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Adverse event radiation therapy

Muhammad A Memon, Burcak Karaca, Rasha Aboelhassan, Mohsen Barsoum, Mustafa Erman, Mert Basaran, Alper Sevinc, Djedi Hanene, Cassandra Slader, Virginia Pilipovic, Kerboua Esma, Bouzid Kamel
PURPOSE: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare mesenchymal neoplasms, accounting for < 1% of all newly diagnosed malignancies. These tumors can occur in almost any anatomic site though they most frequently occur in the extremities. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology, treatment paradigm, and real-world outcomes in the clinical management of metastatic STS (mSTS) in the Middle East and North Africa (MEA) region. METHODS: MOON was an observational, multicenter, retrospective patient chart review study which included 200 patients with mSTS in the final analysis...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Kiri A Sandler, Sandra A Mitchell, Ethan Basch, Ann C Raldow, Michael L Steinberg, Jamal Sharif, Ryan R Cook, Patrick A Kupelian, Susan A McCloskey
PURPOSE: To improve assessment of symptomatic toxicity in cancer clinical trials and complement clinician-based toxicity reporting, the US National Cancer Institute developed a measurement system called the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of PRO-CTCAE in patients undergoing radiation therapy and to establish anatomic site-specific item sets for implementation in cancer research...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Giandomenico Roviello, Daniele Generali, Michele Aieta, Alberto Bonetta
External beam radiation therapy (EMRT) is effective for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs) are considered one of the main possible adverse events related to External beam radiation therapy. Here we analyzed the incidence of LUTI during EMRT. Urinary tract infection was assumed when the findings of bacteriuria exceeded 100,000 units/mL, accompanied by specific cystitis symptoms. Among the total 540 analyzed patient, 208 (38.5%) developed a LUTI. E. coli was the main microorganism involved in LUTIs (102, 49...
July 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Carlos E C V Abreu, Fabio Y Moraes, Fabiana A Miranda, Gabriela S M Siqueira, Rafael Gadia, Cecilia K Haddad, Heloisa A Carvalho
Purpose Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a treatment option for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the clinical outcomes and toxicity for patients with inoperable primary NSCLC treated with SBRT. Methods Between 2007 and 2015, 102 consecutive lung lesions were treated with SBRT at our center, of which 59 primary NSCLC lesions (from 54 patients with inoperable disease) were retrospectively reviewed (43 lesions were excluded because of metastases or because there was no biopsy specimen)...
July 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Eggert Stockfleth, Mike Bastian
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common skin condition that results from exposure to chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation. AK is characterized by visible, scaly lesions; sub-clinical lesions may also be present within a field of UV-exposed skin. These lesions exist on a disease continuum with squamous cell carcinoma. Field therapies, such as ingenol mebutate, aim to treat the visible and sub-clinical lesions within an area of sun-damaged skin. Areas covered: According to the SmPC, ingenol mebutate has a proposed dual mechanism of action that induces cell death necrosis with the production of a local pro-inflammatory response and stimulation of apoptosis...
August 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Julian Jacob, Thomas Durand, Loïc Feuvret, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Jean-Yves Delattre, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Dimitri Psimaras, Hassen Douzane, Monica Ribeiro, Laurent Capelle, Alexandre Carpentier, Damien Ricard, Philippe Maingon
Life expectancy of patients treated for brain tumors has lengthened due to the therapeutic improvements. Cognitive impairment has been described following brain radiotherapy, but the mechanisms leading to this adverse event remain mostly unknown. Technical evolutions aim at enhancing the therapeutic ratio. Sparing of the healthy tissues has been improved using various approaches; however, few dose constraints have been established regarding brain structures associated with cognitive functions. The aims of this literature review are to report the main brain areas involved in cognitive adverse effects induced by radiotherapy as described in literature, to better understand brain radiosensitivity and to describe potential future improvements...
August 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Kathy D Miller, Anne O'Neill, William Gradishar, Timothy J Hobday, Lori J Goldstein, Ingrid A Mayer, Stuart Bloom, Adam M Brufsky, Amye J Tevaarwerk, Joseph A Sparano, Nguyet Anh Le-Lindqwister, Carolyn B Hendricks, Donald W Northfelt, Chau T Dang, George W Sledge
Purpose Bevacizumab improves progression-free survival but not overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. E5103 tested the effect of bevacizumab in the adjuvant setting in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative disease. Patients and Methods Patients were assigned 1:2:2 to receive placebo with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by weekly paclitaxel (arm A), bevacizumab only during AC and paclitaxel (arm B), or bevacizumab during AC and paclitaxel followed by bevacizumab monotherapy for 10 cycles (arm C)...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Anna S Lucas, Mario Lacouture, Susan M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Patients with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy can experience dermatologic adverse events. Oncology nurses can advocate for radiation dermatitis (RD) prophylaxis to minimize dermatologic adverse events. OBJECTIVES: This quality improvement project was conducted to evaluate the effect of implementing an RD prevention protocol. The objectives of this study were to (a) improve clinicians' knowledge of screening, assessment, and prevention of RD in patients with breast cancer and (b) decrease the incidence of RD by 10% at a tertiary care cancer center...
August 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Anissa Roger, Adeline Finet, Blandine Boru, Alain Beauchet, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Yves Otzmeguine, Astrid Blom, Christine Longvert, Marie-Florence de Maleissye, Magali Fort, Elisa Funck-Brentano, Philippe Saiag
Information on the role of radiotherapy in anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody-treated melanoma patients is limited. We report on a prospective cohort of advanced melanoma patients treated simultaneously with radiotherapy and anti-PD-1 therapy between 01/01/15 and 30/06/16. Tumor evaluations (RECIST 1.1) were performed every 3 months on radiated and non-radiated lesions. Twenty-five advanced melanoma patients (64% AJCC stage IV M1c, 64% on second-line treatment or more, 60% with elevated LDH serum levels) were included...
2018: Oncoimmunology
James E Frampton, Nicole Basset-Séguin
Vismodegib (Erivedge® ) is the first-in-class, oral small molecule inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, abnormal activation of which is associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In the USA, vismodegib is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic BCC (mBCC) or with locally-advanced BCC (LaBCC) that has recurred following surgery or who are not candidates for surgery, and who are not candidates for radiation. Similarly, in the EU, vismodegib is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic mBCC, or with laBCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy...
July 2018: Drugs
Shuji Hiramoto, Ayako Kikuchi, Hori Tetsuso, Akira Yoshioka, Yasushi Kohigashi, Isseki Maeda
BACKGROUND: Bleeding and obstruction are common localized symptoms in patients with unresectable gastric cancer. Although there are several reports about surgical and endoscopic therapies for gastric cancer, there are few regarding palliative radiation therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data for 23 gastric cancer patients who underwent palliative radiation between April 2006 and March 2014, with either localized bleeding (n = 18) or upper gastric obstruction (n = 10)...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Antoine Debourdeau, Jean-Michel Gonzalez, Hervé Dutau, Alban Benezech, Marc Barthet
BACKGROUND: Nonmalignant esophago-respiratory fistulas (ERF) are frightening clinical situations, involving surgery with high morbi-mortality rate. We described the endoscopic management of benign ERF. The aim of the study was to describe outcomes of endoscopic treatment of nonmalignant ERF and to analyze factors associated with its success. METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving patients managed for benign ERF in our center between 2012 and 2016. The ERFs were classified into three groups of sizes: (I) punctiform, (II) medium, and (III) large...
July 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Vivek Verma, Taylor R Cushman, Ugur Selek, Chad Tang, James W Welsh
PURPOSE: The safety of combined immunotherapy and thoracic radiation therapy (iRT) has been understudied. We evaluated toxicities in patients receiving iRT from 3 single-institutional phase 1/2 trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Clinical/treatment characteristics and toxicities (per the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were extracted. For purposes of this analysis, groupings were made into (1) patients receiving immunotherapy plus stereotactic body radiation therapy (50 Gy/4 fractions or 60 Gy/10 fractions), (2) immunotherapy plus 45 Gy/15 fractions, and (3) twice-daily chemoimmunoradiotherapy (45 Gy in twice-daily fractions)...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jennifer S Lin, Corinne V Evans, Eric Johnson, Nadia Redmond, Erin L Coppola, Ning Smith
Importance: Incorporating nontraditional risk factors may improve the performance of traditional multivariable risk assessment for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To systematically review evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force on the benefits and harms of 3 nontraditional risk factors in cardiovascular risk assessment: the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published through May 22, 2017...
July 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ann H Klopp, Anamaria R Yeung, Snehal Deshmukh, Karen M Gil, Lari Wenzel, Shannon N Westin, Kent Gifford, David K Gaffney, William Small, Spencer Thompson, Desiree E Doncals, Guilherme H C Cantuaria, Brian P Yaremko, Amy Chang, Vijayananda Kundapur, Dasarahally S Mohan, Michael L Haas, Yong Bae Kim, Catherine L Ferguson, Stephanie L Pugh, Lisa A Kachnic, Deborah W Bruner
Purpose NRG Oncology/RTOG 1203 was designed to compare patient-reported acute toxicity and health-related quality of life during treatment with standard pelvic radiation or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in women with cervical and endometrial cancer. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to standard four-field radiation therapy (RT) or IMRT radiation treatment. The primary end point was change in patient-reported acute GI toxicity from baseline to the end of RT, measured with the bowel domain of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Caroline Chung, Andrew Bryant, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: Brain radionecrosis (tissue death caused by radiation) can occur following high-dose radiotherapy to brain tissue and can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life (QoL) and function. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for this condition, which makes establishing effective treatments challenging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions used for the treatment of brain radionecrosis in adults over 18 years old...
July 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Seung Won Seol, Sonya Aggarwal, Rie von Eyben, Ziwei Wang, Cato Chan, Carmen Say, Lei Xing, Wendy Hara, Yong Yang, Quynh Thu Le
We prospectively investigated the feasibility of IMRT treatment plan optimization based on dosimeter measurements of lateral tongue mucosal dose adjacent to the dental fillings and evaluated dose-toxicity relationship and factors affecting oral mucositis (OM) in head and neck cancer patients. Twenty-nine head and neck cancer patients with metallic dental fillings who were scheduled to undergo fractionated external beam radiation therapy (RT) ± chemotherapy were enrolled. The lateral tongue dose was measured and if the calculated dose for the entire treatment was ≥35 Gy, a re-plan was generated to reduce the lateral tongue mucosal dose...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Donghyun Kim, Yongkan Ki, Wontaek Kim, Dahl Park, Joohye Lee, Jayoung Lee, Hosang Jeon, Jiho Nam
PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and vaginal brachytherapy (VB) following radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer patients with involved vaginal resection margin (VRM). Materials and. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients treated with postoperative EBRT and VB for positive VRM FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer between 2003 and 2015. Concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered to all patients...
June 2018: Radiation Oncology Journal
Tanja Sprave, Vivek Verma, Robert Förster, Ingmar Schlampp, Thomas Bruckner, Tilman Bostel, Stefan Ezechiel Welte, Eric Tonndorf-Martini, Rami El Shafie, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Jürgen Debus, Harald Rief
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) provides an important treatment approach in the palliative care of vertebral metastases, but radiation-induced toxicities in patients with advanced disease and low performance status can have substantial implications for quality of life. Herein, we prospectively compared toxicity profiles of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). METHODS: This was a prospective randomized monocentric explorative pilot trial to compare radiation-induced toxicity between IMRT and 3DCRT for patients with spinal metastases...
July 5, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Steen Riisgaard de Blanck, Jonas Scherman-Rydhög, Mette Siemsen, Merete Christensen, Lene Baeksgaard, Rasmus Irming Jølck, Lena Specht, Thomas Lars Andresen, Gitte Fredberg Persson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a new liquid fiducial marker for use in image-guided radiotherapy for oesophageal cancer. METHODS: Liquid fiducial markers were implanted in patients with metastatic or inoperable locally advanced oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer receiving radiotherapy. Markers were implanted using a conventional gastroscope equipped with a 22 G Wang needle. Marker visibility was evaluated on fluoroscopy, CT, MRI and cone beam CT scans...
July 9, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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