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Adverse event radiation therapy

Giuseppina Laura Masucci
Single fraction radiosurgery (SRS) treatment is an effective and recognized alternative to whole brain radiation for brain metastasis. However, SRS is not always possible, especially in tumors of a larger diameter where the administration of high dose in a single fraction is limited by the possibility of acute and late side effects and the dose to the surrounding organs at risk. Hypofractionated radiation therapy allows the delivery of high doses of radiation per fraction while minimizing adverse events, all the while maintaining good local control of lesions...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Myxuan Huynh, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eileen Giles, Michala Short, Donna Matthews, Eva Bezak
INTRODUCTION: The most common solid tumours that develop in children are cancers of the central nervous system. Due to the increased rate of survival over the past decades, greater focus has been placed on the minimisation of long term side effects. In childhood cancer survivors, over 60% report one or more radiation-related late toxicities while half of these adverse events are graded as life-threatening or severe. Proton therapy enables high conformity with the planning target volume and a reduction in dose to areas beyond the target...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Michael Buchfelder, Aart Jan van der Lely, Beverly M K Biller, Susan M Webb, Thierry Brue, Christian J Strasburger, Ezio Ghigo, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner, Kaijie Pan, Joanne Lavenberg, Peter Jonsson, Juliana H Hey-Hadavi
OBJECTIVES: ACROSTUDY is an international, non-interventional study of acromegaly patients treated with pegvisomant (PEGV), a growth hormone receptor antagonist and has been conducted since 2004 in 15 countries to study the long-term safety and efficacy of PEGV. This report comprises the second interim analysis of 2090 patients as of May 12, 2016. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of safety, pituitary imaging and outcomes on PEGV treatment up to 12 years were performed...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Amit Maity, Rosemarie Mick, Alexander C Huang, Sangeeth M George, Michael D Farwell, John N Lukens, Abigail T Berman, Tara C Mitchell, Josh Bauml, Lynn M Schuchter, Mark O'Hara, Lilie L Lin, Angela Demichele, John P Christodouleas, Naomi B Haas, Dana M Patsch, Stephen M Hahn, Andy J Minn, E John Wherry, Robert H Vonderheide
BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase I trial evaluating pembrolizumab+hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for patients with metastatic cancers. METHODS: There were two strata (12 patients each): (i) NSCLC/melanoma progressing on prior anti-PD-1 therapy, (ii) other cancer types; anti-PD-1-naive. Patients received 6 cycles of pembrolizumab, starting 1 week before HFRT. Patients had ≥2 lesions; only one was irradiated (8 Gy × 3 for first half; 17 Gy × 1 for second half in each stratum) and the other(s) followed for response...
October 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Katsuyuki Karasawa, Sara Hayakawa, Yumiko Machitori, Yukiko Shibata, Hiroaki Ogawa, Kei Ito, Takuya Shimizuguchi, Terufumi Kawamoto, Keiji Nihei
PURPOSE: Although stereotactic body radiation therapy is one of the standard treatments for stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer, in the case of central tumors it carries the risk of severe adverse events for serial organs. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy is considered a reasonable alternative to treat central tumors. We have been treating central tumors with accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy using a 75 Gy/25 fr/5 weeks regimen, and we compared the results with those of stereotactic body radiation therapy using 48 Gy/4 fr/1 week...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Mack Roach, Jennifer Moughan, Colleen A F Lawton, Adam P Dicker, Kenneth L Zeitzer, Elizabeth M Gore, Young Kwok, Michael J Seider, I-Chow Hsu, Alan C Hartford, Eric M Horwitz, Kosj Yamoah, Christopher U Jones, Jeff M Michalski, W Robert Lee, Thomas M Pisansky, Rachel Rabinovitch, Marvin Rotman, Rodger M Pryzant, Harold E Kim, Charles R Thomas, William U Shipley, Howard M Sandler
BACKGROUND: The NRG/RTOG 9413 study showed that whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) plus neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) improved progression-free survival in patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk localised prostate cancer compared with prostate only radiotherapy (PORT) plus NHT, WPRT plus adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), and PORT plus AHT. We provide a long-term update after no years of follow-up of the primary endpoint (progression-free survival) and report on the late toxicities of treatment...
October 10, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Lucas C Mendez, Pencilla Lang, Chirag Patel, David D'Souza, Adam Gladwish, Laura D'Alimonte, Amandeep Taggar, Elizabeth Barnes, Lisa Barbera, Eric Leung
PURPOSE: Perineal interstitial brachytherapy (P-ISBT) is an important component in the treatment of locally advanced gynecological cancers. However, there are concerns about potential acute complications from catheter needles. The goal is to evaluate the safety of P-ISBT by studying acute complications and radiological organ needle intrusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients with gynecological cancers treated with P-ISBT at a single institution from September 2014 to April 2016 were included in a prospective registry trial...
October 10, 2018: Brachytherapy
Paul Lesueur, Alexandre Escande, Juliette Thariat, Enora Vauléon, Isabelle Monnet, Alexis Cortot, Delphine Lerouge, Serge Danhier, Pascal Dô, Catherine Dubos-Arvis, Christos Chouaïd, Radj Gervais
INTRODUCTION: Randomized prospective studies on patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) showed that anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) agents notably improved 2-year overall survival (OS) rates, compared to docetaxel. NSCLC patients now receive nivolumab and irradiation, concurrently or not. However, little is known about the safety of this combination, even though the preclinical model suggested a possible synergic effect. We analyzed NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy and nivolumab according to former's timing...
October 11, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Koichiro Nakajima, Hiromitsu Iwata, Hiroyuki Ogino, Yukiko Hattori, Shingo Hashimoto, Toshiyuki Toshito, Kensuke Hayashi, Kenji Akita, Fumiya Baba, Katsumi Nakamae, Jun-Etsu Mizoe, Yuta Shibamoto
BACKGROUND: Two prospective phase II trials were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of image-guided proton therapy (IGPT) for either medically inoperable or operable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study reports the interim results of these trials. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with histologically confirmed stage I NSCLC (IA in 33 patients and IB in 22 patients; inoperable in 21 patients and operable in 34 patients) who received IGPT between July 2013 and February 2017 were analyzed...
October 11, 2018: Radiation Oncology
J White, G Carolan-Rees, M Dale, H E Morgan, H E Patrick, T C See, E L Beeton, D E B Swinson, J K Bell, D M Manas, A Crellin, N J Slevin, R A Sharma
AIMS: Patients with chemotherapy-refractory colorectal cancer liver metastases have limited therapeutic options. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) delivers yttrium 90 microspheres as a minimally invasive procedure. This prospective, single-arm, observational, service-evaluation study was part of National Health Service England Commissioning through Evaluation. METHODS: Patients eligible for treatment had histologically confirmed carcinoma with liver-only/liver-dominant metastases with clinical progression during or following oxaliplatin-based and irinotecan-based chemotherapy...
October 5, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Julie E Bauman, Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Sufi Thomas, William E Gooding, David A Clump, Brian Karlovits, Ahmad Wehbe, Frank R Miller, Seungwon Kim, Malabika Sen, Dwight E Heron, Jennifer R Grandis, Athanassios Argiris
BACKGROUND: Cetuximab combined with radiation therapy (RT) is an evidence-based treatment for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, locoregional failure remains the primary cause of cancer-related death in this disease. Intratumoral injection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-antisense plasmid DNA (EGFR-AS) is safe and has been associated with promising lesional responses in patients who have recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. For the current study, the authors investigated the antitumor effects of cetuximab and EGFR-AS in preclinical HNSCC models and reported their phase 1 experience adding intratumoral EGFR-AS to cetuximab RT...
October 6, 2018: Cancer
Pierluigi Bove, Valerio Iacovelli, Maria Cristina Tirindelli, Daniele Bianchi, Gerardo Paolo Flammia, Chiara Cipriani, Angelo Salvatore Ferraro, Matteo Ferro, William Arcese, Gianluca Ingrosso, Giuseppe Vespasiani, Enrico Finazzi Agrò
Objective To evaluate the clinical value of endoscopic fibrin glue (FG) application therapy in treating hemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC). Patients and Methods This is a single cohort, prospective pilot study. We collected data from patients with HRC who were treated at our urology unit during the period May 2014 to December 2016. Patients with grade >=2 HRC for whom conventional therapy and trans-urethral endoscopic electrocoagulation had failed were treated with endoscopic intravesical FG. The mean follow-up was 26...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Yukihiro Hama, Tatsumi Kaji
BACKGROUND/AIM: To examine whether CT-guided daily adaptive radiation therapy (ART) can be safely administered against localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma were irradiated through opposed AP/PA fields up to 46 Gy, then CT-guided daily ART was performed through opposed lateral fields until 76 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction. RESULTS: Biochemical relapse-free survival was 89% at 3 years and 85% at 5 years and 76% at 7 years after ART, respectively...
October 2018: Anticancer Research
Fernanda G Herrera, Massimo Valerio, Dominik Berthold, Thomas Tawadros, Jean-Yves Meuwly, Veronique Vallet, Petra Baumgaertner, Anne-Christine Thierry, Berardino De Bari, Patrice Jichlinski, Lana Kandalaft, George Coukos, Alexandre Harari, J Bourhis
PURPOSE: Although localized prostate cancer (PCa) is multifocal, the dominant intraprostatic nodule (DIN) is responsible for disease progression after radiation therapy. PCa expresses antigens that could be recognized by the immune system. We therefore hypothesized that stereotactic dose escalation to the DIN is safe, may increase local control and may initiate tumor-specific immune responses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: patients with localized PCa were treated with stereotactic extreme hypo-fractionated doses of 36...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hidetaka Arimura, Mazen Soufi, Kamezawa, Kenta Ninomiya, Masahiro Yamada
Recently, the concept of radiomics has emerged from radiation oncology. It is a novel approach for solving the issues of precision medicine and how it can be performed, based on multimodality medical images that are non-invasive, fast and low in cost. Radiomics is the comprehensive analysis of massive numbers of medical images in order to extract a large number of phenotypic features (radiomic biomarkers) reflecting cancer traits, and it explores the associations between the features and patients' prognoses in order to improve decision-making in precision medicine...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
X Mignard, M Antoine, D Moro-Sibilot, C Dayen, B Mennecier, R Gervais, E Amour, B Milleron, F Morin, G Zalcman, M Wislez
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a checkpoint receptor that facilitates immune evasion by tumor cells, through interaction with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), a receptor expressed by T-cells. Durvalumab is an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody that blocks PD-L1 interaction with PD-1 on T-cells, countering the tumor's immune-evading tactics. Phase I/II studies demonstrated durable responses and manageable tolerability in heavily pre-treated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
September 19, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Lisa Dannenberg, Georg Wolff, David Naguib, Martin Pöhl, Saif Zako, Carolin Helten, Philipp Mourikis, Bodo Levkau, Thomas Hohlfeld, Tobias Zeus, Malte Kelm, Volker Schulze, Amin Polzin
BACKGROUND: Tirofiban is recommended as bail out therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, evidence regarding safety and efficacy of tirofiban is unclear. Tirofiban has been shown to improve ST-resolution, to decrease infarct size (IS) and to reduce incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). However, bleeding is enhanced in tirofiban treated patients. In this study, we aim to investigate efficacy and safety of Tirofiban in STEMI-patients...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jeffrey S Weber
The approvals of six checkpoint inhibitory antibodies since 2011 have established immunotherapy for cancer as a fifth treatment modality after chemotherapy, surgery, radiation, and targeted therapy. Long-lasting responses have been observed in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell cancer, and head and neck cancer, to name a few, and more approvals for these drugs undoubtedly are coming in the near future. The application of checkpoint inhibitors has expanded well beyond melanoma, and, with wider use, the management of the immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that accompany these drugs has received increased attention...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Karina Nieto, Brendan Martin, Nghia Pham, Laura Palmere, Scott R Silva, Abigail Winder, Margaret Liotta, Ronald K Potkul, William Small, Matthew M Harkenrider
PURPOSE: To compare radiation toxicity in endometrial cancer patients treated with adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) vs. VBT with concurrent chemotherapy (CCT) or sequential chemotherapy (SCT) METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 131 patients with endometrial cancer treated with VBT without external beam radiation therapy. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. CCT was defined as VBT delivered between the first and last cycle of chemotherapy (CT); SCT was defined as VBT delivered before or after CT...
September 15, 2018: Brachytherapy
Greg D Judy, Rebecca Green, Shannon L Aumer, Robert J Amdur, Xianming Tan, Nathan Sheets, Mark Weissler, Adam Zanation, Samip Patel, Trevor Hackman, William M Mendenhall, Bhishamjit S Chera
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the swallowing function in patients with human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with de-intensified chemoradiation therapy (6 weeks, 60 Gy) versus those receiving standard-of-care chemoradiation therapy (7 weeks, 70 Gy). Methods and materials: A retrospective review was conducted of 78 patients with human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with modified barium swallow studies pretreatment and 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment...
July 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
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