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Breath hold diving

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231055/oxygen-conserving-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-breath-hold-divers
#1
Thomas Kjeld, Nis Stride, Anders Gudiksen, Egon Godthaab Hansen, Henrik Christian Arendrup, Peter Frederik Horstmann, Bo Zerahn, Lars Thorbjørn Jensen, Nikolai Nordsborg, Jacob Bejder, Jens Frey Halling
BACKGROUND: The performance of elite breath hold divers (BHD) includes static breath hold for more than 11 minutes, swimming as far as 300 m, or going below 250 m in depth, all on a single breath of air. Diving mammals are adapted to sustain oxidative metabolism in hypoxic conditions through several metabolic adaptations, including improved capacity for oxygen transport and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. It was hypothesized that similar adaptations characterized human BHD...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199888/provisional-report-on-diving-related-fatalities-in-australian-waters-in-2012
#2
John Lippmann, Chris Lawrence, Andrew Fock, Scott Jamieson
INTRODUCTION: An individual case review of known diving-related deaths that occurred in Australia in 2012 was conducted. METHOD: The case studies were compiled using statements from witnesses and reports of the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and details from the post-mortem examination, where available, are provided. RESULTS: There were 26 reported fatalities (four less than the previous year)...
September 30, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178332/near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-observation-of-vastus-lateralis-muscle-and-prefrontal-cortex-brain-tissue-oxygenation-during-synchronised-swimming-routines-in-elite-athletes
#3
B Jones, C E Cooper
The development of underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (uNIRS) has enabled the measurement of tissue oxygenation within the swim environment. Unique physiological responses, such as the diving reflex, have been shown to occur during synchronized swimming and demonstrate an innate oxygen-conserving reflex. However, the prevalence of a sudden loss of consciousness ('hypoxic blackout') is an ongoing concern in this swim population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reported low tissue oxygen conditions experienced in elite level synchronized swimmers (SyncS) during swim routines...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172778/taravana-vestibular-decompression-illness-and-autochthonous-distal-arterial-bubbles
#4
Ran Arieli
Decompression bubbles can develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. These are the nanobubbles which appear on active hydrophobic spots (AHS) found on the luminal aspect of all blood vessels. Following decompression, with the propagation of blood along the arterial tree, diffusion parameters cause increased transfer of nitrogen from the tissue into the artery, and more so if perfusion is low. Taravana is a neurological form of decompression illness (DCI) prevalent in repeated breath-hold diving. A nanobubble on an AHS in a distal artery of the brain may receive an influx of nitrogen after each dive until it occludes the arterial blood flow...
August 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081211/medium-term-effects-of-physical-conditioning-on-breath-hold-diving-performance
#5
F A Fernandez, R Martin-Martin, I García-Camacha, D Juarez, P Fidel, J M González-Ravé
The current study aimed to analyze the effects of physical conditioning inclusion on apnea performance after a 22-week structured apnea training program. Twenty-nine male breath-hold divers participated and were allocated into: (1) cross-training in apnea and physical activity (CT; n = 10); (2) apnea training only (AT; n = 10); and control group (CG; n = 9). Measures were static apnea (STA), dynamic with fins (DYN) and dynamic no fins (DNF) performance, body composition, hemoglobin, vital capacity (VC), maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), resting metabolic rate, oxygen saturation, and pulse during a static apnea in dry conditions at baseline and after the intervention...
August 3, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077046/human-adaptation-to-extreme-environmental-conditions
#6
REVIEW
Melissa Ilardo, Rasmus Nielsen
Modern humans inhabit most of earth's harshest environments and display a wide array of lifestyles. Biological adaptations, in addition to technological innovations, have enabled these geographical and cultural explorations. The study of these adaptations helps not only to fundamentally understand our evolution as a species, but also may have increasing relevance as genomics transforms fields such as personalized medicine. Here we review three cultural and environmental shifts that have brought about adaptations in modern humans; the arctic, high altitudes, and a subsistence dependent on breath-hold diving...
August 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072907/modeling-tissue-and-blood-gas-kinetics-in-coastal-and-offshore-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#7
Andreas Fahlman, Frants H Jensen, Peter L Tyack, Randall S Wells
Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) are highly versatile breath-holding predators that have adapted to a wide range of foraging niches from rivers and coastal ecosystems to deep-water oceanic habitats. Considerable research has been done to understand how bottlenose dolphins manage O2 during diving, but little information exists on other gases or how pressure affects gas exchange. Here we used a dynamic multi-compartment gas exchange model to estimate blood and tissue O2 , CO2 , and N2 from high-resolution dive records of two different common bottlenose dolphin ecotypes inhabiting shallow (Sarasota Bay) and deep (Bermuda) habitats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065656/resting-metabolic-rate-and-lung-function-in-wild-offshore-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-near-bermuda
#8
Andreas Fahlman, Katherine McHugh, Jason Allen, Aaron Barleycorn, Austin Allen, Jay Sweeney, Rae Stone, Robyn Faulkner Trainor, Guy Bedford, Michael J Moore, Frants H Jensen, Randall Wells
Diving mammals have evolved a suite of physiological adaptations to manage respiratory gases during extended breath-hold dives. To test the hypothesis that offshore bottlenose dolphins have evolved physiological adaptations to improve their ability for extended deep dives and as protection for lung barotrauma, we investigated the lung function and respiratory physiology of four wild common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) near the island of Bermuda. We measured blood hematocrit (Hct, %), resting metabolic rate (RMR, l O2 ⋅ min-1 ), tidal volume ( V T , l), respiratory frequency ( f R , breaths ⋅ min-1 ), respiratory flow (l ⋅ min-1 ), and dynamic lung compliance ( C L , l ⋅ cmH2 O-1 ) in air and in water, and compared measurements with published results from coastal, shallow-diving dolphins...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028917/the-gradient-perfusion-model-part-3-an-extraordinary-case-of-decompression-sickness
#9
Lientra Q Lu, Michael B Strauss, Stuart S Miller
Introduction: Decompression sickness (DCS) has been associated with unusual circumstances such as breath-hold diving, shallow depths, and short bottom times. We report a case of DCS with an extraordinary cause and course. Materials and Methods: A 72-year-old healthy Hispanic female was referred to our 24/7 Hyperbaric Medicine Unit for emergency hyperbaric oxygen recompression treatment (HBO2 RCT) after developing lower-extremity paralysis following a hyperbaric air exposure in a homemade hyperbaric chamber...
May 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909774/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-assessment-of-acute-cardiovascular-effects-of-voluntary-apnoea-in-elite-divers
#10
L Eichhorn, J Doerner, J A Luetkens, J M Lunkenheimer, R C Dolscheid-Pommerich, F Erdfelder, R Fimmers, J Nadal, B Stoffel-Wagner, H H Schild, A Hoeft, B Zur, C P Naehle
BACKGROUND: Prolonged breath holding results in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Compensatory mechanisms help maintain adequate oxygen supply to hypoxia sensitive organs, but burden the cardiovascular system. The aim was to investigate human compensatory mechanisms and their effects on the cardiovascular system with regard to cardiac function and morphology, blood flow redistribution, serum biomarkers of the adrenergic system and myocardial injury markers following prolonged apnoea. METHODS: Seventeen elite apnoea divers performed maximal breath-hold during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773686/drivers-of-the-dive-response-in-pinnipeds-apnea-submergence-or-temperature
#11
Jeppe Kaczmarek, Colleen Reichmuth, Birgitte I McDonald, Jakob H Kristensen, Josefin Larson, Fredrik Johansson, Jenna L Sullivan, Peter T Madsen
Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass-specific oxygen stores and the dive response, which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood because of the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695441/pulmonary-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-a-novel-hypothesis-for-how-diving-vertebrates-may-avoid-the-bends
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Garcia Párraga, Michael Moore, Andreas Fahlman
Hydrostatic lung compression in diving marine mammals, with collapsing alveoli blocking gas exchange at depth, has been the main theoretical basis for limiting N2 uptake and avoiding gas emboli (GE) as they ascend. However, studies of beached and bycaught cetaceans and sea turtles imply that air-breathing marine vertebrates may, under unusual circumstances, develop GE that result in decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms. Theoretical modelling of tissue and blood gas dynamics of breath-hold divers suggests that changes in perfusion and blood flow distribution may also play a significant role...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687909/breath-hold-diving
#13
John R Fitz-Clarke
Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677510/physiological-and-genetic-adaptations-to-diving-in-sea-nomads
#14
Melissa A Ilardo, Ida Moltke, Thorfinn S Korneliussen, Jade Cheng, Aaron J Stern, Fernando Racimo, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Inge C L van den Munckhof, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Suhartini Salingkat, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau people ("Sea Nomads") of Southeast Asia live a subsistence lifestyle based on breath-hold diving and are renowned for their extraordinary breath-holding abilities. However, it is unknown whether this has a genetic basis...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589215/cellular-glucose-uptake-during-breath-hold-diving-in-experienced-male-breath-hold-divers
#15
Nicola Sponsiello, Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Alessandro Marroni
BACKGROUND: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport...
March 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512224/physiology-of-static-breath-holding-in-elite-apneists
#16
REVIEW
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath-hold-related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently, within the last ∼30 years, has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491023/risso-s-dolphins-plan-foraging-dives
#17
Patricia Arranz, Kelly J Benoit-Bird, Brandon L Southall, John Calambokidis, Ari S Friedlaender, Peter L Tyack
Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456518/environmental-physiology-and-diving-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Richard E Moon, Enrico M Camporesi
Man's experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415636/health-care-experiences-of-korean-women-divers-jeju-haenyeos
#19
Ji In Kim, Miyoung Kim
Jeju haenyeos who enter the sea without equipment to collect seafood while holding their breath have a unique culture; however, studies of their health are limited. This study, using an ethnographic approach, explores how Jeju haenyeos have managed and maintained their health. Snowball sampling yielded 15 participants between July and October 2016. We collected data through participant observation and in-depth interviews and conducted Spradley's research sequence. The main theme of the health-management approach of these women was "a life of listening to the body and mind, controlling greed, and adjusting work for safe diving...
April 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349635/the-diving-reflex-and-asphyxia-working-across-species-in-physiological-ecology
#20
Joel B Hagen
Beginning in the mid-1930s the comparative physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Fredrik (Pete) Scholander pioneered the study of diving mammals, particularly harbor seals. Although resting on earlier work dating back to the late nineteenth century, their research was distinctive in several ways. In contrast to medically oriented physiology, the approaches of Irving and Scholander were strongly influenced by natural history, zoology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Diving mammals, they argued, shared the cardiopulmonary physiology of terrestrial mammals, but evolution had modified these basic adaptive processes in extreme ways...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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