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"Adverse event" radiation

Hideya Yamazaki, Tadashi Takenaka, Norihiro Aibe, Gen Suzuki, Ken Yoshida, Satoaki Nakamura, Koji Masui, Takuya Kimoto, Naomi Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Nishimura, Akihiro Nakashima, Mariko Goto, Kei Yamada
This study aimed to quantitatively compare radiation dermatitis due to hypofractionated (Hypo) and conventionally fractionated (Conv) external-beam radiotherapy in patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Skin color changes, in terms of L* (brightness, white-black), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue) values, due to external-beam radiotherapy were examined at alternate fractions using an objective method. Twenty-six patients were included in the Hypo group (42.56 Gy/16 fractions) and 46 in the Conv group (50 Gy/25 fractions)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Deepthi Valiyaveettil, Monica Malik, Deepa M Joseph, Syed Fayaz Ahmed, Syed Akram Kothwal, M Vijayasaradhi
Background: Retrospective evidence suggests that valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, is associated with improved outcomes in glioblastoma. The exact mechanism of interaction of VPA with radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) is still unclear. Laboratory studies show that VPA can enhance tumor cell kill while at the same time protect the normal neural tissue. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the benefit of VPA on outcomes in glioblastoma. Materials and Methods: In this single-arm prospective study, patients of glioblastoma were started on seizure prophylaxis with VPA (15-20 mg/kg/day) following maximal safe resection...
July 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Maya Aboumrad, Alexander Fuld, Christina Soncrant, Julia Neily, Douglas Paull, Bradley V Watts
PURPOSE: Oncology providers are leaders in patient safety. Despite their efforts, oncology-related medical errors still occur, sometimes resulting in patient injury or death. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Center of Patient Safety used data obtained from root cause analysis (RCA) to determine how and why these adverse events occurred in the VHA, and how to prevent future reoccurrence. This study details the types of oncology adverse events reported in VHA hospitals and their root causes and suggests actions for prevention and improvement...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Howard J Lee, Jing Zeng, Hubert J Vesselle, Shilpen A Patel, Ramesh Rengan, Stephen R Bowen
PURPOSE: To apply a previously designed framework for predicting radiation pneumonitis by using pretreatment lung function heterogeneity metrics, anatomic dosimetry, and functional lung dosimetry derived from 2 imaging modalities within the same cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were co-registered with pretreatment [99m Tc] macro-aggregated albumin perfusion single-photon positron emission tomography (SPECT)/CT scans and [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans of 28 patients who underwent definitive thoracic radiation...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Muhammad A Memon, Burcak Karaca, Rasha Aboelhassan, Mohsen Barsoum, Mustafa Erman, Mert Basaran, Alper Sevinc, Djedi Hanene, Cassandra Slader, Virginia Pilipovic, Kerboua Esma, Bouzid Kamel
PURPOSE: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare mesenchymal neoplasms, accounting for < 1% of all newly diagnosed malignancies. These tumors can occur in almost any anatomic site though they most frequently occur in the extremities. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology, treatment paradigm, and real-world outcomes in the clinical management of metastatic STS (mSTS) in the Middle East and North Africa (MEA) region. METHODS: MOON was an observational, multicenter, retrospective patient chart review study which included 200 patients with mSTS in the final analysis...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Harold Heah, Ryan P Goepfert, Katherine A Hutcheson, Adam S Garden, G Brandon Gunn, Clifton D Fuller, Jan S Lewin, Michael E Kupferman, F Christopher Holsinger, Amy C Hessel, Neil D Gross
BACKGROUND: Functional outcomes after treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are increasingly prioritized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of gastrostomy tube placement and weight loss in patients with oropharyngeal SCC who may be eligible for either transoral robotic surgery (TORS) or nonsurgical management. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of previously untreated T1 to T2 and N0 to N2b oropharyngeal SCC to determine the rates of gastrostomy tube placement and weight loss according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) criteria...
August 13, 2018: Head & Neck
Kiri A Sandler, Sandra A Mitchell, Ethan Basch, Ann C Raldow, Michael L Steinberg, Jamal Sharif, Ryan R Cook, Patrick A Kupelian, Susan A McCloskey
PURPOSE: To improve assessment of symptomatic toxicity in cancer clinical trials and complement clinician-based toxicity reporting, the US National Cancer Institute developed a measurement system called the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of PRO-CTCAE in patients undergoing radiation therapy and to establish anatomic site-specific item sets for implementation in cancer research...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Giandomenico Roviello, Daniele Generali, Michele Aieta, Alberto Bonetta
External beam radiation therapy (EMRT) is effective for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs) are considered one of the main possible adverse events related to External beam radiation therapy. Here we analyzed the incidence of LUTI during EMRT. Urinary tract infection was assumed when the findings of bacteriuria exceeded 100,000 units/mL, accompanied by specific cystitis symptoms. Among the total 540 analyzed patient, 208 (38.5%) developed a LUTI. E. coli was the main microorganism involved in LUTIs (102, 49...
July 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Ajay Patel, Tuo Dong, Shaheryar Ansari, Aaron Cohen-Gadol, Gordon Watson, Fabio Ynoe de Moraes, Masaki Nakamura, Judith Murovic, Steven D Chang, Mustafa Aziz Hatiboglu, Caroline Chung, James Miller, Tim Lautenschlaeger
Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective modality in the treatment of brainstem metastases (BSM), radiation induced toxicity remains a critical concern. To better understand how severe or life-threatening toxicity is affected by the location of lesions treated in the brainstem, a review of all available studies reporting SRS treatment for BSM was performed. Twenty-nine retrospective studies investigating SRS to BSM were reviewed. The rates of grade 3 or greater toxicity, based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events varied from 0-9...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hong Yang, Hui Liu, Yuping Chen, Chengchu Zhu, Wentao Fang, Zhentao Yu, Weimin Mao, Jiaqing Xiang, Yongtao Han, Zhijian Chen, Haihua Yang, Jiaming Wang, Qingsong Pang, Xiao Zheng, Huanjun Yang, Tao Li, Florian Lordick, Xavier Benoit D'Journo, Robert J Cerfolio, Robert J Korst, Nuria M Novoa, Scott J Swanson, Alessandro Brunelli, Mahmoud Ismail, Hiran C Fernando, Xu Zhang, Qun Li, Geng Wang, Baofu Chen, Teng Mao, Min Kong, Xufeng Guo, Ting Lin, Mengzhong Liu, Jianhua Fu
Purpose The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) plus surgery for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains controversial. In this trial, we compared the survival and safety of NCRT plus surgery with surgery alone in patients with locally advanced ESCC. Patients and Methods From June 2007 to December 2014, 451 patients with potentially resectable thoracic ESCC, clinically staged as T1-4N1M0/T4N0M0, were randomly allocated to NCRT plus surgery (group CRT; n = 224) and surgery alone (group S; n = 227)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Zhiyan Liu, Jing Wang, Zhiyong Yuan, Baozhong Zhang, Linlin Gong, Lujun Zhao, Ping Wang
To evaluate the clinical outcomes of simultaneous dose reduction of elective nodal area with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIR-IMRT) versus conventional IMRT (C-IMRT) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), patients with LS-SCLC who received definitive SIR-IMRT or C-IMRT were retrospectively analyzed. In SIR-IMRT group, the prescribed dose was 60Gy to the planning gross target volume (PTVG ), and 54Gy to the planning target volume (PTV). In the C-IMRT group, the prescribed dose was 60Gy to the whole PTV...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Carlos E C V Abreu, Fabio Y Moraes, Fabiana A Miranda, Gabriela S M Siqueira, Rafael Gadia, Cecilia K Haddad, Heloisa A Carvalho
Purpose Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a treatment option for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the clinical outcomes and toxicity for patients with inoperable primary NSCLC treated with SBRT. Methods Between 2007 and 2015, 102 consecutive lung lesions were treated with SBRT at our center, of which 59 primary NSCLC lesions (from 54 patients with inoperable disease) were retrospectively reviewed (43 lesions were excluded because of metastases or because there was no biopsy specimen)...
July 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Hirofumi Watanabe, Hiroshi Kamiyama, Masataka Kato, Akiko Komori, Yuriko Abe, Mamoru Ayusawa
BACKGROUND: There is no standard dose or protocol for beta-blocker administration as preconditioning in children undergoing coronary CT angiography. METHODS: A total of 63 consecutive patients, with a mean age of 10.0±3.1 years, who underwent coronary CT angiography to assess possible coronary complications were enrolled in a single-centre, retrospective study. All patients were given an oral beta-blocker 1 hour before coronary CT angiography. Additional oral beta-blocker or intravenous beta-blocker was given to those with a high heart rate...
August 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Eggert Stockfleth, Mike Bastian
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common skin condition that results from exposure to chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation. AK is characterized by visible, scaly lesions; sub-clinical lesions may also be present within a field of UV-exposed skin. These lesions exist on a disease continuum with squamous cell carcinoma. Field therapies, such as ingenol mebutate, aim to treat the visible and sub-clinical lesions within an area of sun-damaged skin. Areas covered: According to the SmPC, ingenol mebutate has a proposed dual mechanism of action that induces cell death necrosis with the production of a local pro-inflammatory response and stimulation of apoptosis...
August 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Roman O Kowalchuk, Kara D Romano, Daniel M Trifiletti, Sunil W Dutta, Timothy N Showalter, Monica M Morris
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients treated with 3D conformal Hypo-fractionated, deep Inspiratory breath-hold (DIBH), Partial breast radiotherapy, termed "HIP." HIP was implemented to merge the schedule of once-daily breast hypofractionation with partial breast treatment. METHODS: We identified 38 breast cancers in 37 patients from 2013 to 2014 treated at our institution with HIP following lumpectomy for early stage breast cancer...
July 27, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Marek Marcin Chojnowski, Maria Teresa Płazińska, Marek Sławomir Chojnowski, Leszek Królicki
Radionuclide synovectomy (RSV) is a form of minimally invasive treatment of persistent joint inflammation. The procedure has a high safety profile and the occurrence of serious adverse events, such as full-thickness skin radiation necrosis, is rare. Less severe radiation events, while more common, are usually benign and self-limiting. We present two cases of low-grade beta burns that developed after RSV, despite proper injection technique. The potential long-term risk of such exposure is also discussed, with reference to historical radiation incidents...
2018: Reumatologia
Julian Jacob, Thomas Durand, Loïc Feuvret, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Jean-Yves Delattre, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Dimitri Psimaras, Hassen Douzane, Monica Ribeiro, Laurent Capelle, Alexandre Carpentier, Damien Ricard, Philippe Maingon
Life expectancy of patients treated for brain tumors has lengthened due to the therapeutic improvements. Cognitive impairment has been described following brain radiotherapy, but the mechanisms leading to this adverse event remain mostly unknown. Technical evolutions aim at enhancing the therapeutic ratio. Sparing of the healthy tissues has been improved using various approaches; however, few dose constraints have been established regarding brain structures associated with cognitive functions. The aims of this literature review are to report the main brain areas involved in cognitive adverse effects induced by radiotherapy as described in literature, to better understand brain radiosensitivity and to describe potential future improvements...
August 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Kathy D Miller, Anne O'Neill, William Gradishar, Timothy J Hobday, Lori J Goldstein, Ingrid A Mayer, Stuart Bloom, Adam M Brufsky, Amye J Tevaarwerk, Joseph A Sparano, Nguyet Anh Le-Lindqwister, Carolyn B Hendricks, Donald W Northfelt, Chau T Dang, George W Sledge
Purpose Bevacizumab improves progression-free survival but not overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. E5103 tested the effect of bevacizumab in the adjuvant setting in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative disease. Patients and Methods Patients were assigned 1:2:2 to receive placebo with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by weekly paclitaxel (arm A), bevacizumab only during AC and paclitaxel (arm B), or bevacizumab during AC and paclitaxel followed by bevacizumab monotherapy for 10 cycles (arm C)...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Anna S Lucas, Mario Lacouture, Susan M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Patients with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy can experience dermatologic adverse events. Oncology nurses can advocate for radiation dermatitis (RD) prophylaxis to minimize dermatologic adverse events. OBJECTIVES: This quality improvement project was conducted to evaluate the effect of implementing an RD prevention protocol. The objectives of this study were to (a) improve clinicians' knowledge of screening, assessment, and prevention of RD in patients with breast cancer and (b) decrease the incidence of RD by 10% at a tertiary care cancer center...
August 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Anissa Roger, Adeline Finet, Blandine Boru, Alain Beauchet, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Yves Otzmeguine, Astrid Blom, Christine Longvert, Marie-Florence de Maleissye, Magali Fort, Elisa Funck-Brentano, Philippe Saiag
Information on the role of radiotherapy in anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody-treated melanoma patients is limited. We report on a prospective cohort of advanced melanoma patients treated simultaneously with radiotherapy and anti-PD-1 therapy between 01/01/15 and 30/06/16. Tumor evaluations (RECIST 1.1) were performed every 3 months on radiated and non-radiated lesions. Twenty-five advanced melanoma patients (64% AJCC stage IV M1c, 64% on second-line treatment or more, 60% with elevated LDH serum levels) were included...
2018: Oncoimmunology
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