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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326475/safety-and-utility-of-hybrid-depth-electrodes-for-seizure-localization-and-single-unit-neuronal-recording
#1
April A Carlson, Ueli Rutishauser, Adam N Mamelak
BACKGROUND: Invasive electrode monitoring provides more precise localization of epileptogenic foci in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The use of hybrid depth electrodes that include microwires for simultaneous single-neuron monitoring is becoming more widespread. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and utility of hybrid depth electrodes for intracranial monitoring of medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: We reviewed the medical charts of 53 cases of medically refractory epilepsy operated on from 2006 to 2017, where both non-hybrid and hybrid microwire depth electrodes were used for intracranial monitoring...
October 16, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326423/current-status-of-proton-therapy-outcome-for-paediatric-cancers-of-the-central-nervous-system-analysis-of-the-published-literature
#2
REVIEW
Myxuan Huynh, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eileen Giles, Michala Short, Donna Matthews, Eva Bezak
INTRODUCTION: The most common solid tumours that develop in children are cancers of the central nervous system. Due to the increased rate of survival over the past decades, greater focus has been placed on the minimisation of long term side effects. In childhood cancer survivors, over 60% report one or more radiation-related late toxicities while half of these adverse events are graded as life-threatening or severe. Proton therapy enables high conformity with the planning target volume and a reduction in dose to areas beyond the target...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326397/social-anxiety-and-self-compassion-in-adolescents
#3
Ciara Gill, Lindsey Watson, Charlotte Williams, Stella W Y Chan
INTRODUCTION: Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent mental illness with a young onset age. Preliminary evidence suggested that low self-compassion may contribute to adult social anxiety, but research with youth has lagged far behind. This study investigated the relationship between selfcompassion and social anxiety in adolescents. It also examined the mediating role of three cognitive mechanisms: fear of negative evaluation, self-focused attention, and cognitive avoidance. METHODS: A total of 316 adolescents (age 14-18, 54% male) recruited in Scotland, UK, completed 7 questionnaires...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326196/earlier-onset-of-maternal-excess-adiposity-associated-with-shorter-exclusive-breastfeeding-duration
#4
Misty A W Hawkins, Janna Colaizzi, Sarah Rhoades-Kerswill, Emily D Fry, Natalie G Keirns, Caitlin E Smith
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended; however, women with obesity have lower exclusive breastfeeding rates than their normal weight peers. The impact of the timing of maternal excess adiposity onset is unknown. Research Aim: We examined whether the timing of onset of excess weight was related to exclusive breastfeeding duration. METHODS: Snowball sampling was used for the cross-sectional Breastfeeding Opinions, Outcomes, Behaviors, and Services online survey...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326192/the-pectin-insulin-patch-application-prevents-the-onset-of-peripheral-neuropathy-like-symptoms-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#5
Ntethelelo Sibiya, Musa Mabandla
INTRODUCTION: An intensive glycaemic control with insulin injections has been shown to delay the onset and the progression of peripheral neuropathy in diabetes. However, the undesirable effects associated with current mode of insulin administration remains challenging In this study, we have investigated a pectin-insulin patch application on the development of peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Pectin-insulin patches (20, 40, 82...
October 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326180/developmental-and-neurodegenerative-damage-in-friedreich-ataxia
#6
Thiago Junqueira R Rezende, Alberto Rolim M Martinez, Ingrid Faber, Karen Girotto, Melina P Martins, Fabrício D de Lima, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Marcondes C França
INTRODUCTION: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal-recessive ataxia worldwide; it is characterized by early onset, sensory abnormalities and slowly progressive ataxia. Besides that, all MRI-based studies have focused in the evaluation of adult patients. Therefore, we designed a cross sectional multimodal MRI-based study to investigate the anatomical substrates involved in the early stages of FRDA. METHODS: We enrolled 37 patients (12 children) and 38 controls...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326162/interventions-for-preventing-and-treating-cardiac-complications-in-duchenne-and-becker-muscular-dystrophy-and-x-linked-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#7
REVIEW
John P Bourke, Teofila Bueser, Rosaline Quinlivan
BACKGROUND: The dystrophinopathies include Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM). In recent years, co-ordinated multidisciplinary management for these diseases has improved the quality of care, with early corticosteroid use prolonging independent ambulation, and the routine use of non-invasive ventilation signficantly increasing survival. The next target to improve outcomes is optimising treatments to delay the onset or slow the progression of cardiac involvement and so prolong survival further...
October 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326157/in-memory-of-tom-isaacs-the-epitomical-mover-and-shaker
#8
Lyndsey Isaacs, Roger Barker, Eilís Dowd
This Special Issue of the European Journal of Neuroscience has been put together by NECTAR (the Network for European CNS Transplantation & Restoration) in collaboration with the Cure Parkinson's Trust in memory of the late Tom Isaacs who sadly passed away suddenly last year. Tom was a whirlwind of wit and energy who used his young onset Parkinson's to try and change our thinking and approach to this condition, and who succeeded in changing the landscape on how we treat this condition, forever and for the better...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326148/diabetic-nephropathy-after-kidney-transplantation-in-patients-with-pre-transplantation-type-ii-diabetes-a-retrospective-case-series-study-from-a-high-volume-center-in-the-united-states
#9
Arielle Cimeno, Jennifer Munley, Cinthia Drachenberg, Matthew Weir, Abdolreza Haririan, Jonathan Bromberg, Rolf N Barth, Joseph R Scalea
BACKGROUND: Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing renal transplantation are at risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in the transplanted kidney. The true risk of developing post-transplantation DN is unknown, and post-transplantation DN is poorly characterized in the literature. METHODS: The biopsy database at the University of Maryland Medical Center was queried for kidney transplant biopsies which demonstrated evidence of DN. The time from transplantation to biopsy-proven DN (time to diagnosis, TTD) was calculated and analyzed in the context of demographics, serum creatinine, and onset of diabetes...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326070/lens-epithelial-cells-initiate-an-inflammatory-response-following-cataract-surgery
#10
Jian Jiang, Mahbubul H Shihan, Yan Wang, Melinda K Duncan
Purpose: Lens epithelial cell (LEC) conversion to myofibroblast is responsible for fibrotic cataract surgery complications including posterior capsular opacification. While transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling is important, the mechanisms by which the TGFβ pathway is activated post cataract surgery (PCS) are not well understood. Methods: RNA-seq was performed on LECs obtained from a mouse cataract surgery model at the time of surgery and 24 hours later...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326049/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-presaccadic-attentional-facilitation-before-pro-and-antisaccades
#11
Laura Mikula, Marilyn Jacob, Trang Tran, Laure Pisella, Aarlenne Z Khan
The premotor theory of attention and the visual attention model make different predictions about the temporal and spatial allocation of presaccadic attentional facilitation. The current experiment investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of presaccadic attentional facilitation during pro- and antisaccade planning; we investigated whether attention shifts only to the saccade goal location or to the target location or elsewhere, and when. Participants performed a dual-task paradigm with blocks of either anti- or prosaccades and also discriminated symbols appearing at different locations before saccade onset (measure of attentional allocation)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326046/incidence-and-early-course-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-secondary-analysis-of-the-postnatal-growth-and-retinopathy-of-prematurity-g-rop-study
#12
Graham E Quinn, Gui-Shuang Ying, Edward F Bell, Pamela K Donohue, David Morrison, Lauren A Tomlinson, Gil Binenbaum
Importance: The current guidelines for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) detection programs in the United States include a range of birth weights (BWs) and gestational ages and likely require examinations of many premature infants who are at low risk for developing serious retinopathy. Objective: To determine the incidence, onset, and early course of ROP in what to our knowledge is the largest cohort to date that is representative of infants who are undergoing ROP screening...
September 20, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326013/characterizing-developmental-trajectories-and-the-role-of-neuropsychiatric-genetic-risk-variants-in-early-onset-depression
#13
Frances Rice, Lucy Riglin, Ajay K Thapar, Jon Heron, Richard Anney, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
Importance: Depression often first manifests in adolescence. Thereafter, individual trajectories vary substantially, but it is not known what shapes depression trajectories in youth. Adult studies suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia, a psychiatric disorder with a neurodevelopmental component, may contribute to an earlier onset of depression. Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms and that genetic liability for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), as well as for major depressive disorder (MDD), contribute to early-onset depression...
October 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326011/association-of-bilateral-salpingo-oophorectomy-before-menopause-onset-with-medial-temporal-lobe-neurodegeneration
#14
Burcu Zeydan, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Robert I Reid, Liliana Gazzuola Rocca, Timothy G Lesnick, Carin Y Smith, Kent R Bailey, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Virginia M Miller, Michelle M Mielke, Walter A Rocca, Kejal Kantarci
Importance: There is an increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in women who undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) before menopause. However, data are lacking on the association of BSO before menopause with imaging biomarkers that indicate medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and Alzheimer disease pathophysiology. Objective: To investigate medial temporal lobe structure, white matter lesion load, and β-amyloid deposition in women who underwent BSO before age 50 years and before reaching natural menopause...
October 15, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326010/association-of-obesity-with-risk-of-early-onset-colorectal-cancer-among-women
#15
Po-Hong Liu, Kana Wu, Kimmie Ng, Ann G Zauber, Long H Nguyen, Mingyang Song, Xiaosheng He, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Yin Cao
Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989)...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325927/cofilin-actin-rod-formation-in-neuronal-processes-after-brain-ischemia
#16
Seok Joon Won, Angela M Minnella, Long Wu, Claire H Eun, Eric Rome, Paco S Herson, Alisa E Shaw, James R Bamburg, Raymond A Swanson
Functional impairment after brain ischemia results in part from loss of neuronal spines and dendrites, independent of neuronal death. Cofilin-actin rods are covalently linked aggregates of cofilin-1 and actin that form in neuronal processes (neurites) under conditions of ATP depletion and oxidative stress, and which cause neurite degeneration if not disassembled. ATP depletion and oxidative stress occur with differing severity, duration, and time course in different ischemic conditions. Here we evaluated four mouse models of brain ischemia to define the conditions that drive formation of cofilin-actin rods...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325890/streptococcal-infections-and-exacerbations-in-pandas-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Marie Ødum Nielsen, Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Carsten Hjorthøj, Michael Eriksen Benros, Merete Nordentoft, Sonja Orlovska
BACKGROUND: The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) hypothesis suggests an association between group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infections and subsequent onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis including longitudinal, prospective studies on exacerbations of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with GABHS infections in children with PANDAS...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325864/a-prospective-study-to-establish-a-new-onset-diabetes-cohort-from-the-consortium-for-the-study-of-chronic-pancreatitis-diabetes-and-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Anirban Maitra, Ayush Sharma, Randall E Brand, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, William E Fisher, Phil A Hart, Steven J Hughes, Kieren J Mather, Stephen J Pandol, Walter G Park, Ziding Feng, Jose Serrano, Jo Ann S Rinaudo, Sudhir Srivastava, Suresh T Chari
The National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases initiated the Consortium for the Study of Chronic Pancreatitis, Diabetes, and Pancreatic Cancer (CPDPC) in 2015 (the CPDPC's origin, structure, governance, and research objectives are described in another article in this journal). One of the key objectives of CPDPC is to assemble a cohort of 10,000 subjects 50 years or older with new-onset diabetes, called the NOD cohort. Using a define, enrich, and find early detection approach, the aims of the NOD study are to (a) estimate the 3-year probability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in NOD (define), (b) establish a biobank of clinically annotated biospecimens from presymptomatic PDAC and control new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects, (c) conduct phase 3 validation studies of promising biomarkers for identification of incident PDAC in NOD patients (enrich), and (d) provide a platform for development of a future interventional screening protocol for early detection of PDAC in patients with NOD that incorporates imaging studies and/or clinical algorithms (find)...
November 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325662/dose-escalation-in-extracranial-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-destroy-1-a-multi-arm-phase-i-trial
#19
Francesco Deodato, Gabriella Macchia, Savino Cilla, Anna Ianiro, Giuseppina Sallustio, Silvia Cammelli, Milly Buwenge, Gian Carlo Mattiucci, Vincenzo Valentini, Alessio G Morganti
OBJECTIVE: A multi arm phase I clinical trial was performed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered by non-coplanar conformal beams or Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy technique in 7 predefined clinical settings. METHODS: The (a) and (b) arms investigated primary and metastatic lung cancer differentiated by site of onset, arm (c) included primary or metastatic lesions outside the thorax, the (d) and (e) arms were for in-field re-irradiation of recurrence, and finally, the (f) and (g) arms were for boost irradiation to the lesions after an adjuvant RT prescribed dose...
October 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325657/mechanisms-responsible-for-reduced-erythropoiesis-during-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-men-with-prostate-cancer
#20
Thiago Gagliano-Jucá, Karol M Pencina, Tomas Ganz, Thomas G Travison, Philip W Kantoff, Paul L Nguyen, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Adam S Kibel, Zhuoying Li, Grace Huang, Robert R Edwards, Elizabeta Nemeth, Shehzad Basaria
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). As androgens stimulate erythropoiesis, ADT is associated with a reduction in hematocrit, which in turn contributes to fatigue and related morbidity. However, the mechanisms involved in ADT-induced reduction in erythropoiesis remain unclear. We conducted a 6-month prospective cohort study and enrolled men with PCa about to undergo ADT (ADT-Group) and a control group of men who had previously undergone prostatectomy for localized PCa and were in remission (Non-ADT Group)...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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