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Thilo Hotfiel, Jürgen Freiwald, Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christoph Lutter, Raimund Forst, Casper Grim, Wilhelm Bloch, Moritz Hüttel, Rafael Heiss
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a type of ultrastructural muscle injury. The manifestation of DOMS is caused by eccentric or unfamiliar forms of exercise. Clinical signs include reduced force capacities, increased painful restriction of movement, stiffness, swelling, and dysfunction of adjacent joints. Although DOMS is considered a mild type of injury, it is one of the most common reasons for compromised sportive performance. In the past few decades, many hypotheses have been developed to explain the aetiology of DOMS...
December 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Jesus Eric Piña-Garza, Danielle Boyce, David M Tworek, Kathryn A Davis, Heather Gatens, George Lai, Patricia E McGoldrick, Bethany Thomas, Steven M Wolf
BACKGROUND: The complex clinical presentation and progression of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) can complicate the accurate diagnosis of this severe, lifelong, childhood-onset epilepsy, often resulting in suboptimal treatment. The Refractory Epilepsy Screening Tool for LGS (REST-LGS) was developed to improve the identification of patients with LGS. METHODS: Using the Modified Delphi Consensus, a group of experts developed and tested the REST-LGS Case Report Form (CRF) comprising 8 criteria (4 major, 4 minor) considered potentially indicative of LGS...
December 8, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Adrienne W Y Li, Christy L M Hui, Edwin H M Lee, W C Chang, Sherry K W Chan, Eric Y H Chen
Studies of gender cognitive differences in schizophrenia have reported mixed results. This study examined cognitive correlates including demographics, symptoms and functioning in men and women in a large sample of first-episode adult-onset psychosis patients. Detailed demographic, clinical and functioning data were collected from 360 first-episode patients upon admission into an early intervention service for psychotic disorders. They were also administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Correlation analyses showed that memory and working memory were more significantly associated with onset age, negative symptoms and side effects in women...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Allison A Bay, Ariel R Hart, W Michael Caudle, Daniel M Corcos, Madeleine E Hackney
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with aging characterized by loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and a reduction in dopamine levels in the striatum. PD is commonly treated using dopamine-replacement medication called levodopa. Levodopa has decreasing efficacy over time. Periods when levodopa is not effective at controlling symptoms of PD are called "OFF-time" or "medication-related motor fluctuations," (MRMF)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Elisabeth Hertenstein, Bernd Feige, Tabea Gmeiner, Christian Kienzler, Kai Spiegelhalder, Anna Johann, Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Laura Palagini, Gerta Rücker, Dieter Riemann, Chiara Baglioni
Previous research has identified insomnia as a predictor for the onset of depression. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether insomnia also predicts the onset of other mental disorders. Longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated insomnia at baseline (including nighttime- and daytime-symptoms) as a predictor of the later onset of psychopathology within a follow-up time-frame of at least 12 mo. Thirteen primary studies were included. The results suggest that insomnia is a significant predictor for the onset of depression (10 studies, OR 2...
November 16, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Junheng Shi, Qiuping Ye, Jiaying Zhao, Jianhua Liu, Zhenhua Xu, Wei Yi, Nenggui Xu
To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on swallowing and its underlying mechanism, 32 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chose and the electrophysiology was used to detect the discharge of nucleus ambiguus (NA) after EA at CV23 (Lianquan), GV16 (Fengfu), and other acupoints. The swallowing-related motor neuron was identified by antidromic stimulation through recurrent laryngeal nerve. Meanwhile, the swallowing numbers were induced by Double-distilled water (DDW) and the neuron discharges were recorded before and after EA...
December 8, 2018: Brain Research
Clarissa Gerhauser, Francesco Favero, Thomas Risch, Ronald Simon, Lars Feuerbach, Yassen Assenov, Doreen Heckmann, Nikos Sidiropoulos, Sebastian M Waszak, Daniel Hübschmann, Alfonso Urbanucci, Etsehiwot G Girma, Vladimir Kuryshev, Leszek J Klimczak, Natalie Saini, Adrian M Stütz, Dieter Weichenhan, Lisa-Marie Böttcher, Reka Toth, Josephine D Hendriksen, Christina Koop, Pavlo Lutsik, Sören Matzk, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Vyacheslav Amstislavskiy, Clarissa Feuerstein, Benjamin Raeder, Olga Bogatyrova, Eva-Maria Schmitz, Claudia Hube-Magg, Martina Kluth, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Chris Lawerenz, Gervaise H Henry, Takafumi N Yamaguchi, Alicia Malewska, Jan Meiners, Daniela Schilling, Eva Reisinger, Roland Eils, Matthias Schlesner, Douglas W Strand, Robert G Bristow, Paul C Boutros, Christof von Kalle, Dmitry Gordenin, Holger Sültmann, Benedikt Brors, Guido Sauter, Christoph Plass, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Jan O Korbel, Thorsten Schlomm, Joachim Weischenfeldt
Identifying the earliest somatic changes in prostate cancer can give important insights into tumor evolution and aids in stratifying high- from low-risk disease. We integrated whole genome, transcriptome and methylome analysis of early-onset prostate cancers (diagnosis ≤55 years). Characterization across 292 prostate cancer genomes revealed age-related genomic alterations and a clock-like enzymatic-driven mutational process contributing to the earliest mutations in prostate cancer patients. Our integrative analysis identified four molecular subgroups, including a particularly aggressive subgroup with recurrent duplications associated with increased expression of ESRP1, which we validate in 12,000 tissue microarray tumors...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Cell
Joshua W Russo, Steven P Balk
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Gerhauser et al. analyze early-onset prostate cancers, showing roles for androgen receptor-driven rearrangements, an early APOBEC-driven mutational mechanism, and ESRP1 gene duplication. Through integration of whole-genome, transcriptome, and methylome data, they identify high-risk subgroups and develop an algorithm that may predict molecular evolution.
December 10, 2018: Cancer Cell
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield
Regression in children with epilepsy may involve loss of cognitive abilities, failure to progress or a slowing of developmental trajectory. A few seizures do not lead to regression. Large numbers of seizures may be associated with regression but the cause is an important cofounder. Individual spike discharges on EEG are associated with transient cognitive impairment and continuous spike discharges with regression. Regression may be global in continuous spike wave in slow sleep (CSWS) or specific (auditory agnosia) in Landau Kleffner syndrome...
December 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Joanne Trinh, Katja Lohmann, Hauke Baumann, Alexander Balck, Max Borsche, Norbert Brüggemann, Leon Dure, Marissa Dean, Jens Volkmann, Sinem Tunc, Jannik Prasuhn, Heike Pawlack, Sophie Imhoff, Christina M Lill, Meike Kasten, Peter Bauer, Arndt Rolfs, Christine Klein
BACKGROUND: Although the genetic load is high in early-onset Parkinson's disease, thorough investigation of the genetic diagnostic yield has yet to be established. The objectives of this study were to assess variants in known genes for PD and other movement disorders and to find new candidates in 50 patients with early-onset PD. METHODS: We searched for variants either within genes listed by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature or rare homozygous variants in novel candidate genes...
December 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mohamed Shalabi Ahmed, Regan E Giesinger, Mohamed Ibrahim, Michelle Baczynski, Deepak Louis, Karl P McNamara, Amish Jain, Dany E Weisz, Patrick J McNamara
AIM: To evaluate the clinical and echocardiography modulators of treatment response in hypoxemic preterm infants exposed to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective study, clinical parameters, including oxygenation, ventilation and haemodynamics, were collected for preterm infants <36 weeks gestation before and 2 h after initiation of iNO for acute hypoxemia. Comprehensive echocardiography, performed near the time iNO initiation, was analysed by experts blind to the clinical course...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
David C Klonoff, Mark L Evans, Wendy Lane, Hans-Peter Kempe, Eric Renard, J Hans DeVries, Tina Graungaard, Agon Hyseni, Theis Gondolf, Tadej Battelino
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart [FA]) vs insulin aspart (IAsp) in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in participants with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Double-blind, treat-to-target, randomized, 16-week trial investigating CSII treatment with FA (n = 236) or IAsp (n = 236). All available information regardless of treatment discontinuation was used for the evaluation of effect. RESULTS: FA was non-inferior to IAsp regarding the change from baseline in HbA1c (primary endpoint)...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Verónica Martínez Cerdeño, Tiffany Hong, Sarwat Amina, Mirna Lechpammer, Jeanelle Ariza, Flora Tassone, Stephen C Noctor, Paul Hagerman, Randi Hagerman
BACKGROUND: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. Expansions of more than 200 CGG repeats give rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of cognitive impairment. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is characterized by cerebellar tremor and ataxia, and the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. It has been previously suggested that fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is associated with an inflammatory state based on signs of oxidative stress-mediated damage and iron deposition...
December 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Michael S Rafii
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and early-onset dementia develop almost universally in Down syndrome (DS). AD is defined neuropathologically by the presence of extracellular plaques of aggregated amyloid β protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The development of radiolabeled positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for amyloid plaques and tau tangles enables the longitudinal assessment of the spatial pattern of their accumulation in relation to symptomatology...
December 8, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Chenxu Zhao, Yazhou Wang, Zhicheng Peng, Xudong Sun, Guoquan Sun, Xue Yuan, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is characterized by the depression of ruminal pH and an increase in the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rumen of cows. The onset of SARA was linked to the accumulation of SCFAs. However, the mechanism of SCFAs transport is unknown. The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays a vital role in the transportation of SCFAs. The goal of this study was to elucidate the distribution of MCT1 along the gastrointestinal tract of calves and adult cows; the expression change of MCT1 in SARA cows and the effect of ruminal pH, SCFAs, and LPS on MCT1 expression in rumen epithelial cells in vitro...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ilknur Dolu, Nursen O Nahcivan
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are much more prevalent in nursing home residents than in their community-dwelling counterparts. Cognitive behavioural therapy is likely to improve sleep quality in older adults. However, these interventions have a narrow scope to generalise to nursing home practice, and there are minimal data on the effectiveness of the integration of cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing in nursing home settings. AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a nurse-led sleep programme on the sleep quality and depressive symptomatology in cognitively intact nursing home residents...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Older People Nursing
Sogol Meknatkhah, Pouya Sharif Dashti, Monireh-Sadat Mousavi, Amirbahador Zeynali, Shahin Ahmadian, Saeed Karima, Ali Akbar Saboury, Gholam Hossein Riazi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as the most common demyelinating disease worldwide in which previous studies have shown that stress is a risk factor for the disease's onset and progression. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate the consequences of stress in MS pathology. In this study, after 5 days of exposure to psychological and physical stress as a repetitive distress modality, rats were treated with cuprizone. The demyelination degree was compared in animal groups using Luxol fast blue staining, immunohistochemical staining for myelin basic protein and transmission electron microscopy...
December 10, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Andrew J Tweedell, Matthew S Tenan, Courtney A Haynes
INTRODUCTION: We characterize the agreement between the timing of muscle contraction onset detected by surface EMG, fine wire EMG, and motion-mode ultrasound for improved interpretations of clinical outcomes. METHODS: Eighteen healthy adults participated. Differences in contraction onset were compared between surface EMG, fine wire EMG and motion-mode ultrasound collected during concentric contractions of the vastus lateralis and biceps brachii. RESULTS: The mean difference of 13...
December 7, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Nicolas Delpierre, Ségolène Lireux, Florian Hartig, J Julio Camarero, Alissar Cheaib, Katarina Čufar, Henri Cuny, Annie Deslauriers, Patrick Fonti, Jožica Gričar, Jian-Guo Huang, Cornelia Krause, Guohua Liu, Martin de Luis, Harri Mäkinen, Edurne Martinez Del Castillo, Hubert Morin, Pekka Nöjd, Walter Oberhuber, Peter Prislan, Sergio Rossi, Seyedehmasoumeh Saderi, Vaclav Treml, Hanus Vavrick, Cyrille B K Rathgeber
The phenology of wood formation is a critical process to consider for predicting how trees from the temperate and boreal zones may react to climate change. Compared to leaf phenology, however, the determinism of wood phenology is still poorly known. Here, we compared for the first time three alternative ecophysiological model classes (threshold models, heat-sum models and chilling-influenced heat-sum models) and an empirical model in their ability to predict the starting date of xylem cell enlargement in spring, for four major Northern Hemisphere conifers (Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Picea mariana)...
December 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Lei Zhang, Xinru Deng, Xian Shi, Xiaojing Dong
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious pregnancy complication associated with increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. It may lead to neurodevelopmental impairment and adulthood onset disorders. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were found to be associated with the pathogenesis of FGR. Here we report that the lncRNAH19 is significantly decreased in placentae from pregnancies with FGR. Downregulation of H19 leads to reduced proliferation and invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells. This is identified with reduced trophoblast invasion, which has been discovered in FGR...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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