properties to PS. The results showed that all PS extracts induced concentration-dependent in vitro PDT, as quantified in the ZET and that this potency is associated with their 3-5 ring PAH content...
December 7, 2018: ALTEX
June K Dunnick, Arun R Pandiri, B A Merrick, Grace E Kissling, Helen Cunny, Esra Mutlu, Suramya Waidyanatha, Robert C Sills, Hue-Hua L Hong, Thai-Vu Ton, Timonthy Maynor, Leslie Rescio, Siuzanne L Phillips, Michael J Devito, Amy Brix
This article describes data related to the research article entitled "Carcinogenic activity of pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) in rats and mice" (Dunnick et al., 2018). PBDE-induced hepatocellular tumors harbored Hras and Ctnnb1 mutations and the methods for these studies are provided. Tissue levels of PBDE congeners in rats and mice after oral exposure to PBDE mixture increased with increasing dose of PBDE. There was no correlation between AhR status and the incidence of hepatocellular tumors in female Wistar Han rats...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Lii-Jia Yang, Ping-Hsun Wu, Teng-Hui Huang, Ming-Yen Lin, Jer-Chia Tsai
BACKGROUND: Thiazide, a first-line therapy for hypertension, lowers blood pressure, increases bone mineral density, and reduces the risk of fractures. However, hyponatremia, an adverse effect of thiazide, is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. It is currently unclear whether thiazide-associated hyponatremia (TAH) outweighs the protective effects of thiazide. METHODS: Using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified patients who were prescribed thiazide between 1998 and 2010...
2018: PloS One
Yujin Yang, Gyung-Min Park, Seungbong Han, Yong-Giun Kim, Jon Suh, Hyun Woo Park, Ki-Bum Won, Soe Hee Ann, Shin-Jae Kim, Dae-Won Kim, Mahn-Won Park, Sung Ho Her, Sang-Gon Lee
OBJECTIVES: Despite an obvious improvement in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) and survival rate of patients with CAD during recent decades, diabetes mellitus (DM) is still considered a risk factor of adverse clinical outcomes in these patients. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the clinical implications of DM in patients with CAD who underwent contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Based on the National Health Insurance claims data in South Korea, patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone PCI for the diagnosis of CAD between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Po-Hong Liu, Kristin E Burke, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Paul Lochhead, Ola Olen, Jonas F Ludvigsson, James M Richter, Andrew T Chan, Hamed Khalili
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity promotes intestinal inflammation and might contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the association between obesity and risk of microscopic colitis in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We collected data from 192,101 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (from 1986 through 2014) or NHSII (from 1991 through 2015). Anthropomorphic and lifestyle information were self-reported biennially. Obesity was defined using body mass index (BMI)...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
James D Nolin, Ryan C Murphy, Michael H Gelb, William A Altemeier, William R Henderson, Teal S Hallstrand
Elevated secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 ) activity in the airways has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic disease for some time. The identity and function of these enzymes in asthma is becoming clear from work in our lab and others. We focused on sPLA2 group X (sPLA2 -X) after identifying increased levels of this enzyme in asthma, and that it is responsible for a large portion of sPLA2 activity in the airways and that the levels are strongly associated with features of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)...
December 5, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Noriaki Kurita, Tadao Akizawa, Shunichi Fukuhara
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The infrequent assessment of vitality in clinical practice may be partially due to an inadequate understanding of vitality and the lack of a concise method of assessing it. This study aimed to examine the association of a simple 1-item "vitality" question measuring self-reported energy level with clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 3,667 hemodialysis patients participating in the Japanese Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study (J-DOPPS), phases 3 to 4 (2005-2011)...
December 7, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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