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Anna K Wójtowicz, Agnieszka M Sitarz-Głownia, Małgorzata Szczęsna, Konrad A Szychowski
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer in various plastic compounds, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and products including baby toys, packaging films and sheets, medical tubing, and blood storage bags. Epidemiological data suggest that phthalates increase the risk of the nervous system disorders; however, the impact of DEHP on the brain cells and the mechanisms of its action have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), as well as Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 mRNA and protein expression in primary mouse cortical neurons and glial cells in the in vitro mono-cultures...
August 18, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Henrik M Roager, Tine R Licht
Accumulating evidence implicates metabolites produced by gut microbes as crucial mediators of diet-induced host-microbial cross-talk. Here, we review emerging data suggesting that microbial tryptophan catabolites resulting from proteolysis are influencing host health. These metabolites are suggested to activate the immune system through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), enhance the intestinal epithelial barrier, stimulate gastrointestinal motility, as well as secretion of gut hormones, exert anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative or toxic effects in systemic circulation, and putatively modulate gut microbial composition...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Amina Metidji, Sara Omenetti, Stefania Crotta, Ying Li, Emma Nye, Ellie Ross, Vivian Li, Muralidhara R Maradana, Chris Schiering, Brigitta Stockinger
The epithelium and immune compartment in the intestine are constantly exposed to a fluctuating external environment. Defective communication between these compartments at this barrier surface underlies susceptibility to infections and chronic inflammation. Environmental factors play a significant, but mechanistically poorly understood, role in intestinal homeostasis. We found that regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) upon injury through infection or chemical insults was profoundly influenced by the environmental sensor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)...
August 1, 2018: Immunity
Hormuzdiyar Dasenbrock, William B Gormley, Yoojin Lee, Vincent Mor, Susan L Mitchell, Corey R Fehnel
OBJECTIVE Data evaluating the long-term outcomes, particularly with regard to treatment modality, of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in octogenarians are limited. The primary objectives were to evaluate the disposition (living at home vs institutional settings) and analyze the predictors of long-term survival and return to home for octogenarians after SAH. METHODS Data pertaining to patients age 80 and older who underwent microsurgical clipping or endovascular coiling for SAH were extracted from 100% nationwide Medicare inpatient claims and linked with the Minimum Data Set (2008-2011)...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Hsueh-Yi Lu, Kuang-Ming Liao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that chronic kidney disease increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT is the risk of pulmonary embolism among persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Information on the incidence of DVT in ESRD is limited, and no studies have been conducted in the Asian population. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of DVT in Asian ESRD patients by comparing with the non-ESRD patients and to identify the associated risk factors...
August 16, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Yeon-Yong Kim, Jin-Seok Lee, Hee-Jin Kang, Sang Min Park
This study determined the effects of anti-diabetic medication adherence on the long-term all-cause mortality and hospitalization for cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction among newly diagnosed patients. The study used retrospective cohort from the National Health Insurance Service. Study participants were 65,076 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged ≥40 years. The medication adherence was evaluated from the proportion of days covered (PDC) between 2006 and 2007. Outcome variables were mortality, newly diagnosed cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in 2008-2017...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu-Feng Lin, Shuei-Liong Lin, Tao-Min Huang, Shao-Yu Yang, Tai-Shuan Lai, Likwang Chen, Vin-Cent Wu, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Kwan-Dun Wu
OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is related to a high prevalence of insulin resistance. However, information is lacking on the sequelae of further metabolic change among AKI requiring dialysis in patients who could be weaned off dialysis (acute kidney disease [AKD]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010, with the exclusion of those with diabetes at the start, we identified 3,307 subjects with AKD and 9,921 matched control subjects from 963,037 hospitalized patients for the comparison of the outcomes, including new-onset diabetes and all-cause mortality...
August 13, 2018: Diabetes Care
Shih-Chi Wu, William Tzu-Liang Chen, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chung Y Hsu
OBJECTIVES: Hepatic parasympathetic nerves branch off the vagus nerve. The vagal and hepatic nervous systems are important in liver physiological processes and some diseases such as diabetes, obesity and liver cirrhosis. We were interested in vagal nerve integrity and subsequent diseases in peptic ulcer patients. Herein, we used National Health Insurance database in Taiwan and retrospectively assessed the risk of developing liver cirrhosis in peptic ulcer patients with and without complications by surgical treatments...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Marija Polovina, Gerhard Hindricks, Aldo Maggioni, Massimo Piepoli, Panos Vardas, Milika Ašanin, Dijana Ðikic, Nemanja Ðuricic, Ivan Milinkovic, Petar M Seferovic
Aims: Evidence suggests an excess risk of non-thromboembolic major adverse cardiac events (MACE) associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly in individuals free of overt coronary artery disease (CAD). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases cardiovascular risk in the general population, but less is known how it influences outcomes in AF patients. We aimed to assess whether MetS affects the risk of MACE in AF patients without overt CAD. Methods and results: This prospective, observational study enrolled 843 AF patients (mean-age, 62...
August 7, 2018: European Heart Journal
A Pinto, S Adams, K Ahring, H Allen, M F Almeida, D Garcia-Arenas, N Arslan, M Assoun, Y Atik Altınok, D Barrio-Carreras, A Belanger Quintana, S M Bernabei, C Bontemps, F Boyle, G Bruni, M Bueno-Delgado, G Caine, R Carvalho, A Chrobot, K Chyż, B Cochrane, C Correia, K Corthouts, A Daly, S De Leo, A Desloovere, A De Meyer, A De Theux, B Didycz, M E Dijsselhof, K Dokoupil, J Drabik, C Dunlop, W Eberle-Pelloth, K Eftring, J Ekengren, I Errekalde, S Evans, A Foucart, L Fokkema, L François, M French, E Forssell, C Gingell, C Gonçalves, H Gökmen Özel, A Grimsley, G Gugelmo, E Gyüre, C Heller, R Hensler, I Jardim, C Joost, M Jörg-Streller, C Jouault, A Jung, M Kanthe, N Koç, I L Kok, T Kozanoğlu, B Kumru, F Lang, K Lang, I Liegeois, A Liguori, R Lilje, O Ļubina, P Manta-Vogli, D Mayr, C Meneses, C Newby, U Meyer, S Mexia, C Nicol, U Och, S M Olivas, C Pedrón-Giner, R Pereira, K Plutowska-Hoffmann, J Purves, A Re Dionigi, K Reinson, M Robert, L Robertson, J C Rocha, C Rohde, S Rosenbaum-Fabian, A Rossi, M Ruiz, J Saligova, A Gutiérrez-Sánchez, A Schlune, K Schulpis, J Serrano-Nieto, A Skarpalezou, R Skeath, A Slabbert, K Straczek, M Giżewska, A Terry, R Thom, A Tooke, J Tuokkola, E van Dam, T A M van den Hurk, E M C van der Ploeg, K Vande Kerckhove, M Van Driessche, A M J van Wegberg, K van Wyk, C Vasconcelos, V Velez García, J Wildgoose, T Winkler, J Żółkowska, J Zuvadelli, A MacDonald
Background: In infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), dietary management is based on lowering and titrating phenylalanine (Phe) intake from breast milk or standard infant formula in combination with a Phe-free infant formula in order to maintain blood Phe levels within target range. Professionals use different methods to feed infants with PKU and our survey aimed to document practices across Europe. Methods: We sent a cross sectional, survey monkey® questionnaire to European health professionals working in IMD...
September 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Nyarai Desiree Soko, Emile Chimusa, Collen Masimirembwa, Collet Dandara
Studies in Caucasian and Asian populations consistently associated interindividual and interethnic variability in rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics to the polymorphisms SLCO1B1 c.521T>C (rs4149056 p. Val174Ala) and ABCG2 c.421C>A (rs2231142, p. Gln141Lys). To investigate the pharmacogenetics of rosuvastatin in African populations, we first screened 785 individuals from nine ethnic African populations for the SLCO1B1 c.521C and ABCG2 c.421CA variants. This was followed by sequencing whole exomes from individuals of African Bantu descent, who participated in a 20 mg rosuvastatin pharmacokinetic trial in Harare Zimbabwe...
August 13, 2018: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Ditte Steiniche, Sanne Jespersen, Candida Medina, Fatima Corona Sanha, Christian Wejse, Bo Langhoff Hønge
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of mortality and loss to follow-up and describe predictors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Retrospective follow-up study among HIV-infected children under 15 years of age at the largest HIV-clinic in Guinea-Bissau from 2006-2016. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: 525 children were included in the analysis: 371 (70...
August 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Shi-Yi Wang, Jessica B Long, Brigid K Killelea, Suzanne B Evans, Kenneth B Roberts, Andrea L Silber, Amy J Davidoff, Tannaz Sedghi, Cary P Gross
PURPOSE: To examine associations between pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use and clinical outcomes among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with or without radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: We identified women from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare dataset aged 67-94 diagnosed during 2004-2010 with stage I/II breast cancer who received BCS. We compared subsequent mastectomy and breast cancer mortality with versus without pre-operative MRI, using Cox regression and competing risks models...
August 11, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Krzyżanowska Weronika, Pomierny Bartosz, Starek-Świechowicz Beata, Broniowska Żaneta, Strach Beata, Budziszewska Bogusława
Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is the most commonly used chemical UV filter. This compound can easily be absorbed through the skin and the gastrointestinal tract and can disturb sex hormone receptor function. BP-3 is lipophilic and should cross the blood-brain barrier and it may reduce the survival of neurons, although so far, its effects on nerve cells have been studied in only in vitro cultures. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of BP-3 on apoptosis and the expression of oestrogen, androgen and arylhydrocarbon receptors (AhR) in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus...
August 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Sina Riemschneider, Janine Kohlschmidt, Christiane Fueldner, Charlotte Esser, Sunna Hauschildt, Jörg Lehmann
Intensive research during the past decade has highlighted the impact of the regulatory function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in immunity. In this study, we focused on the influence of AhR activation on the differentiation of murine bone marrow-derived myeloid precursor cells into mature macrophages. Our results show that the activation of AhR by subtoxic doses of the AhR ligand benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) impaired the proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMCs) whereas the proportion of resulting adherent cells was not affected...
August 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Anyan Xie, René J Robles, Samiran Mukherjee, Haohai Zhang, Linda Feldbrügge, Eva Csizmadia, Yan Wu, Keiichi Enjyoji, Alan C Moss, Leo E Otterbein, Francisco J Quintana, Simon C Robson, Maria Serena Longhi
In Crohn's disease, pathogenic Th17-cells express low levels of CD39 ectonucleotidase and are refractory to the immunosuppressive effects of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous ligand for aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AhR). This resistance to AhR ligation might be associated with alterations in responses to hypoxia. Limited exposure to hypoxia appears beneficial in acute tissue injury. However, in protracted inflammation, hypoxemia may paradoxically result in Th17-cell activation. We report here that in vitro exposure of Th17-cells from Crohn's disease patients to hypoxia limits responsiveness to AhR stimulation by UCB, as reflected by lower CD39 levels...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Jun-Jun Yeh, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and pneumonia in the general population. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included two cohorts, namely CVD (n = 28,363) and non-CVD (n = 28,363) cohorts, which were matched by propensity score and examined for cases of pneumonia. Data were obtained from 2000 to 2011. In both cohorts, pneumonia risk was measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: With the non-CVD cohort as reference, the corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of pneumonia were 2...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Eleni M Rettig, Munfarid Zaidi, Farhoud Faraji, David W Eisele, Margueritta El Asmar, Nicholas Fung, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Carole Fakhry
OBJECTIVES: HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients have been observed to be younger than patients with HPV-negative OPC at diagnosis. We evaluated recent trends in age at OPC diagnosis, and whether older age attenuates the survival benefit of HPV-positive tumor status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with OPC from 2004 to 2014 represented in the National Cancer Database were included. HPV tumor status was available after 2010. Trends in age by calendar year were compared using linear regression...
August 2018: Oral Oncology
Chao Huang, Xiong Xu, Donghong Wang, Mei Ma, Kaifeng Rao, Zijian Wang
An increasing number of studies have indicated that environmental contamination with chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) has been underestimated. However, insufficient available toxicological information on Cl-PAHs makes evaluating their risks to health challenging. Two in vitro bioassays were used in the present study to characterize the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity and DNA-damaging effects of 22 low-molecular-weight PAHs and their Cl-PAHs by using the EROD assay in rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells and the SOS/umu test (S...
July 26, 2018: Chemosphere
M Kajta, A Wnuk, J Rzemieniec, W Lason, M Mackowiak, E Chwastek, M Staniszewska, I Nehring, A K Wojtowicz
Triclocarban is a phenyl ether that has recently been classified as a contaminant of emerging concern. Evidence shows that triclocarban is present in human tissues, but little is known about the impact of triclocarban on the nervous system, particularly at early developmental stages. This study demonstrated that triclocarban that was used at environmentally relevant concentrations induced apoptosis in mouse embryonic neurons, inhibited sumoylation, and changed the epigenetic status, as evidenced by impaired activities of HDAC, sirtuins, and DNMT, global DNA hypomethylation, and alterations of methylation levels of bax, bcl2, Ahr, and Car genes...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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