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Adverse event radiation therapy

Takuji Iwashita, Shinya Uemura, Masahito Shimizu, Fuminori Hyodo, Hiroyuki Tomita, Ryota Iwasaki, Masaki Takasu, Takashi Mori, Hidekazu Tanaka, Masayuki Matsuo
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) has been reported to be an effective radiation sensitizer for various cancers. A combination therapy comprising fine-needle injection (FNI) of H2 O2 under endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance and chemoradiation might improve treatment outcomes of pancreatic cancer; however, there have been no reports thus far. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and safety of EUS-FNI of H2 O2 into the pancreas using a porcine survival model. EUS-FNI was performed in the pancreas of six pigs, which were randomly divided into three groups based on the solution injected: group 1, 2 mL of sodium hyaluronate (control); group 2, 0...
December 12, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Alba Fiorentino, Fabiana Gregucci, Rosario Mazzola, Vanessa Figlia, Francesco Ricchetti, Gianluisa Sicignano, Niccolo Giajlevra, Ruggero Ruggieri, Sergio Fersino, Stefania Naccarato, Alberto Massocco, Stefanie Corradini, Filippo Alongi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences between conventional fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated (HypoRT) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in elderly women affected by early-stage breast cancer (BC) in terms of RT-related acute/late side effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 2011 and July 2015, 80 consecutive elderly BC patients were treated with IMRT for 5 weeks (40 patients) or HypoRT-VMAT for 3 weeks (40 patients)...
December 13, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Sara Hurvitz, Rashi Singh, Brad Adams, Julie A Taguchi, David Chan, Robert A Dichmann, Aurelio Castrellon, Eddie Hu, Jonathan Berkowitz, Aruna Mani, Brian DiCarlo, Rena Callahan, Ira Smalberg, Xiaoyan Wang, Ivana Meglar, Diego Martinez, Evthokia Hobbs, Dennis J Slamon
Background: Improving outcomes for patients with human epidermal growth factor 2-positive (HER2+) central nervous system (CNS) metastases remains an unmet clinical need. This trial evaluated a novel combination of everolimus, lapatinib and capecitabine for this disease. Methods: Patients with trastuzumab-pretreated, HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis without prior therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor were eligible. Patients received lapatinib and everolimus daily (continuously) and capecitabine twice daily (d1-14) in 21-d cycles...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Junaid Raja, Johannes M Ludwig, Scott N Gettinger, Kurt A Schalper, Hyun S Kim
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is at the forefront of modern oncologic care. Various novel therapies have targeted all three layers of tumor biology: tumor, niche, and immune system with a range of promising results. One emerging class in both primary and salvage therapy is oncolytic viruses. This therapy offers a multimodal approach to specifically and effectively target and destroy malignant cells, though a barrier oncoviral therapies have faced is a limited therapeutic response to currently delivery techniques...
December 4, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Shun Lu, Xinhao Peng, Bingwen Zou, Cheng Zhou, Mei Feng, Jinyi Lang
Aim: The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients with sacral chordoma benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy and to determine the optimal photon radiotherapy module for comprehensive treatment. Background: Chordoma is a rare slow-growing neoplasm arisen from cellular remnants of the notochord. About 50% occur in the sacrococcygeal region. Surgical resection and adjuvant radiation therapy are recommended treatment due to the improving local control rate. Materials and methods: 118 patients treated by surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy from August 2003 to May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
January 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
William D Lindsay, Christopher A Ahern, Jacob S Tobias, Christopher G Berlind, Chidambaram Chinniah, Peter E Gabriel, James C Gee, Charles B Simone
PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of ensemble methods (e.g. random forests) and single-model methods (e.g. logistic regression and decision trees) in predictive modeling of post-RT treatment failure and adverse events (AEs) for breast cancer patients using automatically extracted EMR data. METHODS: Data from 1,967 consecutive breast radiotherapy (RT) courses at one institution between 2008-2015 was automatically extracted from EMRs and oncology information systems using extraction software...
November 30, 2018: Medical Physics
Ho Jeong Do, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Me-Riong Kim, Jae-Heung Cho, Koh-Woon Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a highly prevalent medical condition that incurs substantial social burden. Although manual therapy is widely used for treatment of neck pain, the body of evidence supporting its effectiveness and safety is not conclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the effect, safety, and cost-effectiveness of Chuna manual therapy, a traditional Korean manual therapy for treatment of various musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is the protocol for a two-armed parallel, assessor-blinded, multicenter, randomized controlled trial...
November 29, 2018: Trials
Anurag K Singh, Mark Hennon, Sung Jun Ma, Todd L Demmy, Anthony Picone, Elizabeth U Dexter, Chumy Nwogu, Kristopher Attwood, Wei Tan, Gregory M Hermann, Simon Fung-Kee-Fung, Harish K Malhotra, Sai Yendamuri, Jorge A Gomez-Suescun
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and conventional radiation has suboptimal outcomes. We hypothesized that a combination of surgery followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) would be a safe alternative. METHODS: Patients with stage IIIA (multistation N2) or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled from March 2013 to December 2015. The protocol included transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA) followed by surgical resection, 10 Gy SBRT directed to the involved mediastinum/hilar stations and/or positive surgical margins, and adjuvant systemic therapy...
November 29, 2018: BMC Cancer
Stefan A Koerber, Ben Seither, Alla Slynko, Matthias F Haefner, David Krug, Jakob Liermann, Sebastian Adeberg, Klaus Herfarth, Juergen Debus, Florian Sterzing
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated acute and chronic side effects of 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in female patients with anal carcinoma and accessed correlations between dosimetric parameters and the considered toxicities. METHODS: For 70 women with anal cancer treated at our department, acute and chronic side effects and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated with questionnaires using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v...
November 28, 2018: Tumori
Hedyieh Karbasforooshan, Sare Hosseini, Sepideh Elyasi, Azar Fani Pakdel, Gholamreza Karimi
Radiation-induced dermatitis is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy. Silymarin, a flavonoid extracted from the Silybum marianum, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of silymarin gel in prevention of radiodermatitis in patients with breast cancer. During this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the preventive effect of silymarin 1% gel was assessed in comparison with placebo, on radiodermatitis occurrence...
November 27, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hiromasa Hazama, Masaki Tanaka, Naomi Kakushima, Yohei Yabuuchi, Masao Yoshida, Noboru Kawata, Kohei Takizawa, Sayo Ito, Kenichiro Imai, Kinichi Hotta, Hirotoshi Ishiwatari, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Keita Mori, Hiroyuki Ono
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the standard treatment for superficial esophageal cancer (SEC); however, it is sometimes technically difficult. Our aim was to identify the predictors of technical difficulty during ESD for SEC. METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients who underwent ESD for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas at a tertiary cancer center between April 2008 and March 2016. Patients undergoing ESD after esophagectomy or for residual/recurrent lesions were excluded...
November 26, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Hiroyuki Shiba, Koji Takeuchi, Ryo Hiramatsu, Motomasa Furuse, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Shinji Kawabata, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Natsuko Kondo, Yoshinori Sakurai, Minoru Suzuki, Koji Ono, Shiro Oue, Eiichi Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Michiue, Shin-Ichi Miyatake
Recurrent malignant gliomas (RMGs) are difficult to control, and no standard protocol has been established for their treatment. At our institute, we have often treated RMGs by tumor-selective particle radiation called boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). However, despite the cell-selectivity of BNCT, brain radiation necrosis (BRN) may develop and cause severe neurological complications and sometimes death. This is partly due to the full-dose X-ray treatments usually given earlier in the treatment course. To overcome BRN following BNCT, recent studies have used bevacizumab (BV)...
November 21, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Terufumi Kawamoto, Kei Ito, Tomohisa Furuya, Keisuke Sasai, Katsuyuki Karasawa
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows the targeting of high doses of radiation with steep dose gradients. Vertebral fracture is increasingly recognized as an adverse event after SBRT; however, no sacral fractures have been observed after SBRT. We report an extremely rare case of sacral insufficiency fracture after SBRT.
November 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Shingo Miyamoto, Ryutaro Nomura, Kengo Sato, Nobuyasu Awano, Naoyuki Kuse, Minoru Inomata, Takehiro Izumo, Yuriko Terada, Yoshiaki Furuhata, Yuan Bae, Hideo Kunitoh
Background: Radiation therapy might modify the cancer immune environment to enhance the antitumor effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We performed a feasibility study of nivolumab following stereotactic radiation therapy for chemotherapy pretreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients and methods: Pretreated advanced/recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer patients received stereotactic radiation therapy to one of the disease sites. Nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg/kg was given within 2 weeks after the completion of stereotactic radiation therapy and continued every 2 weeks thereafter until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities...
November 17, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Alexander J Lin, Elizabeth Kidd, Farrokh Dehdashti, Barry A Siegel, Sasa Mutic, Premal H Thaker, Leslie S Massad, Matthew A Powell, David G Mutch, Stephanie Markovina, Julie Schwarz, Perry W Grigsby
PURPOSE: To report long-term outcomes of cervical cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and 3D image-guided adapted brachytherapy (IMRT/3D-IGABT) compared to 2D external irradiation and 2D brachytherapy (2D EBRT/BT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study included patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer and pre-treatment FDG-PET treated with curative-intent irradiation from 1997-2013. Treatment policy changed from 2D EBRT/BT to IMRT/3D-IGABT in 2005...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Miwako Nozaki, Yoshikazu Kagami, Taro Shibata, Kenichi Nakamura, Yoshinori Ito, Yasumasa Nishimura, Yoshifumi Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Saito, Yasushi Nagata, Yasuo Matsumoto, Tetsuo Akimoto, Masahiro Hiraoka
Objective: To evaluate the safety of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation in Japanese women after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: Japanese women who had invasive breast cancer with a clinical tumor size ≤3 cm, pN0-1c and a negative inked margin were enrolled. Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (42.56 Gy/16 fractions) was delivered, adding boost irradiation (10.64 Gy/4 fractions) when the surgical margin was ≤5 mm. The treatment course was meant to be completed within 29 days or 33 days (plus boost irradiation)...
November 14, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Yasmin Aghajan, Ian Grover, Hamza Gorsi, Mark Tumblin, John Ross Crawford
INTRODUCTION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been utilized as adjunctive treatment of CNS tumors and for radiation necrosis (RN) with reported success. The safety and efficacy in pediatric patients is less understood. METHODS: Seven patients (ages 10-23 years, six females) were treated with HBOT (3-60 sessions) for either RN (n = 5) or tumor-associated edema (n = 2). Tumor diagnosis included low-grade glioma (n = 4, two with neurofibromatosis type 1), meningioma (n = 1), medulloblastoma (n = 1) and secondary high grade glioma (n = 1)...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ron Golan, Neal A Patel, Tianyi Sun, Christopher E Barbieri, Art Sedrakyan, James A Kashanian
INTRODUCTION: Considering that radiation therapy (RT) compromises soft tissue microvasculature, impairs wound healing, and causes cavernosal fibrosis, inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) outcomes may be adversely affected in men treated with RT. AIM: To compare IPP outcomes among those who had undergone prior RT vs a cohort who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) before insertion of IPP. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare Database was queried for men with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent RT (n = 83,277) or RP (n = 32,608) with subsequent IPP insertion between 2002 and 2013...
November 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Harriet M Kluger, Veronica Chiang, Amit Mahajan, Christopher R Zito, Mario Sznol, Thuy Tran, Sarah A Weiss, Justine V Cohen, James Yu, Upendra Hegde, Elizabeth Perrotti, Gail Anderson, Amanda Ralabate, Yuval Kluger, Wei Wei, Sarah B Goldberg, Lucia B Jilaveanu
PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab is active in melanoma, but activity in patients with untreated brain metastasis is less established. We present long-term follow-up of pembrolizumab-treated patients with new or progressing brain metastases treated on a phase II clinical trial ( identifier: NCT02085070). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 23 patients with melanoma with one or more asymptomatic, untreated 5- to 20-mm brain metastasis not requiring corticosteroids; 70% of patients had prior systemic therapy...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Andra V Krauze, Megan Mackey, Lindsay Rowe, Michal G Chang, Diane J Holdford, Theresa Cooley, Joanna Shih, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen
Background: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic agent with histone deacetylase inhibitor activity shown to enhance overall survival and progression free survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). This reports on the late toxicity of the VPA/radiotherapy (RT)/temozolomide (TMZ) combination in the long-term survivors of a phase 2 study evaluating this regimen. Methods: 37 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were initially enrolled on this trial and received combination therapy...
November 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
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