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Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Yi-Fong Wang, Hung-Jung Lin, Jhi-Joung Wang, How-Ran Guo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on reducing neurological sequelae (NS) in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). Using a nationwide database of insurance claims in Taiwan, we conducted a population-based cohort study to identify 24,046 patients with COP diagnosed between 1999 and 2012, including 6793 (28.2%) patients who received HBOT and 17,253 (71.8%) patients who did not. We followed the two cohorts of patients and compared the occurrence of NS...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Tawfik Addi, Laetitia Dou, Stéphane Burtey
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) display an elevated risk of thrombosis. Thrombosis occurs in cardiovascular events, such as venous thromboembolism, stroke, and acute coronary syndrome, and is a cause of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction. CKD leads to the accumulation of uremic toxins, which exerts toxic effects on blood and the vessel wall. Some uremic toxins result from tryptophan metabolization in the gut through the indolic and the kynurenine pathways. An increasing number of studies are highlighting the link between such uremic toxins and thrombosis in CKD...
October 12, 2018: Toxins
Alexandra Ulin, Jake Henderson, Minh-Tam Pham, James Meyo, Yuying Chen, Sibel I Karchner, Jared V Goldstone, Mark E Hahn, Larissa M Williams
Interactions between regulatory pathways allow organisms to adapt to their environment and respond to stress. One interaction that has been recently identified occurs between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor (NRF) family. Each transcription factor regulates numerous downstream genes involved in the cellular response to toxicants and oxidative stress; they are also implicated in normal developmental pathways. The zebrafish model was used to explore the role of AHR regulation of nrf genes during development and in response to toxicant exposure...
October 13, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Anne Derache, Collins C Iwuji, Kathy Baisley, Siva Danaviah, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Tulio de Oliveira, François Dabis, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay
Background: Previous studies in HIV-positive individuals on thymidine analogue backbone antiretroviral therapy (ART) with either nevirapine or efavirenz have suggested poorer virological outcomes in the presence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR). We assessed the impact of PDR on virological suppression (VS) [<50copies/mL] in individuals prescribed primarily tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz in rural KwaZulu-Natal within a Treatment as Prevention trial. Methods: Among 1,557 HIV-positive individuals reporting no prior ART at study entry and provided plasma samples, 1,328 individuals with entry viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/mL had next generation sequencing (NGS) of the HIV pol gene with MiSeq technology...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lara Ravanetti, Annemiek Dijkhuis, Tamara Dekker, Yanaika S Sabogal Pineros, Abilash Ravi, Barbara S Dierdorp, Jonas S Erjefält, Michiko Mori, Stelios Pavlidis, Ian M Adcock, Navin L Rao, René Lutter
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus triggers severe exacerbations of asthma for which no adequate treatment is available. It is known that IL-33 levels correlate with exacerbation severity, but its role in the immune-pathogenesis of exacerbations has remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that IL-33 is necessary to drive asthma exacerbations. We intervened with the IL-33 cascade and sought to dissect its role, also in synergy with TSLP, in airway inflammation, anti-viral activity and lung function...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
J P Lindenmayer, Mila Kirstie C Kulsa, Tania Sultana, Amandeep Kaur, Ran Yang, Isidora Ljuri, Benedicto Parker, Anzalee Khan
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive neurostimulation treatment, has been reported in a number of sham-controlled studies to show significant improvements in treatment-resistant auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia patients, primarily in ambulatory and higher-functioning patients, but little is known of the effects of tDCS on hospitalized, low-functioning inpatients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of tDCS for auditory hallucinations in hospitalized ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and to evaluate the effects of tDCS on cognitive functions...
October 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Linn Håkonsen Arendt, Morten Søndergaard Lindhard, Camilla Kjersgaard, Tine Brink Henriksen, Jørn Olsen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To study if parental subfertility is related to the occurrence of the male genital anomalies, cryptorchidism and hypospadias. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 80,220 singleton boys and their mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Aarhus Birth Cohort. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The two congenital anomalies; cryptorchidism and hypospadias, registered within the Danish National Patient Register up until December 31, 2012...
October 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Leah A Owens, Erica J Hoffmann, Madeline E Gallo, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Christopher A Bradfield, Joshua D Mezrich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune diseases have increased in incidence and prevalence worldwide. While genetic predispositions play a role, environmental factors are a major contributor. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture composed of metals, nitrates, sulfates and diverse adsorbed organic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Exposure to atmospheric PM aggravates autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, among others...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Luna Ge, Yazhou Cui, Kai Cheng, Jinxiang Han
Isopsoralen (IPRN), one of the main effective ingredients in Psoralea corylifolia Linn, has a variety of biological effects, including antiosteoporotic effects. In vivo studies show that IPRN can increase bone strength and trabecular bone microstructure in a sex hormone deficiency-induced osteoporosis model. However, the mechanism underlying this osteogenic potential has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of IPRN-induced osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 cells...
October 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nirmal K Roy, Melissa DellaTorre, Allison Candelmo, R Christopher Chambers, Ehren Habeck, Isaac Wirgin
Sturgeon species are imperiled world-wide by a variety of anthropogenic stressors including chemical contaminants. Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, are largely sympatric acipenserids whose young life-stages are often exposed to high levels of benthic-borne PCBs and PCDD/Fs in large estuaries along the Atlantic Coast of North America. In previous laboratory studies, we demonstrated that both sturgeon species are sensitive to early life-stage toxicities from exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of coplanar PCBs and TCDD...
September 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Tanveen Ishaque, Allan B Massie, Mary G Bowring, Christine E Haugen, Jessica M Ruck, Samantha E Halpern, Madeleine M Waldram, Macey L Henderson, Jacqueline Garonzik Wang, Andrew MacGregor Cameron, Benjamin Philosophe, Shane Ottmann, Anne F Rositch, Dorry L Segev
Historically, exception points for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) led to higher transplant rates and lower waitlist mortality compared to non-HCC candidates. As of October 2015, HCC candidates must wait 6 months after initial application to obtain exception points; the impact of this policy remains unstudied. Using 2013-2017 SRTR data, we identified 39,350 adult, first-time, active waitlist candidates and compared deceased-donor liver transplant (DDLT) rates, and waitlist mortality/dropout for HCC versus non-HCC candidates before (10/8/2013-10/7/2015, pre-policy) and after (10/8/2015-10/7/2017, post-policy) the policy change using Cox and competing risks regression, respectively...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Chenchun Wu, Shuran Yu, Qianxia Tan, Peng Guo, Huining Liu
Choriocarcinoma is sensitive to chemotherapy. However, drug resistance has become one of the major problems in recent years. Previous studies have shown that many tumors contained a small fraction of cells that exhibited enhanced tumor initiating potential and stem cell-like properties. It is hypothesized that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are organized in a cellular hierarchy. They also have the qualities of self-renewal, chemoresistance, and so on. The identification of CSCs in choriocarcinoma and the mechanism contributing to their qualities remain largely unknown...
October 12, 2018: Cell Cycle
Ashkon Shaahinfar, Irene H Yen, Harrison J Alter, Ginny Gildengorin, Sun-Ming J Pan, James M Betts, Jahan Fahimi
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether children surviving to hospital discharge after firearm and non-firearm assault are at increased risk of mortality relative to survivors of unintentional trauma. Secondarily, to elucidate the factors associated with long-term mortality after pediatric trauma. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients aged 0 to 16 years who presented to the three trauma centers in San Francisco and Alameda counties, California between January 2000 and December 2009 after (1) firearm assault (FA), (2) non-firearm assault (NFA) and (3) unintentional trauma (UT)...
October 12, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Hiroyuki Sano, Katsuyuki Tomita, Akiko Sano, Shou Saeki, Yusaku Nishikawa, Osamu Nishiyama, Takashi Iwanaga, Yuji Tohda
BACKGROUND: We obtain summary estimates of the accuracy of additional objective tests for the diagnosis of adult asthma using systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and other relevant electronic databases were searched for papers published between January 1989 and December 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of objective tests, including airway reversibility (AR), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) for the diagnosis of adult asthma in patients with symptoms suggestive of asthma...
October 8, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Thai P Hong, Paul J Gow, Michael Fink, Anouk Dev, Stuart K Roberts, Amanda Nicoll, John S Lubel, Ian Kronborg, Niranjan Arachchi, Marno Ryan, William W Kemp, Virginia Knight, Vijaya Sundararajan, Paul Desmond, Alexander Jv Thompson, Sally J Bell
OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the effect of HCC surveillance on survival. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective population-based cohort study of patients newly diagnosed with HCC in seven tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall survival (maximum follow-up, 24 months); factors associated with HCC surveillance participation and survival...
October 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Jiacheng Yang, Patrick Roth, Christopher R Ruehl, Martin M Shafer, Dagmara S Antkiewicz, Thomas D Durbin, David Cocker, Akua Asa-Awuku, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from four light-duty gasoline direct injection vehicles when operated over the LA92 driving cycle. Our results showed that particle mass and number emissions increased markedly during accelerations. For three of the four vehicles tested, particulate matter (PM) mass and particle number emissions were markedly higher during cold-start and the first few accelerations following the cold-start period than during the hot running and hot-start segments of the LA92 cycle...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ashlyn C Harmon, Valeria Y Hebert, Stephania A Cormier, Balamurugan Subramanian, James R Reed, Wayne L Backes, Tammy R Dugas
Particulate matter (PM) is emitted during the combustion of fuels and wastes. PM exposure exacerbates pulmonary diseases, and the mechanism may involve oxidative stress. At lower combustion temperatures such as occurs in the cool zone of a flame, aromatic compounds chemisorb to the surface of metal-oxide-containing PM, resulting in the formation of surface-stabilized environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR). Prior studies showed that PM-containing EPFR redox cycle to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and after inhalation, EPFR induce pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress...
2018: PloS One
Chih-Chien Hung, Chen-Yu Wang, Shau-Huai Fu, Rong-Sen Yang, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
This nationwide cohort study examined the potential disease-modifying effect of anti-osteoporosis medication on hip osteoarthritis. The results revealed that the usage of anti-osteoporosis medication is not associated with decreased risk in undergoing total hip arthroplasty in patient with hip osteoarthritis. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the association between use of anti-osteoporosis medications (AOMs) and the risk of undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA)...
October 10, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Tresa George, Mainak Chakraborty, Mark A Giembycz, Robert Newton
Background: Asthma exacerbations are associated with the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs. These cells release proteases and mediators, many of which act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that couple via Gq to promote bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Common asthma therapeutics up-regulate expression of the regulator of G protein signalling (RGS), RGS2. As RGS2 reduces signaling from Gq-coupled GPCRs, we have defined role(s) for this GTPase-activating protein in an acute neutrophilic model of lung inflammation...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Katrine Feldballe Bernholm, Anne-Sophie Homøe, Howraman Meteran, Camilla Bjørn Jensen, Celeste Porsbjerg, Vibeke Backer
Asthma is characterised by inflammation and respiratory symptoms. Current asthma treatment is based on severity of asthma symptoms only. Exhaled nitric oxide fraction ( F eNO ) is not recommended by the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. The aim was to compare the usefulness of a F eNO guided versus symptom-based treatment in achieving improved asthma control assessed by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). 80 asthmatic patients were included in a double-blinded, parallel, randomised controlled trial with follow-up visits after 8, 24 and 36 weeks...
October 2018: ERJ Open Research
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